Tyler, Texas

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Not to be confused with Tyler County, Texas.
Tyler, Texas
City
City of Tyler
Clockwise: Tyler skyline with Plaza Tower at right and People's National Bank office building in center, Cotton Belt Depot, Caldwell Zoo, Chamblee Rose Garden, Smith County Courthouse, Goodman Home.
Clockwise: Tyler skyline with Plaza Tower at right and People's National Bank office building in center, Cotton Belt Depot, Caldwell Zoo, Chamblee Rose Garden, Smith County Courthouse, Goodman Home.
Official seal of Tyler, Texas
Seal
Nickname(s): Rose Capital, Yellow Rose of Texas
Motto: A Natural Beauty
Location in Smith County and the state of Texas
Location in Smith County and the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°21′N 95°18′W / 32.350°N 95.300°W / 32.350; -95.300Coordinates: 32°21′N 95°18′W / 32.350°N 95.300°W / 32.350; -95.300
Country United States
State Texas
County Smith
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council Mayor Barbara Bass
Darryl Bowdre
Martin Heines
Same Mezayek
Ed Moore
John Nix
Mark Whatley
 • City Manager Mark McDaniel
Area
 • City 54.376 sq mi (140.833 km2)
 • Land 54.2 sq mi (140.5 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)
Elevation 544 ft (165 m)
Population (2014)
 • City 107,405
 • Density 1,782.0/sq mi (688.0/km2)
 • Metro 209,714
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) Central (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 75700-75799
Area code(s) 430, 903
FIPS code 48-74144[1]
GNIS feature ID 1348998[2]
Website http://www.cityoftyler.org

Tyler is a city in and the county seat of Smith County, Texas, in the United States.[3] It takes its name from President John Tyler. The city had a population of 96,901 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau. Tyler's 2014 estimated population is 107,405.[4] Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 209,714 in 2010, and the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, with a population of 260,559 in 2010.

Tyler has the nickname "Rose Capital of the World". It gained this name due to the large quantity of rose bushes processed through the area, along with hosting America's largest rose garden.

In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler when, after appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a two-mile (3-km) stretch of U.S. Highway 69. Tyler is also home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall.

As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher education students, a College of Engineering, and a University Health Science Center, two regional, billion-dollar hospital systems, and a variety of technology startups.

Geography[edit]

Tyler skyline
Tyler
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.3
 
57
38
 
 
3.7
 
64
41
 
 
4
 
72
49
 
 
3.7
 
78
55
 
 
4.5
 
84
63
 
 
3.7
 
90
70
 
 
2.2
 
94
73
 
 
2.6
 
94
72
 
 
3.3
 
88
67
 
 
5.1
 
78
56
 
 
4.5
 
67
48
 
 
4.8
 
58
40
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com / NWS

Tyler is located at 32°20′03″N 95°18′00″W / 32.334249°N 95.299927°W / 32.334249; -95.299927 [5] Elevation: 544 feet (166 m). Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, Lindale, New Chapel Hill, Bullard, Edom, Brownsboro, and Chandler.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles (140.8 km2), of which, 54.2 mi2 (140.5 km2) of it is land and 0.1 mi2(0.3 km2²) of it is covered by water.

Climate[edit]

Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, which is unpredictable, especially in the spring. All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South.

The record high for Tyler is 115 °F (46 °C), which occurred in 2011. The record low for Tyler is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred on January 18, 1930.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 2,423
1890 6,908 185.1%
1900 8,069 16.8%
1910 10,400 28.9%
1920 12,085 16.2%
1930 17,113 41.6%
1940 28,279 65.2%
1950 38,968 37.8%
1960 51,230 31.5%
1970 57,770 12.8%
1980 70,508 22.0%
1990 75,450 7.0%
2000 83,650 10.9%
2010 96,901 15.8%
Est. 2012[6] 104,083 7.4%
Tyler welcome sign on HWY 69 N
Tyler City Hall

As of the 2010 census[1], 96,900 people resided in the city of Tyler, Texas. The population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile (688.0/km²). The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2(276.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, and $17.6 million in cash in investments.[7]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[8]

