||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2012)|
4 May 1767|
Tiruvarur, Thanjavur Kingdom
|Died||6 January 1847(aged 79)|
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam Telugu (Telugu: త్యాగరాజు) (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847), colloquially known as Tyāgarāju or Tyāgayya in Telugu, Tyāgarājar in Tamil, was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music or Indian classical music. He was a prolific composer and highly influential in the development of the classical music tradition. Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most in praise of Lord Rama, many of which remain popular today. Of special mention are five of his compositions called the Pancharatna Kirtis(English: "five gems"), which are often sung in programs in his honour.
Personal life and background
Tyāgarāja was born in 1767[Note 1] in Tiruvarur, Tiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, to Kakarla Ramabrahma and Sitamma in a Telugu Brahmin family. His family belonged to the smarta tradition and Bhardvajasa gotra. He was named Tyagabrahmam/Tyagaraja after Tyagaraja, the presiding deity of the temple at Tiruvarur. Tyagaraja's paternal grandfather was Giriraja Kavi. Giriraja Kavi was a poet and musician. Giriraja was born in Kakarla village, cumbum taluk in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. He is believed to belong to Mulakanadu Telugu sect. Tyagaraja's maternal grand father was Kalahastayya/Veena kalahastayya. He was a Veena player. Tyagaraja learned playing Veena in his childhood from Kalahastayya. After Kalahastayya's death Tyagaraja found "Naradeeyam", a book related to music. Tyagaraja was the third son of his parents, and Panchanada brahmam and Panchapakesha brahmam are his older brothers. Tyagaraja himself has acknowledged the great "Purandara dasa " as his guru in his magnum opus "Prahlada Charita " .Purandara dasa served as an inspiration to him. 
Tyāgarāja began his musical training under Sonti Venkata Ramanayya, a music scholar, at an early age. He regarded music as a way to experience God's love. His objective while practising music was purely devotional, as opposed to focusing on the technicalities of classical music. He also showed a flair for composing music and, in his teens, composed his first song, "Namo Namo Raghavayya", in the Desika Todi ragam and inscribed it on the walls of the house.
After some years, Ramanayya invited Tyagaraja to perform at his house in Thanjavur. On that occasion, Tyagaraja sang Endaro Mahaanubhavulu, the fifth of the Pancharatna Kritis. Pleased with Tyagaraja's composition, Ramanayya informed the king of Thanjavur of Tyagaraja's genius. The king sent an invitation, along with many rich gifts, inviting Tyagaraja to attend the royal court. Tyagaraja, however, was not inclined towards a career at the court, and rejected the invitation outright, composing another kriti, Nidhi Chala Sukhama (English: "Does wealth bring happiness?") on this occasion.
Angered at Tyagaraja's rejection of the royal offer, his brother threw the statues of Rama Tyagaraja used in his prayers into the nearby Kaveri river. Tyagaraja, unable to bear the separation with his Lord, went on pilgrimages to all the major temples in South India and composed many songs in praise of the deities of those temples.
Tyagaraja, who was totally immersed in his devotion to Rama and led the most spartan way of life without bothering in the least for the comforts of the world, did not take any steps to systematically codify his vast musical output. Rangaramanuja Iyengar, a leading researcher on Carnatic music, in his work Kriti Manimalai, has described the situation prevailing at the time of death of Tyagaraja. It is said that a major portion of his incomparable musical work was lost to the world due to natural and man-made calamities. Usually Tyagaraja used to sing his compositions sitting before deity manifestations of Lord Rama, and his disciples noted down the details of his compositions on palm leaves. After his death, these were in the hands of his disciples, then families descending from the disciples. There was not a definitive edition of Tyagaraja's songs.
The songs he composed were widespread in their popularity. Musical experts such as Kancheepuram Nayana Pillai, Simizhi Sundaram Iyer and Veenai Dhanammal saw the infinite possibilities for imaginative music inherent in his compositions and they systematically notated the songs available to them. Subsequently, indefatigable researchers like K. V. Srinivasa Iyengar and Rangaramanuja Iyengar made an enormous effort to contact various teachers and families who possessed the palm leaves. K. V. Srinivasa Iyengar brought out Adi Sangita Ratnavali and Adi Tyagaraja Hridhayam (in three volumes). Rangaramanuja Iyengar published Kriti Mani Malai in two volumes.
Furthermore, Musiri Subramania Iyer, the doyen of Bhava Sangitam, had a vast collection of books in his library. T. K. Govinda Rao, his disciple, brought out a volume of the songs of Tyagaraja in English and the Devanagari script. T. S. Parthasarathy, a leading scholar on Tyagaraja, published the text and meaning of Tyagaraja's songs. There are also many less comprehensive publications in Telugu.
Out of 24,000 songs said to have been composed by him, about 700 songs remain now. In addition to nearly 700 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam. Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata Purana.
The 20th-century Indian music critic K.V. Ramachandran wrote: "Tyagaraja is an indefatigable interpreter of the past... but if with one eye he looks backward, with the other he looks forward as well. Like Prajapati, he creates his own media, and adores his Rama not alone with jewel-words newly fashioned, but also with jewel-[like]-music newly created. It is this facet of Tyagaraja that distinguishes him from his illustrious contemporaries." In other words, while Tyagaraja's contemporaries were primarily concerned with bringing to audiences the music of the past, Tyagaraja also pioneered new musical concepts at the same time.
