Two World Trade Center
|Two World Trade Center
200 Greenwich Street
|Location||200 Greenwich Street, New York City, New York, United States|
|Construction started||June 1, 2010|
|Owner||World Trade Center Properties, LLC|
|Antenna spire||1,350 ft (411 m)|
|Roof||1,270 ft (387 m)|
|Floor area||2,530,000 sq ft (235,000 m²)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Lord Norman Foster|
|Engineer||WSP Cantor Seinuk|
Two World Trade Center, also known by its street address, 200 Greenwich Street, is a new office building on hold and is part of the World Trade Center reconstruction in New York City. When completed, the tower will be located on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the original location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks.
The 79-story building was designed by Foster and Partners, London. The building will have a height of 1,270 feet (390 m), with a tripod-shaped antenna that allows the building to reach a total height of 1,350 feet (410 m). In comparison, the Empire State Building's roof at the 102nd floor is 1,250 feet (380 m) tall, and its antenna is 1,472 feet (449 m), and the original 2 World Trade Center (referred to as the South Tower) was 1,362 feet (415 m). The structural engineer for the building is WSP Cantor Seinuk, New York City. The Curtain Wall/Cladding consultant for the building is Permasteelisa SPA.
When constructed, the tower will be the second–tallest skyscraper on the World Trade Center site and in New York City, following One World Trade Center. The sloping roof consisting of four diamonds inclined toward the memorial will provide a visual marker around the skyline of just where the original towers were. The tower is designed to resemble a diamond, with cross bracing intersects and indentations breaking up the sides. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey said the following about 200 Greenwich Street's wedged rooftop: "Designed by Lord Norman Foster, the tower incorporates WTC master planner Daniel Libeskind's 'wedge of light' concept, and will cast no shadow on the memorial park on September 11."
The total floor space of 200 Greenwich Street is anticipated to include 2,400,000 square feet (220,000 m2) of office space and another 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) for retail shops and access areas to the underground World Trade Center PATH subway station.
Original building (1971–2001)
The original building was known as the South Tower. When completed in 1973, 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower) became the second tallest building in the world. The South Tower's rooftop observation deck was 1,362 ft (415 m) high and its indoor observation deck was 1,310 ft (400 m) high. The World Trade Center towers held the height record only briefly: Chicago's Sears Tower, finished in May 1973, reached 1,450 feet (440 m) at the rooftop. Throughout its existence, however, the South Tower had more floors (at 110) than any other building. This number was not surpassed until the advent of the Burj Khalifa, which opened in 2010.
Of the 110 stories, eight were set aside for technical services in mechanical floors (floors 7/8, 41/42, 75/76, and 108/109), which are four two-floor areas that evenly spaced up the building. All the remaining floors were free for open-plan offices. Each floor of the towers had 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) of space for occupancy. The original Two World Trade Center had 95 express and local elevators. The tower had 3,800,000 square feet (350,000 m2) of office space.
Initially conceived as a complex dedicated to companies and organizations directly taking part in "world trade", the South Tower, along with 1 World Trade Center—the North Tower—at first failed to attract the expected clientele. During the early years, various governmental organizations became key tenants of the World Trade Center towers including the State of New York. It was not until the 1980s that the city's perilous financial state eased, after which an increasing number of private companies—mostly financial firms tied to Wall Street—became tenants. During the 1990s, approximately 500 companies had offices in the complex including many financial companies such as Morgan Stanley, Aon Corporation, Salomon Brothers and the Port Authority itself. The basement concourse of the World Trade Center included The Mall at the World Trade Center, along with a PATH station.
Electrical service to the towers was supplied by Consolidated Edison (ConEd) at 13,800 volts. This service passed through the World Trade Center Primary Distribution Center (PDC) and sent up through the core of the building to electrical substations located on the mechanical floors. The substations stepped down the 13,800 primary voltage to 480/277 volt secondary service, and then further down to 208/120 volt general power and lighting service. The complex also was served by emergency generators located in the sub-levels of the towers and on the roof of 5 WTC.
The 110th floor of 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) housed radio and television transmission equipment; access to the roof of 1 WTC was controlled from the WTC Operations Control Center (OCC) located in the B1 level of 2 WTC.
At 9:03 a.m. on September 11, 2001, five hijackers crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern facade of the South Tower. Three buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including 2 WTC, collapsed due to fire-induced structural failure. The light construction and hollow nature of the structures allowed the jet fuel to penetrate far inside the towers, igniting many large fires simultaneously over a wide area of the impacted floors. The fuel from the planes burned at most for a few minutes, but the contents of the buildings burned over the next hour or hour and a half. The fires might not have been as centrally positioned, nor as intense, had traditionally heavy high-rise construction been standing in the way of the aircraft. Debris and fuel would likely have remained mostly outside the buildings or concentrated in more peripheral areas away from the building cores, which would then not have become unique failure points. In this scenario, the towers might have stood far longer, perhaps indefinitely. The fires were hot enough to weaken the columns and cause floors to sag, pulling perimeter columns inward and reducing their ability to support the mass of the building above. The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 a.m. after burning for 56 minutes in the fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175 and the explosion of its fuel.
