Two-child policy

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Two-child policy is a government-imposed limit of two children allowed per family or the payment of government subsidies only to the first two children. It is used for some population groups in China, has previously been used in Vietnam, and has also highly encouraged to have two children as a limit, and it was used as part of the region's family planning strategies.

China[edit]

During the 1970s, in Chinese citizens were encouraged to have two children. The ongoing Cultural Revolution and the strain it placed on the nation were large factors. During this time, the birth rate dropped from nearly 6 children per woman to just under 3.[1] (The colloquial term "births per woman" is usually formalized as the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), a technical term in demographic analysis meaning the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime.)

As China's youngest generation (born under the one-child policy, which first became a requirement for most couples in 1979) came of age for formation of the next generation, a single child would be left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents. In response to this issue, by 2009 all provinces allowed couples to have two children if both parents were only children themselves.[2] After a policy change of the Chinese government in late 2013, most Chinese provinces further relaxed the policy in 2014 by allowing families to have two children if one of the parents is an only child.[3][4][5]

Moreover, in accordance with PRC's affirmative action policies towards ethnic minorities, all non-Han ethnic groups are subjected to different rules and are usually allowed to have two children in urban areas, and three or four in rural areas. Han Chinese living in rural areas are often permitted to have two children, as exceptions exist if the first child is a daughter.[6] Because of cases such as these, as well as urban couples who simply pay a fine (or "social maintenance fee") to have more children,[7] the overall fertility rate of mainland China is, in fact, closer to two children per family than to one child per family (1.8).

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, the Two is Enough campaign in the 1970s encouraged people to have two or fewer children in each family, contributing to the reduced birth rate in the following decades (poster with actress Fung Bo Bo)

In Hong Kong, the Eugenics League was found in 1936, which became The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 1950.[8] The organisation provides family planning advice, sex education, birth control services to the general public of Hong Kong. In the 1970s, due to the rapidly rising population, it launched the "Two is Enough" campaign,[8] which reduced the general birth rate through educational means. The organisation,[9] founded the International Planned Parenthood Federation with its counterparts in seven other countries.[9] The total fertility rate in Hong Kong is currently 1.04 children per woman, one of the lowest in the world.

United Kingdom[edit]

In July 2007, the think tank the Optimum Population Trust (now Population Matters) advocated what the Daily Mail described as a "'two-child' policy" to combat population increases and climate change in the United Kingdom. The article stated:

"According to the report, published by the Optimum Population Trust, Britain's high birth rate is a major factor in the current level of climate change, which can only be combatted if families voluntarily limit the number of children they have."[10]

In October 2012, the Conservative Party's proposed policy of only paying child benefit for the first two children of unemployed parents has been described as a 'two-child policy',[11] and has been fronted by the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and former leader of the Conservative Party Iain Duncan Smith.[12] The Conservative's coalition partners the Liberal Democrats are likely to block any attempts to implement the policy before the next general election.[13]

Vietnam[edit]

Vietnam has had a population policy for over 50 years, beginning in the early 1960s and which continues in a modified form today.[14] The policy emphasizes the official family-size goal to be mot hoac hai con, which means "one or two children."[15]

Overview[edit]

In 2014, Vietnam has an estimated population of 92.5 million people, which represents 1.28% of the total world population.[16] Currently, the total fertility rate of Vietnam is 1.8 (births per woman),[17] which is below the replacement-level fertility of 2.1, the rate "at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next" according to the World Resources Institute.[18]

History[edit]

Vietnam had a family planning policy in the 1960s, which was used again in the 1990s.[19] The movement has been proven to lower Vietnam's birth rate, which had previously been at nearly 4 children per woman. In 2003, the plan was discontinued. In 2008, it was announced that the government was considering reviving it.[20][21]

From 1954 to 1975, Vietnam was split into North and South Vietnam along the 17th parallel with separate governments and policies in each region. North Vietnam became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and had a communist government, whereas South Vietnam became the Republic of South Vietnam and was more aligned with the United States and other Western nations.[22] In 1963, North Vietnam began a policy advocating a two-or-three-child norm due to the sharp population increase of the largely poor and rural population.[15] Vietnam's family planning policy was developed before those of other developing countries, and the government used a system of information, education and communication (IEC) campaign and publicly accessible contraceptives to restrict the population.[23] After the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975 under the Communist Party, there was a governmental effort to extend the policies of the North to the rest of Vietnam.[24]

