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The Tipra Kingdom was established around the confluence of the Brahmaputra river (Twima[clarification needed]) with the Meghna and Surma rivers in today's Central Bangladesh area. The capital was called Khorongma (Kholongma) and was along the Meghna river in the Sylhet Division of present-day Bangladesh. It was one of the kingdoms of the ethnic Bodo, Kachari, Garo, Tipera, Dimasa, Koch peoples, besides Kachari Kingdom in Assam and Koch in West Bengal.
The present political areas which were part of the Tipra Kingdom are:
- Sylhet, Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh
- Cachar Valley of Assam
- Mizoram and Tripura states of India
The Tipra Kingdom in all its various ages comprised the areas with the borders:
- Khasi Hills in the North
- Manipur Hills in the North-East
- Arakan Hills of Burma in the East
- The Bay of Bengal to the South
- The Brahmaputra river to the West
A list legendary Tripuri kings is given in the Rajmala chronicle,a 15th-century chronicle in Bengali verse written by the court pandits of Dharma Manikya (r. 1431). The chronicle traces the king's ancestry to the mythological Lunar Dynasty. In the 8th century, the Kingdom shifted its capital eastwards along the Surma river in Sylhet near present Kailasahar town of North Tripura.
The religion of the Tipra had 14 deities known as choddha devta (in Bengali) and is still preserved in the Choddha Devta Mandir in Old Agartala, which is maintained by the Tipra priests known as Chontai's, who oversee the festivals of the Kharchi and Ker according to traditions. It was similar to the Chinese folk religions.
The earliest historical records concerning the Twipra kingdom concern the 13th century, when it first came under pressure of the Islamic conquests in India. This is also the time of origin of the Manikya Dynasty, started when Ratna Fa adopted the title Manikya, which was held by all Kings of Tripura until the death of Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in 1947. Ratna Fa shifted the capital to Rangamati on the banks of the river Gumti now in South Tripura. Twipra was first overrun by the Muslims under Tughril in 1279, but it managed to maintain its independence during the 14th to 17th centuries. Dhanya Manikya (r. 1463 to 1515) expanded Twipra's territorial domain well into Eastern Bengal. Rangamati was renamed Udaipur after Udai Manikya. The kingdom flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries, Kings such as Govinda Manikya putting up a defense against the pressure of the Muslim kingdoms to the west, until the final conquest by the Mughal Empire in 1733. After this, Twipra was a Mughal client kingdom, with the Mughal rulers taking influence on the appointment of its kings.
In British India, the kings retained an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the Comilla district of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state of Tripuri. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. The last king was Kirit Bikram Kishore, son of Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman, who ruled for two years, 1947-1949. In 1949, Tripuri became part of the Republic of India. The Tripuri "heir apparent" is Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman (b. 1978), the son of the last king, who is sometimes given the courtesy title of "Maharaja"[according to whom?].
- Tripura Buranji 17th Century Ahom Chronicle.
- Progressive Tripura, 1930
- Rajmala, royal chronicle of Tripura Kings.
- Hill Tippera - History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.