City Manager Mark McDaniel
Assistant City Manager/Communications Director Susan Guthrie
Managing Director for Utilities/Public Works (& Utilities Director) Greg Morgan
Managing Director for Public Safety (& Police Chief) Gary Swindle
Managing Director for Administration (& HR Director) ReNissa Wade
City Engineer Carter Delleney, P.E.
CFO/Finance Director Keidric Trimble
Fire Chief Tim R. Johnson
Parks Director Stephanie Rollings
Director for Innovation Guillermo Garcia
Director of Planning/ Exec. Director of MPO Heather Nick
Director of Solid Waste Russ Jackson
Chief Information Officer Benny Yazdanpanahi
City Attorney Deborah Pullum
Vehicle Services Manager Leroy Sparrow
City Librarian Mary Vernau
Internal Auditor John Grundy
Transit Manager and MPO Director Barbara Holly, AICP
Neighborhood Services Manager Brenda Johnson
Community Service Manager Larry Everett
Housing Manager Andy Davis
Housing Supervisor Candace Porter
Airport Manager Davis Dickson
Human Recources Manager Rose Ray
Water Utilities Financial Manager James Yanker
Water Utilities Manager Joan Roberson
Development Services Engineer Michael Wilson, P.E.
Traffic Engineer Peter Eng, P.E.

The Northeast Texas Public Health District[9] is a political subdivision under the State of Texas established by the City of Tyler and Smith County. In place for nearly 70 years, the Health District became a separate entity in 1994, with an administrative Public Health Board. With a stated vision "To be the Healthiest Community in Texas", the district has a full-time staff of over 130 employees. The Health District has a broad range of services and responsibilities dedicated to their mission: "To Protect, Promote, and Provide for the Health of Our Community."

State government[edit]

Tyler is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Kevin Eltife, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Matt Schaefer, District 6.

The Texas Twelfth Court of Appeals is located in Tyler.[10]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Region I Parole Division Office and the Tyler District Parole Office in Tyler.[11]

Federal government[edit]

The two U.S. Senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Tyler is part of Texas' US Congressional 1st District, which is currently represented by Republican Louie Gohmert.

The United States Postal Service operates several post offices in Tyler, including Tyler,[12] Azalea,[13] Southeast Crossing,[14] and the South Tyler Annex.[15]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Tyler's higher education institutions include the University of Texas at Tyler and the University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, both part of the University of Texas System, as well as Tyler Junior College and Texas College.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

John Tyler High School

Public primary and secondary education for much of the city is provided by the Tyler Independent School District, which includes two high schools, John Tyler and Robert E. Lee; Premier High School of Tyler, a public charter school (Cumberland Academy); several Tyler schools offer international baccalaureate and advanced placement programs.

Portions of incorporated Tyler are served by surrounding school districts. These include sections of southeast Tyler by the Whitehouse Independent School District, and some sections in the east which are served by the Chapel Hill Independent School District.

Private schools[edit]

The Tyler Catholic School System of the Catholic Diocese of Tyler consists of St. Gregory Cathedral School and Bishop Thomas K. Gorman Regional Catholic Middle and High School. There are several other private schools, including [1] Grace Community School, All Saints Episcopal School, Seventh-day Adventist Church School, King's Academy Christian School, Christian Heritage School, East Texas Christian Academy, and Good Shepherd Reformed Episcopal School, and the Brook Hill School(Bullard).

Economy[edit]

People's National Bank office building in downtown Tyler
Chamber of Commerce office in downtown Tyler

In addition to its role in the rose-growing industry, Tyler is the headquarters for Brookshire Grocery Company, which operates Brookshire's, Fresh and Super 1 Foods, and Ole! supermarkets in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas). The company's main distribution center is located in south Tyler, while SouthWest Foods, a subsidiary that processes dairy products, is located just northeast of the city. Adams Engineering has also made its headquarters in Tyler.

The manufacturing sector includes:

Also produced in Tyler are John Soules Foods' fajita and other meat products, Greenberg's smoked turkeys, Distant Lands Coffee Roasters coffee, Tyler Candle Co. jar candles, Tyler Products, and a variety of small, high-tech businesses, including Synthesizers.com, F3 Technology Solutions, Wood Networks, Group M7, CBI, Power-Up, and Arrick Robotics.