In 1986, the Party implemented the Renovation (Đổi Mới) Policy, which completely reversed the Communist Party economy to implement capitalistic market ideals. The aims of the Renovation Policy were to end Vietnam's economic isolation, increase competitiveness, and raise living standards.[25] In order to effectively develop socioeconomically and increase the standard of living within the population, the Vietnam government emphasized the need to restrict birth rates.[26] In 1988, the Council of Ministers issued an in-depth family planning policy, restricting the number of children per household to be a maximum of two.[27] The detailed one-or-two-child policy of Vietnam was established nine years after China's one-child policy was implemented, and elements of China's policy are reflected in Vietnam's, such as the emphasis on marrying later,[14] postponing childbearing age (22-years of age or older for women and 24-years of age or older for men),[27] and spacing out birth of children (3–5 years apart).[14][27] The state was required to supply free birth control devices (such as intrauterine loops, condoms, and birth control pills) and to provide facilities for individuals who are eligible for abortions.[27] Furthermore, if families did not comply with the two-child policy, they were required to pay high fees and were unable to move into urban centers.[27]

In 1993, the Vietnamese government issued the first formalization of the one-to-two child policy as a mandatory national policy. The policy combined advertisements and education to promote a smaller family "so people may enjoy a plentiful and happy life."[28] The Vietnamese government explicitly link the family planning policy with "historical and cultural traditions, value structures and development objectives," encouraging a collectivist mindset in which individuals honor the needs of the nation above their own.[26] The goal of the policy was to reduce the Vietnamese fertility rate to the replacement level by 2015, so that the country can have a stable population during mid-21st century. In 1997, the goal was accelerated to reach the replacement level by 2005, and the government subsequently integrated an increased use of abortion as a means to curb population.[29]

In 2003, the Standing Parliamentary Committee of the National Assembly issued the highest legislative document on population titled the Population Ordinance, which restructured the official family planning policy.[14] According to the ordinance, couples "shall have the right to decide on the time to have babies, the number of children and the duration between child births."[30] However, shortly after, the government implemented the National Strategy on Population 2001-2010, which again called for decreasing the fertility rate to the replacement level by 2005. This caused controversy as individuals protested the conflicting messages purported by the government in regards to their reproductive rights.[14] To address this confusion, the government issued Resolution 47 in 2005 which stated that "to sustain high economic growth, Viet Nam needs to pursue a population control policy until it has become an industrialized country." However at this time, the population had already reached the goal of having a total fertility rate below the replacement level.[14]

In 2009, the Population Ordinance was amended to again restrict the number of children to be one or two children, although individuals are allowed to decide the timing and spacing of their births.[31] The government is currently drafting a new Law on Population to replace the Population Ordinance in 2015. However, there is disagreement between policy makers and academics on what should be included in the law.[32]

Administration[edit]

The organizational structure of the two-child policy was vested under different governmental units since its conception in the 1960s. As the policy evolved from "Initiation in the 1960s-1970s; Maturity in the 1980s-1990s; and Legalization in the 2000s-2010s,"[14] the administration of it also changed. From 1961-1983, the population program fell under the Population and Birth Control Unit. From 1984-2002, it was under the control of National Committee for Population and Family Planning. From 2003-2006, it was in the jurisdiction of the Viet Nam Commission for Population, Family, and Children. Since 2007, the population program has been under the General Office for Population and Family Planning.[14]

Although the policy was advocated on the federal level, the national government did not utilize specific fines or incentives, instead delegating implementation responsibilities to local governments.[23] Each family was required to have at most two children, and local governments were responsible to decide the details of enforcement. Depending on the specific location, district governments charged fines ranging from 60 to 800 kilograms of paddy rice, equivalent to the worth of a month to a year's wages, for each additional child, and additionally, women who agreed to be sterilized were given bonuses of 120 to 400 kilograms of rice. Individuals who did not use contraceptives sometimes had their names announced over the intercom system of the village to shame them into using them, whereas individuals who did could be selected to win the Labor Medal for "good realization of the population-family planning program."[23] The government and large companies also regularly denied people who violated the policy of their salaries, promotions, and sometimes even their jobs.[23]

Current status[edit]

Currently, the effective population policy is the revised 2009 Population Ordinance which states that "each couple and individual has the right and responsibility to participate in the campaigns on population and family planning, reproductive health care: (i) decide time and birth spacing; (ii) have one or two children, exceptional cases to be determined by the Government."[31] Thus, individuals have control over the timing and spacing of the births of their children but are still restricted in the number of children they are allowed to have. Furthermore, later that year, Chief Executive Trương Tấn San stressed the need for continued diligence in population control and stated that the population of Vietnam should be 100 million people by 2020, and suggested that a new comprehensive Law on Population be introduced to the government by 2015.[14]

Effects[edit]

Reduction of the birthrate[edit]

