Type 052D destroyer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Class overview
Builders: Changxingdao-Jiangnan Shipyard
Operators:  People's Liberation Army Navy
Preceded by: Type 052C
Succeeded by: Type 055
Building: 6
Planned: 12
Completed: 2
Active: 1
General characteristics
Tonnage: 7500 tons fully loaded.
Length: 156 m
Beam: 18 m
Draught: 6.5 m
Propulsion: CODOG
Two QC-280 gas turbine engines, each generates 28MW of power and two MTU 20V 956TB92 diesel engines, each generates 6 MW of power.
Speed: 30 knots
Complement: 280
Sensors and
processing systems:
Type 348 targeting radar
Type 517HA VHF search radar [1]
Armament: 1 x H/PJ-38 130mm dual purpose gun
1 x 24 Cell FL3000N CIWS
64 VLS for surface to air missiles, cruise missiles, anti submarine missiles, anti ship missiles, some of which can be quad packed
2 x 30 mm remote controlled gun
H/PJ-12 / 1 x Type 730 CIWS
6 torpedo tubes
4 x 18-tube decoy rocket launcher
Aviation facilities: Stern hangar
Helicopter landing platform

The Type 052D destroyer (NATO code name Luyang III class, or Kunming class after the lead ship) is a class of guided missile destroyers being deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy.

After the Type 052C destroyer (NATO code name Luyang II class, or Lanzhou class after the lead ship), two new hulls were spotted under construction at Changxingdao-Jiangnan Shipyard (JNCX) in August 2012. According to the picture, they were armed with a new 130mm main gun and new AESA radar system. Altogether six vessels of this class are now fitting out or under construction, with a further four on order or planned, one vessel on sea trial and one vessel active.

Design[edit]

The layout of the Type 052D is similar to the earlier Type 052C, but the superstructure of the Type 052D slopes inward at a greater angle, providing superior stealth. The helicopter hangar on the Type 052D is moved to the center, as opposed to being on the left like on the Type 052C. A pair of enclosed boat/raft launching systems similar to that of the Type 054A frigate is added, with one on each side of the helicopter hangar. The Type 517HA VHF radar mast is moved toward the stern of the ship. There are several mounting sites for a new single barrel 30 mm stealthy gun mount that is fully automated. The addition of this small caliber weapon is presumably for the need to counter non-conventional threats such as potential terrorist attacks and anti-piracy operations, but as of the end of 2012, no 30mm gun mounts have been observed to be installed on the hull yet.

Due to the greater angle of superstructure slope, more space was made available for the active phased array radar (APAR), which first appeared in June 2012 onboard PLAN experimental ship Bi Sheng.[2] It is believed that this new APAR is a development of Type 348 Radar mounted on the Type 052C. One of the main differences is that the size of the new array is larger, so presumably there are more transceivers on each array. Another obvious difference is that the curvature resulted in the need for air circulation on earlier APAR on Type 052C is gone, so it is believed that the new APAR on Type 052D must have adopted a pure liquid cooling system instead of the mixed air and liquid cooling system on earlier APAR on board Type 052C.[3]

Vertical Launching System[edit]

The Type 052D has a brand new vertical launching system (VLS) for surface-to-air missiles, cruise missiles, anti-submarine missiles, and anti-ship missiles, and is capable of quad-packing missiles and cold launch; it is the third type of Chinese VLS system identified, after the circular version of VLS on Type 052C destroyer and the rectangular version on Type 054A frigate.[4] The VLS system on Type 052D differs from that on Type 052C. The circular-shaped VLS system on Type 052C is replaced by the VLS with rectangular cells on Type 052D.[5] Moreover, this box-like VLS looks different from the VLS system of Type 054A.[6] Photos show that Type 052D's VLS system does not contain the shared exhaust vents between the rows of launching tubes,[7] which is the common feature of Type 054A's VLS.[8] Instead, the VLS on Type 052D looks more similar to the American Mk 41 VLS, but without obvious indication of exhausts. The lack of exhaust vents in the leaked photos leads to some Chinese internet forums postulating the cold launch method is adopted on Type 052D, but such claims cannot be confirmed by independent or official sources.

Other sources on Chinese internet forums state that the difference between the VLS on Type 052D and VLS on Type 054A is simply a rearrangement of exhaust to a different location and Type 052D is still utilizing the hot launch method like Type 054A, but used a more advanced method of concentric canister launch (CCL) system (同心筒式垂直发射系统),[9] first pioneered by USA in the mid-1990 for Mk 41 VLS upgrade. This second claim appears more probable than the cold launch claims, because official Chinese sources have confirmed the existence of CCL VLS developmental program headed by the School of Mechatronics Engineering of Beijing Institute of Technology, and various research papers have been publicized, such as the effect of the flow mechanism and annular size of CCL and others.[10][11] It is reported that chief designers of Chinese CCL VLS included Professor Yuan Zenfeng (袁曾凤), Professor Miao Peiyun (苗佩云) and professor Liang Shijie (梁世杰). When using CCL method, the flame produced in hot launch is diverted through the space between the inner and outer canisters within each individual VLS cell, so no specially dedicated exhaust shared by several cells are needed, thus similar to how British vertical launched (VL) Sea Wolf missile operates,[12] and this is why CCL VLS can be mistaken for cold launch due to the lack of dedicated exhaust sandwiched between two rolls of cells in traditional VLS, while in reality, the exhaust of CCL VLS is within each individual cell.