Tyler is also a major medical center which serves the city, as well as the surrounding East Texas area.

According to the City's 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[16] the top ten employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Trinity Mother Frances Health System 3,775
2 East Texas Medical Center 3,153
3 Brookshire Grocery Company 2,599
4 Tyler Independent School District 2,468
5 Trane 1,500
6 SuddenLink 1,500
7 Walmart 1,311
8 The University of Texas at Tyler 1,121
9 University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler 925
10 Tyler Junior College 862

Recreation and tourism[edit]

Annually, the Texas Rose Festival draws thousands of tourists to Tyler.[17] The festival, which celebrates the role of the rose-growing industry in the local economy, is held in October and features a parade, the coronation of the Rose Queen, and other civic events. The Rose Museum features the history of the Festival. Tyler is home to Caldwell Zoo, several local museums, Lake Palestine, Lake Tyler, and numerous golf courses and country clubs.[18] A few miles away in Flint, TX is The WaterPark @ The Villages, a year-round, indoor water park. There is also an "Azalea Trail" in Tyler, which are two officially designated routes within the city that showcase homes or other landscaped venues adorned with azalea shrubs.[19] Tyler State Park is a few miles away where visitors can camp, canoe, and paddle boat on the lake. Activities include picnicking; camping; boating (motors allowed - 5 mph speed limit); boat rentals; fishing; birding; hiking; mountain biking and hiking trails; lake swimming (in unsupervised swimming area); and nature study. The Smith County Historical Society operates a museum and archives in the old Carnegie Library.[20] The East Texas State Fair is held annually in Tyler.[21] Lake Tyler was the location of the HGTV Dream Home contest in 2005. The 6,500 square feet (600 m²) house briefly boosted tourism and interest in the community. It subsequently was sold at public auction in January, 2008, for 1.325 million dollars.[22]

Historical[edit]

The Smith County Historical Society building is located across the street from the Tyler Public Library.

Tyler has a Cotton Belt Railroad Depot Museum located near the Chamber of Commerce office.

The Smith County Historical Society, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was founded in 1959 by individuals and business firms dedicated to discovering, collecting, and preserving data, records, and other items relating to the history of Smith County, Texas. The Society operates a museum and archives, which is located in the former Carnegie Public Library building in downtown Tyler. Permanent museum exhibits include life-size dioramas with Smith County history topics ranging from Caddo Indians to the 20th century. Other items from the society's collections are showcased in revolving, temporary exhibits. The society's archival library contains historical artifacts of Smith County, including newspapers, city directories, school records, photographs, maps, historical papers, rare books, and much more. The archives are open to the public for research on a limited schedule with volunteer staff on duty. The society is also the official caretaker of Camp Ford Historic Park.

Camp Ford was the largest Confederate Prisoner of War camp west of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. The original site of the camp stockade is a public historic park managed by the Smith County Historical Society. The park contains a kiosk, paved trail, interpretive signage, a cabin reconstruction, and a picnic area. It is located on Highway 271, 0.8 miles (1.3 km) north of Loop 323.

Transportation[edit]

Aerial photo of Tyler Pounds Regional Airport in Tyler, Texas, shot by Butler Planning Services on 9/9/2005.

As with much of modern America, the automobile is the most common form of transportation. Tyler is a nexus of several major highways. Interstate 20 runs along the north edge of the city going east and west, U.S. Highway 69 runs north-south through the center of town and State Highway 64 runs east-west through the city. Tyler also has access to U.S. Highway 271, State Highway 31, State Highway 155, and State Highway 110. Loop 323 was established in 1957 and originally encircled the city, which has continued to grow outside of this loop. Loop 49 was designed to be an "outer loop" around the city and currently runs from State Highway 110 to Interstate 20 west of Tyler. Future segments will extend Loop 49 to Interstate 20 east of Tyler and to other East Texas cities.