When looking directly at the statistics, the two-child policy has successfully dropped the total fertility rate in Vietnam from 5.6 in 1979 to 3.2 by 1993.[33] According to one demographic model, the Bongaarts' model of components of fertility. high rates of contraceptive use and of induced abortion are plausible explanations for the decreased fertility rate. Furthermore, because of this policy, families have fundmentally changed their ideas of the family. In 1988, the Inter-Censal Demographic and Health Survey found that parents wanted an average of 3.3 children, and in 1994, they found that the ideal number of children fell to 2.8.[33]

However, the reported findings differ depending on the fertility model utilized and research study. The United Nations Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific found that the average number in household was 3.1 in 1998.[34]In another study conducted by the Population Reference Bureau, the number found was lower at 2.3.[34] On the other hand, another study found a contrasting finding that the total fertility rate only dropped slightly and the size of nuclear families experienced only a slight change, dipping from 4.8 to 4.7 from 1989 to 1994.[34]

Sex-based differences[edit]

There is evidence that son preference exists in Vietnam.[35] Traditionally, men oversee and are responsible for the household, elderly care, ancestral worship, and carrying on the family name.[36] However, although the desire for a son is seen in the Vietnamese family's fertility practices, the desire for more than one son is not. Families with two daughters are twice as likely to have a third child than families with at least one son, presumably with the hopes that this one will be a boy.[36] Furthermore, women who do not have any sons are around 15% less likely to use contraceptives than families who have at least one.[35] There were also increased rates of "contraceptive failure" amongst couples who had a son, as families secretly removed an IUD to bypass the policy in hopes of having a son.[37] This is consistent with findings from other East Asian countries in which son preference corresponds with a demand for fewer children so that families will have at least one son to maintain the ancestral line.[35]

Despite the evidence for son preference, there is not clear evidence that Vietnam's sex ratio at birth is increasing, as seen in other East Asian countries, notably China.[37] In fact, according to the Vietnamese census data for 1989 and 1999, the sex ratios of males to females at birth are actually decreasing.[37] On the other hand, some sources state that the impact of son preference varies by region of Vietnam. In the north, there is a strong relationship between sex bias in fertility decisions and number of male births, while in the south, this relationship is nonexistent.[36] However, mothers of certain occupations, such as government cadres and farmers, are more likely to want influence on the sex of their child and have higher sex-ratio differences at birth. This reflects the pressure for government employees to especially adhere to the two-child limit, and the perceived necessity of males for manual labor in the farm.[37]

Criticism[edit]

Inadequate contraceptives[edit]

Although the policy states that "the state will supply, free of charge, birth control devices... to eligible persons who are cadres, manual workers, civil servants or members of the armed forces... and poor persons who register to practice family planning... The widespread sale of birth control devices will be permitted to facilitate their use by everybody that needs them,"[38] the only modern contraceptive readily available in Vietnam is the IUD.[39] However, many women choose not to use it due to the side effects, such as increased bleeding, back and abdominal pains, headache, and general weakness.[40] Thus, contraceptive use is low among women under the age of 25, and experts have speculated that "contraceptive use among young women might increase if temporary, easy-to-use methods, such as the pill and the condom, were more accessible. For the government to achieve its two-child policy, the survey committee recommends increased promotion of the commercial availability of the condom and the pill, and strengthening of the government family planning program."[39]

Increased abortion[edit]

Abortion rates in Vietnam are unusually high by international standards, with a total abortion rate of at least 2.5 abortions per woman.[41] Generally, the abortion rate for young age groups is higher than older age groups due to a limited awareness of contraceptive methods and availability. Individuals of lower educational levels also had higher abortion rates.[42] Vietnam also has some of the world's most liberal abortion laws, though the Vietnamese government is aiming to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related difficulties.[43] Although sex-selective abortions were banned by the government in 2006,[43] there is evidence that suggests that son preference is associated with a higher likelihood of repeat abortions, as women with no sons were significantly less likely to have a repeat abortion compared to women with one son.[44]

There are multiple reasons influencing Vietnam's high abortion rates. First, because women do not have access to contraceptive methods besides IUDs, many do not use effective birth control.[41] Women who have undergone multiple abortions used short-term methods of contraceptives, such as condoms and contraceptive pills, which are less effective than long-acting contraceptives which many do not have access.[44] Secondly, due to the higher costs of raising a child in some geographic areas of Vietnam, abortions become more acceptable.[41] Furthermore, the era of modernization and development of free-market reforms since the 1980s has led to a rise in premarital and unwanted pregnancy, and subsequently increased abortion services.[41] Additionally, the Vietnamese government has insufficient alternatives to abortion within the family planning purposes and a lack of post-abortion contraceptive dialogues for families.[43] Thus, experts have suggested providing more diverse, long-acting contraceptive alternatives and increasing counseling for families that have experienced an abortion as methods to decrease abortion in Vietnam.[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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