Tylopilus

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Tylopilus
Tylopilus felleus 060914c.jpg
Tylopilus felleus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Boletales
Family: Boletaceae
Genus: Tylopilus
P.Karst. (1881)
Type species
Tylopilus felleus
(Bull.) P.Karst. (1881)
Synonyms[4]

Tylopilus is a large genus of around 75 species of mycorrhizal bolete fungi separated from Boletus. Its best known member is the bitter bolete (Tylopilus felleus), the only species found in Europe. More species are found in North America, such as the edible species Tylopilus chromapes and T. alboater, and the tropics. Australia is another continent where many species are found. All members of the genus form mycorrhizal relationships with trees. Members of the genus are distinguished by their pinkish pore surfaces.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus was first defined by Petter Adolf Karsten in 1881.[5] Tylopilus means "bumpy or swollen pileus",[6] from the Greek tylos "bump" and pilos "hat".[7] There are approximately 75 species in the genus,[8] 40 of which are found in western North America.[6] A large number have been recorded from Australia, with 26 aligned with existing taxa and another 15 not assignable. Members of the genus are also abundant in South America, particularly in forests with trees of the genus Dicymbe in Guyana, as well as Central America and elsewhere across tropical regions around the world.[9] All are mycorrhizal.

Molecular analysis indicates the genus, like other large genera within the Boletales, is polyphyletic.[10] A lineage of Tylopilus chromapes (now Harrya chromapes and related species) has been shown to be only distantly related to other members of Tylopilus. Hence T. chromapes is now the type species of the new genus Harrya and, related to it, several Australian species moved to Australopilus.[11]

Description[edit]

Fruit bodies of the genus Tylopilus are encountered as large stout bolete mushrooms, which generally arise from the ground or occasionally from wood. They have stout stipes, which do not have a ring.[6] A key field character which distinguishes them from members of the genus Boletus is the presence of their pink-tinged pores (though these may be white when young).[12] The "pink pore" feature is a polyphyletic morphology that does not unite the Tylopilus species using traditional morphological characters (Smith and Thiers or Singer's concepts). The spore print manifests various shades of pinkish-brown, through reddish-brown and even chocolate brown.[6]

Edibility[edit]

Many species have a bitter taste and are inedible,[6] a key feature in identification.[12] The black velvet bolete (T. alboater) is edible and tasty, but often ignored.[6]

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bataille F. (1908). "Quelques champignons intéressants des environs de Besançon" [Rare mushrooms in the vicinity of Besançon]. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle du Doubs (in French) 15: 23–61. 
  2. ^ Beck G. (1923). "Versuch einer systematischen Gliederung der Gattung Boletus L. em.". Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde (in German) 2 (7): 141–49. 
  3. ^ Snell WH. (1942). "New proposals relating to the genera of the Boletaceae". Mycologia 34 (4): 403–11. 
  4. ^ "Tylopilus P. Karst. 1881". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 30 Aug 2011. 
  5. ^ Karsten, Petter A. (1881). "Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum". Revue mycologique, Toulouse 3 (9): 16–19. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Bessette AR, Bessette A, Roody WC. (2000). North American Boletes: A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-8156-0588-9. 
  7. ^ Nilson S, Persson O. (1977). Fungi of Northern Europe 1: Larger Fungi (Excluding Gill-Fungi). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. pp. 102–03. ISBN 0-14-063005-8. 
  8. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 710. ISBN 0-85199-826-7. 
  9. ^ Watling, Roy (2001). "Australian Boletes: their Diversity and Possible Origins". Australian Systematic Botany 14 (3): 407–16. doi:10.1071/SB99031. 
  10. ^ Binder, Manfred; Hibbett, David S. (2006). "Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales" (PDF) 98 (6). pp. 971–81. 
  11. ^ Halling RE, Nuhn M, Osmundson T, Fechner N, Trappe JM, Soytong K, Arora D, Hibbett DS, Binder M. (2012). "Affinities of the Boletus chromapes group to Royoungia and the description of two new genera, Harrya and Australopilus". Australian Systematic Botany 25: 418–31. doi:10.1071/SB12028. 
  12. ^ a b Kuo, Michael (March 2005). "The genus Tylopilus". Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  13. ^ Takahashi H. (2002). "Two new species and one new combination of Agaricales from Japan". Mycoscience 43 (5): 397–403. doi:10.1007/s102670200058. 
  14. ^ Takahashi H. (2007). "Five new species of the Boletaceae from Japan". Mycoscience 48 (2): 90–9. doi:10.1007/s10267-006-0332-6p. 

External links[edit]