Public transportation[edit]

Tyler Transit provides customers with public transportation service within the City of Tyler. The buses run daily, excluding Sundays and holidays. Tyler Transit offers customers the option to purchase tickets, tokens, or passes at the Tyler Transit office, located at 210 E. Oakwood Street inside the Cotton Belt Railroad Depot at the main transfer point. The City of Tyler paratransit service is a shared-ride, public transportation service. Requests for service must be made the day before the service is needed. Trips can be scheduled up to 14 days in advance. ADA complimentary paratransit service is provided to all origins and destinations within the service area defined as the city limits of Tyler. [23] Greyhound Lines bus service is available through a downtown terminal.

Via air[edit]

Tyler Pounds Regional Airport offers service to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport via American Eagle and to Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport via Colgan Air United Express.

Via train[edit]

Tyler was the hub for a series of short-line railroads which later evolved into the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, better known as "The Cotton Belt Route". This line later became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which itself merged with the Union Pacific Railroad, which continues to serve the city today. No passenger train service to Tyler has occurred since April 1956, but Amtrak runs through the city of Mineola, a short distance north of Tyler.

Walkability[edit]

A 2014 study by Walk Score ranked Tyler with a walkability score of 32 (out of 100) with some amenities within walking distance.[24]

Healthcare[edit]

Hospitals located in Tyler include East Texas Medical Center, Trinity Mother Frances Health System, University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, and Texas Spine & Joint Hospital. There are also many clinics including the Direct Care Clinic.

First Baptist Church in downtown Tyler
Marvin United Methodist Church in Tyler
Family Life Center of West Erwin Church of Christ in Tyler

Places of worship[edit]

Tyler is the home of many churches, including five large congregations in downtown, the Marvin United Methodist Church, Dayspring United Methodist Church, West Erwin Church of Christ, First Baptist Church, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Tyler is also the seat of Catholic Diocese of Tyler, which is particularly noteworthy for its St. Joseph the Worker Parish, one of the few churches in America dedicated to the exclusive use of the Traditional Latin Mass. The parish is staffed by the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter. The city also is the home of the Cathedral of the Holy Conception and the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a 100 plus year sanctuary recently renovated and declared a historic and heritage site by the Catholic Diocese of Tyler. The Saint Peter Claver Parish located in central tyler, is the second largest Catholic Church in Tyler and was dedicated to St. Peter Claver, a Franciscan Priest that assisted the black slaves in Brasil during the slave trade to South America. There is also a Nazarene church on Old Bullard Rd called Tyler First Church Of The Nazarene.

The Our Lady or Guadalupe Catholic church in East Tyler is also a major center of gathering. The St Peter and Paul Chapel, a Catholic church, is located next to the Bishop Thomas K. Gorman Regional Catholic School was constructed and dedicated in 2013 and holds masses in English and Spanish with a significant number of other services offered to all Tyler and neighboring residents. The city's largest church, Green Acres Baptist Church, is located on Troup Highway in southeast Tyler. Tyler is also home to two reformed Baptist churches, Sylvania Church and Living Acts Church, both of which are located in the south Tyler area. Additionally, Tyler has two Jewish houses of prayer, Ahavath Achim, which associates itself with Conservative Judaism and Beth El which adheres to Reform Judaism.[25] Tyler is also home to East Texas Islamic Society, established in 1988, which includes an Islamic house of worship and an Islamic school for children.[26] There is also a Unitarian, Universalist Fellowship on Old Omen Road.

Two Tyler churches were destroyed during the 2010 East Texas church burnings.

Media[edit]

Currently, 18 media outlets and one newspaper are located in Tyler, as well as many more in the surrounding areas.