Tyagaraja Aradhana, the commemorative music festival is held every year at Thiruvaiyaru in the months of January to February in Tyagaraja's honour. This is a week-long festival of music where various Carnatic musicians from all over the world converge at his resting place. On the Pushya Bahula Panchami,[Note 2] thousands of people and hundreds of Carnatic musicians sing the five Pancharatna Kritis in unison, with the accompaniment of a large bank of accompanists on veenas, violins, flutes, nadasvarams, mridangams and ghatams.
Films on Tyagaraja (biographical)
As the most famous composer of Telugu kritis or (kirtanas), Tyagaraja, who is fondly remembered as Tyagayya, has caught the imagination of filmmakers in the Telugu film industry. Apart from references to his works, using the kirtanas as songs, two films were made on his life. Chittor V. Nagaiah made a biographical epic on Tyagaraja titled Tyagayya in 1946 which is still treated as a masterpiece of Telugu cinema. In 1981, Bapu – Ramana made Tyagayya with J. V. Somayajulu in the lead role. Another attempt is being made by Singeetam Srinivasa Rao to picturise Tyagaraja's life.
The term pancharatna in Sanskrit means five gems: The Pancharatnas are known as the five finest gems of Carnatic music. All the Pancharatnas are set to Adi Talam. So far as Pancharatnas are concerned, a stable text has been handed over by the earlier musicians to the present day. Several musicians have brought out editions of Pancharatnas. However, Veenai Sundaram Iyer's edition is the most detailed and comprehensive. All the compositions of Tyagaraja show the way for the systematic development of the respective ragas. However, in the Pancharatnas, Tyagaraja has given full, exhaustive and complete treatment as to how to systematically and scientifically develop a raga. The two fundamental conditions that must be satisfied for a systematic development of a raga are the arrangement of the solfa swaras in the natural order of Arohanam and Avarohanam of the Ragas so as to satisfy the sound principles of harmony and continuity. Pancharatnas satisfy these scientific principles in an unparalleled manner. The Pancharatnas are composed in perfect sarvalaghu swaras.
- The first pancharatna is Jagadanadakaraka, in the raga Nata. It is composed in lucid and poetic Sanskrit. It praises Lord Rama as the source of all joy in the universe. Originally there were only six charanams for the song and when the disciples examined the song it contained ninety names of Lord Rama in mellifluous Sanskrit. The disciples requested Tyagaraja to slightly expand the song by adding two charanas containing eighteen more names of Lord Rama. The saint acceded to the request of the disciples and that is the reason why the song Jagadanadakaraka contains two mudras containing the name of Tyagaraja while the other four songs contain only one mudra each.
- The next is Duduku gala in the raga gowla set to adi talam. In this song Tyagaraja takes the blame upon himself for all the misdeeds of men and ruminates as to who would come and save him from this deplorable situation.
- The third is Sadhinchene in the raga Arabhi set to adi talam. In this song Tyagaraja lovingly criticises Lord Krishna for his cleverness in getting what he wants to be done. Sadhichene is a breathtaking lullaby.
- The fourth song, Kana kana ruchira is in the raga Varali set to adi talam. In this song Tyagaraja describes the infinite beauty of Lord Rama.
- The fifth pancharatna is Endaro Mahanubhavulu. It is said that a great musician from Kerala, Shatkala Govinda Marar visited Tygaraja and performed before him. Tyagaraja was enchanted with his performance and then was born Endaro Mahanubhavulu, the unparallelled rhythmic beauty in Carnatic music.
Other notable compositions by Tyagaraja include saamajavaragamana in hindolam ragam, aadamodigaladhe in charukesi ragam, raju vedale in todi ragam, ninne nami naanura in pantuvarali ragam, and nagumomu kanaleni in Abheri ragam.
- Carnatic music
- Kancherla Gopanna (Bhadrachala Ramadasu)
- Purandara Dasa
- Syama Sastri
- Muthuswamy Dikshitar
- Mulukanadu Brahmins
- Indian aesthetics
- List of Carnatic composers
- "Tiruvaiyaru gears up". The Hindu. 6 January 2006.
- "Manaku teliyani mana tyagaraju".
- "The musical triumvirate". The Hindu. 24 January 2011.
- "Atop a hill, a historic temple". The Hindu. 26 February 2013.
- "The bhaktha who craved more bhakthi". The Hindu. 31 January 2013.
- "Musicians pay homage to saint Thyagaraja". The Hindu. 1 February 2013.
- Retrieved 16 May 2013, from Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory website; http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/image.php?image_id=861
- The Spiritual Heritage of Tyagaraja, by C. Ramanujachari with introduction by Dr V. Raghavan, Ramakrishna Math, Chennai.
- Tyagaraja Kritigal (in Malayalam) by Prof P. R. Kumara Kerala Varma, Dept of Cultural Publications, Govt of Kerala, Trivandrum, 2000.
- Tyagaraja Kirtanalu (in Telugu) by Smt Dwaraka Parthasarathy and Sri N.C. Parthasarathy, Tagore Publishing House, Kachiguda, Hyderabad, 1995 (Balasaraswati Book Depot, Kurnool).
- Ramachandran, K.V., "The Melakarta: A Critique", The (Madras) Music Academy Platinum Jubilee Commemoration Volume, Vol. I, 1930–1940. (Original publication in the Journal of the Music Academy in 1938.)
- Biography of Tyagaraja
- Poems of Tyagaraja
- Website dedicated to Tyagaraja
- Raga Nattaj on YouTube
- Free scores by Tyagaraja at the International Music Score Library Project