What is also confirmed by semi-official sources in China is that the VLS on Type 052D is built to GJB 5860-2006 standard (GJB = Guo-jia Jun-yong Biao-zhun, 国家军用标准, "National Military Standard"),[13] so that different types of missiles can be launched by a single launching system.[14] According to some of the publicized examples of GJB 5860-2006 requirement, there are 3 types of VLS that differs in length: 9 meter, 7 meter and 3.3 meter respectively (section 5.1.3), but the diameter is same for all, 850 mm maximum (section 6.1.2), with each launching tube filled with either dry air or nitrogen inside (section 6.1.4), and with higher internal pressure. (section 6.1.4). Similar to U.S. Navy's MK 41, a launching module includes 8 launching tubes (section 5.2.4), and each tube can house 1~4 missiles (section 5.2.4). Each launching model has a launching control unit (section 5.3.7), which can simultaneously launch up to 4 missiles of different kind (section 5.3.6). The launching control unit must have built-in test/diagnostic function (section 5.3.8). These publicized portions of GJB 5860-2006 are surprisingly similar to that of Mk 41 VLS,[15] which prompt some Chinese internet sources to claim that there are potential future export of such system so that it has to comply to Mk 41 VLS, the most widely used VLS in the world.

Naval Gun[edit]

Another improvement of the Type 052D is that the Type H/PJ87 100 mm gun on the Type 052C is replaced by a new single barrel 130 mm gun, designated as the Type H/PJ38.[16]

Data Link[edit]

Sources on the Chinese Internet have stated that Type 052D is equipped with a newest Chinese data link which has just completed national certification in Jun 2012 and publicized by the end of year.[17] Designated as JSIDLS (Joint Service Integrated Data Link System, 全军综合数据链系统), this is the Chinese equivalent of Link 16,[18] a significant improvement of earlier HN-900 which is the Chinese equivalent of Link 11/TADIL-A[19] installed on Type 052C. The general designer of JSIDLS is Major General Wang Jianxi (王建新), who was the also head of the research institute of the People's Liberation Army General Staff Department assigned as primary contractor of JSIDLS. More than 300 establishments and 8000 people were involved in the development of JSIDLS, and it won State Science and Technology Prizes after completion.[20]

Chinese "Aegis"[edit]

Chinese media informally designate the Type 052D as "Zhonghuashendun / 中华神盾" which means "Chinese Aegis". The new destroyer is equipped with a flat-array AESA radar, a 64-cell VLS and modern long-range anti-air missiles. The destroyer is expected to have capabilities similar to those of a U.S. Navy Arleigh Burke-class destroyer.[21]

There is speculation that the radar systems on Type 052D destroyers are able to detect stealth fighter aircraft, particularly the American F-35 Lightning II. Russian sources claim the ship's AESA radar can detect, track, and launch weapons against the F-35 at a range of 350 km (220 mi; 190 nmi). The range may be exaggerated, given the ship's HQ-9B SAMs have an estimated effective range of only 200 km (120 mi; 110 nmi), but it may be capable of detecting the F-35 if the Type 346 radar is an S-band radar like the American SPY-1 radar. Tactical stealth fighters are optimized to be undetectable from higher-frequency radar bands such the C, X, and Ku, but features like the tail-fin may make it susceptible to lower S or L-band frequencies. Even so, much depends on the distance between the ship and aircraft and the strength of the return of the omni-directional signal, meaning a target may not be picked up at a tactically significant distance. L-band and most S-bands have resolution cells that cannot generate quality targets for weapons tracking, even if it is detected. However, the SPY-1 and Air and Missile Defense Radar operate in higher frequency portions of the S-band and are able to generate weapons quality tracks, so Chinese systems could be similar. China is also suspected to be reducing the size of the large radar resolution cells by connecting multiple low-frequency radars through high-speed data-networks, which has the potential to refine resolution enough for tracking a missile to the target.[22]

Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 172 昆明 / Kunming Jiangnan-Changxing 28 August 2012 21 March 2014 South Sea Fleet Active
2 173 长沙 / Changsha Jiangnan-Changxing 28 December 2012 End of 2014 South Sea Fleet Sea trial
3 174 贵阳 / Guiyang Jiangnan-Changxing 1 July 2013 Early 2015 South Sea Fleet Fitting out
4 175 成都 / Chengdu Jiangnan-Changxing 30 March 2014 End of 2015 South Sea Fleet Fitting out
5 154 合肥 / Hefei Jiangnan-Changxing 27 August 2014 Early 2016 East Sea Fleet Fitting out
6 155 南京 / Nanjing Jiangnan-Changxing Early 2015 End of 2016 East Sea Fleet Under Construction
7 117 银川 / Yinchuan Dalian-Liaonan 2015? 2017? North Sea Fleet Under Construction
8 118 太原 / Taiyuan Dalian-Liaonan 2015? 2017? North Sea Fleet Under Construction
9 156 To be determined Jiangnan-Changxing 2015 2017 East Sea Fleet Ordered
10 157 To be determined Jiangnan-Changxing 2016 2017 East Sea Fleet Ordered
11 119 To be determined Dalian-Liaonan 2016? 2018? North Sea Fleet Ordered
12 120 To be determined Dalian-Liaonan 2016? 2018? North Sea Fleet Ordered

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]