Newspaper[edit]

Television[edit]

VHF/UHF Channel
Call Letters
Network
7 KLTV ABC
19 KYTX CBS
51 KFXK-TV FOX
56 KETK NBC

Radio[edit]

AM stations[edit]

Frequency
Call Letters
Format
Name
600 KTBB News/Talk
1330 KGLD Gospel The Light
1490 KYZS

FM stations[edit]

Frequency
Call Letters
Format
Name
88.7 KLOVE Christian Contemporary KLOVE
89.5 KVNE Christian Contemporary Encouragement FM
91.3 KGLY Religious
92.1 KTBB-FM Sports ESPN East Texas
93.1 KTYL Hot Adult Contemporary Mix 93.1
96.1 KKTX Classic Rock Classic Rock 96.1
96.7 KOYE Spanish La Invasora
99.3 KAPW News/Talk/Sports 99.3 Talk FM
101.5 KNUE Country
104.1 KKUS Classic Country The Ranch
106.5 KOOI Adult Contemporary
107.3 KISX Urban Contemporary Hot1073Jamz
102.7 The Blaze Hip Hop and R&B

Sports[edit]

College and university teams[edit]

Baseball teams[edit]

  • Tyler Elbertas (1912)
  • Tyler Trojans (1924–1929, 1931, 1935–1940, 1946–1950)
  • Tyler Sports (1932)
  • Tyler Governors (1933–1934)
  • Tyler East Texans (1950–1953)
  • Tyler Tigers (1954–1955)
  • Tyler Wildcatters (1994–1997)
  • Tyler Roughnecks (2001)

Football[edit]

  • East Texas Twisters (2004)

High school sports teams[edit]

Football[edit]

  • All Saints Trojans
  • Grace Cougars
  • John Tyler Lions
  • Kings Academy Royals
  • Robert E. Lee Red Raiders
  • T.K. Gorman Crusaders
  • Tyler Heat

Notable events[edit]

Notable citizens[edit]

Entertainment[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Others[edit]