Excavation for 200 Greenwich Street commenced in 2008 and the building was originally scheduled to be completed sometime between 2011 and 2016. On May 11, 2009, however, it was announced that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was seeking to reduce the tower to a "stump" building of approximately four stories. The overall plan, which also calls for a similar reduction in height for 175 Greenwich Street and the cancellation of World Trade Center Tower 5, would halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 5 million square feet (465,000 square meters). The agency cited the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein as reasons for the proposed reduction. The plan has seen some opposition; a May 2009 piece in the New York Post challenged the necessity of the office space reduction, given Lower Manhattan's low commercial vacancy rate compared to other U.S. cities and overall demand for modern office properties.
Silverstein is opposed to the plan, and filed a notice of dispute on July 7, 2009. By doing so, the development firm began a two-week period during which renegotiated settlements and a binding arbitration regarding the construction of the four World Trade Center towers can be made. Silverstein Properties, which has paid the Port Authority over $2.75 billion in financing, noted the organization’s inability to meet construction obligations in its official complaint. The development firm has proposed further government intervention in the project as a way of settling the dispute. On December 2, 2009, US$2.6 billion tax-free bond for the building's construction was approved by the state of New York to continue construction on the World Trade Center site. The construction of Two World Trade Center, however, remains on-hold.
On March 25, 2010, the Port Authority released plans to build Two and Three World Trade Center to street level. The transit and retail podium at the 175 Greenwich Street site would be constructed immediately, but the construction of Tower 3 would be delayed until Silverstein Properties obtains financing for the remaining cost of the tower. Tower 3 will be built, but Tower 2's office construction will wait until the economy improves. Tower 2 foundation work began on June 1, 2010, but construction was temporarily halted in August 2012, The street-level foundation was finished by November 2012 and construction of everything up to street level was completed mid-2013.
- "Two World Trade Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- Designs for three World Trade Center Towers Unveiled, Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, URL retrieved September 7, 2006
- "Ground Zero Office Designs Hailed as Hopeful Symbols" in Engineering News-Record, September 18, 2006, pg. 12
- Skyscrapernews New World Trade Center Designs Released, URL retrieved September 11, 2006
- [dead link]
- Mcdowell, Edwin (April 11, 1997). "At Trade Center Deck, Views Are Lofty, as Are the Prices". The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- "Willis Tower Building Information". Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- "Burj Khalifa - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
- Baldwin, Derek (1 May 2008). "No more habitable floors to Burj Dubai". Gulfnews. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- Ruchelman (1977), p. 11
- The World Trade Center — Facts and Figures. Nysm.nysed.gov (1993-02-26). Retrieved on 2014-06-23.
- Deutsch, Claudia H (February 26, 1995). "Commercial Property/World Trade Center; Attuning a Huge Concourse to an Upscale Trade". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "Air-Cooled PATH Terminal in World Trade Center Opens Tuesday". The New York Times. July 1, 1971. p. 94. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "World Trade Center Building Performance Study" (PDF). Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved March 8, 2007. "Six 1,200-kilowatt (kW) emergency power generators located in the sixth basement (B-6) level provided a secondary power supply."
- Fischbach, Amy Florence (January 1, 2001). "Towering security". CEE News. Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2007. "E-J Electric set four generators on the roof of Tower 5, which was nine stories, as opposed to the 110-story Towers 1 and 2. E-J then ran high-voltage feeder cable to Towers 1, 2, 4 and 5, installed three substations and distributed power to the tenants."
- "Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 11" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. February 19, 2002.
- "Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 175" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. February 19, 2002.
- Miller, Bill (May 1, 2002). "Skyscraper Protection Might Not Be Feasible, Federal Engineers Say". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
- Field, Andy (2004). "A Look Inside a Radical New Theory of the WTC Collapse". Fire/Rescue News. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- Gross, John L., Therese P. McAllister (2004). "Structural Fire Response and Probable Collapse Sequence of the World Trade Center Towers" (PDF). Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster NIST NCSTAR 1–6. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- Wilkinson, Tim (2006). "World Trade Center – Some Engineering Aspects". Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- National Construction Safety Team (September 2005). "Executive Summary" (PDF). Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. NIST.
- Feiden, Doug (2009-05-11). "Agency wants to dump 3 skyscrapers from site, shrinking 2 into ‘stumps’". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Cuozzo, Steve (2009-02-26). "Build ‘Em Now NYC Needs Modern Offices". New York Post. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- "Silverstein Properties Statement Regarding Notice of Dispute Letter Sent to Port Authority". Silverstein Properties. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- Gralla, Joan. "NY agency OKs tax-free debt for World Trade Center". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-11.[dead link]
- "Joint Statement on World Trade Center Development". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- Construction Update: Two World Trade Center Still Stalled. New York Yimby. Retrieved on 2014-06-23.
- WTC Construction Update, November 2012 || News || World Trade Center ||. Wtc.com (2013-12-23). Retrieved on 2014-06-23.
- 200 Greenwich Street - Official site
- 200 Greenwich Street Images
- 200 Greenwich Street Design Update(video)
- Foster + Partners
- Skyscraperpage.com - Diagram of building