  • John E. Barrett - photographer (world-renowned images of Jim Henson and his Muppets; National Lampoon poster "Are You A Nerd?")
  • Jere Locke Beasley - born December 12, 1935, in Tyler, he was the 22nd Lieutenant Governor of Alabama when Governor George Corley Wallace was shot and severely injured in an assassination attempt in Laurel, Maryland, on May 15, 1972. Since Wallace was out-of-state for more than 20 days, recovering in a Maryland hospital, the Alabama Constitution required the lieutenant governor to take over gubernatorial duties in the interim. Beasley, a Democrat, hence served as the acting governor of Alabama from June 5 to July 7, 1972.
  • Leo Berman - Republican former member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 6
  • Josh Byerly - NASA spokesman and one of the "voices of Mission Control"
  • Jo-Carroll Dennison - Miss America 1942, the first Miss Texas to win the national title
  • James T. Draper, Jr. - president of the Southern Baptist Convention from 1982 to 1984, was a pastor in Tyler in the early 1960s.
  • David O. Dykes - pastor of Green Acres Baptist Church in Tyler
  • Kevin Eltife - Republican member of the Texas Senate from Tyler
  • Jonna Fitzgerald - former Miss Texas, runner-up in Miss America pageant, television news anchor, noted musician
  • Brady P. Gentry - former Chairman Texas State Highway Commission; former US Congressman; the gymnasium at Tyler Junior College named after him
  • Louie Gohmert - Republican U.S. representative and former Smith County judge
  • William Wayne Justice - Democrat U.S. District Court Judge in Tyler for 30 years - made countless key decisions on environment and civil rights
  • Matt Krause - Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Fort Worth; born in Tyler in 1980
  • Sarah McClendon - Democrat journalist and White House correspondent for over half a century, longest tenure ever in the White House press corps
  • Frank Melton (1949-2009) - born in Houston, he became general manager in 1977 of KLTV in Tyler, where he climbed the ranks before becoming president of Buford Television, Inc. He served as mayor of Jackson, Mississippi, from July 4, 2005, until his death on May 7, 2009.
  • Allen R. Morris - born in Dallas, he is an Emmy Award-winning producer/director/writer. For a period, he worked for Buford Television at KLTV in Tyler, as Operations Manager and Director of Creative Services, during which time he was also a frequent actor at the Tyler Civic Theatre (1979 to 1990).
  • Albert Parsons (1848-1887) – born in Alabama, he at one point resided in Tyler, where he was reared by his eldest brother, William Henry Parsons. William moved the family moved from Tyler in the mid-1850s. Albert is best remembered as one of four Chicago radical leaders convicted of conspiracy and hanged following a bomb attack on police remembered as the Haymarket Affair.
  • Matt Schaefer (born 1976) - Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Tyler since 2013; lawyer and United States Navy officer
  • Dan Smoot (1913-2003) - figure in the anti-communist movement; spent later years at Holly Lake Ranch in Smith County, where he died at the age of eighty-nine
  • William Steger (1920-2006) - Republican U.S. District Court judge for the Eastern District of Texas, based in Tyler, from 1970 until his death. The William M. Steger Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Tyler was named in his honor in 2006.
  • Kelley Thompson- born December 8, 1987 in Tyler, Playboy Playmate for November 2009
  • Ned Touchstone (1926–1988) - born in Florien, Louisiana, he was a figure in the Radical Right of the 1960s and 1970s. At the time of death, he resided on Lake Palestine near Tyler.
  • Brian Werner - born in Norwood, Ohio, co-founder of Tiger Creek Wildlife Refuge, located near Tyler.
  • Randell “Randy” C. Roberts born December 17, 1954, is a Texas personal injury attorney and author. Roberts has won lawsuits against large corporations such as Bridgestone/Firestone, Inc. on behalf of his clients through the law firm he founded, Roberts & Roberts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ http://www.cityoftyler.org/Departments/PlanningDepartment/CityDemographics.aspx
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ http://www.cityoftyler.org/Portals/0/docs/Departments/Planning%20Department/Tyler%201st/Population.pdf
  7. ^ City of Tyler CAFR. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
  8. ^ http://cityoftyler.org/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=76
  9. ^ Northeast Texas Public Health District website. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
  10. ^ "Contact Information." Twelfth Eleventh Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
  11. ^ "Parole Division Region I." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  12. ^ "Post Office Location - TYLER." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  13. ^ "Post Office Location - AZALEA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  14. ^ "Post Office Location - SOUTHEAST CROSSING." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  15. ^ "Post Office Location - SOUTH TYLER ANNEX." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  16. ^ City of Tyler 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, p. 136. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  17. ^ Until Now[dead link]
  18. ^ Navarro, Edward (2006). "It's Tee Time in Tyler". Images of Tyler (Journal Communications, Inc.) 1: 57. 
  19. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Tyler Azalea Trail. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  20. ^ "Smith County Historical Society". Smith County Historical Society. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  21. ^ "East Texas State Fair". Etstatefair.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  22. ^ "HGTV Dream Home Sold, $1.325 Million". Kltv.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  23. ^ "Tyler Transit". Cityoftyler.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  24. ^ "City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Tyler, Texas", found in the Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities,
  26. ^ "East Texas Islamic Society". Tylermuslims.com. 1988-05-29. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  27. ^ Palestine Herald Press. February 3, 2009. 
  28. ^ "An Update From Max". blogs.myspace.com/sayanything. 2009-05-20. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Austin, Gladys Peters, Along the Century Trail: Early History of Tyler, Texas (Dallas: Avalon Press, 1946)
  • Burton, Morris Tyler as an Early Railroad Center, Chronicles of Smith County, Spring 1963
  • Betts, Vicki, Smith County, Texas, in the Civil War (Tyler, Texas: Smith County Historical Society, 1978)
  • Everett, Dianna, The Texas Cherokees: A People between Two Fires, 1819–1840 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990)
  • Glover, ed., Robert W., Tyler and Smith County, Texas (n.p.: Walsworth, 1976)
  • Henderson, Adele, Smith County, Texas: Its Background and History in Ante-Bellum Days (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1926)
  • McDonald, Archie P. Historic Smith County (Historical Publishing Network, 2006).
  • Reed, Robert E. Jr. Images of America: Tyler (Arcadia Publishing, 2008).
  • Reed, Robert E. Jr. Postcard History: Tyler (Arcadia Publishing, 2009).
  • Smith County Historical Society, Historical Atlas of Smith County (Tyler, Texas: Tyler Print Shop, 1965)
  • Whisenhunt, Donald W. comp., Chronological History of Smith County (Tyler, Texas: Smith County Historical Society, 1983)
  • Woldert, Albert, A History of Tyler and Smith County (San Antonio: Naylor, 1948)

External links[edit]