Type 10

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This article is about a modern main battle tank for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. For the World War II Japanese infantry mortar, see Type 10 Grenade Discharger.
Type 10 Hitomaru
JGSDF Type10 Tank of the 1st Armored Training Unit, Eastern Army Combined Brigade. In Camp Takeyama, Japan.
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin Japan
Service history
In service 2012–present
Production history
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Unit cost $8.4 million (2014)
Produced 2010 (in production)
Number built 66 (FY 2010–2014)
Weight 44 tonnes (standard) 48 tonnes (fully)
Length 9.485 m
Width 3.24 m
Height 2.30 m
Crew 3 (commander, gunner and driver)

Armor Nano-crystal steel (Triple Hardness Steel), modular ceramic composite armor, light-weight upper armor.
Japan Steel Works 120 mm smoothbore cannon with automatic loader
M2HB 12.7 mm machine gun
Type 74 7.62 mm machine gun
Engine 4-stroke cycle V8 Diesel engine
1,200 hp/2,300 rpm
Power/weight 27 hp/tonne
Transmission Continuously variable transmission (Hydraulic Mechanical Transmission)
Suspension Hydropneumatic Active suspension
400 km
Speed Forward: 70 km/h
Backward: 70 km/h[1]

The Type 10 (10式戦車 Hitomaru-shiki sensha?) is a 4th generation main battle tank that the Japan Ground Self Defense Force has been equipped with, and boasts significant enhancements in its capability to respond to anti-tank warfare, mobile strikes, special operations force attacks, and other contingencies.[2]


The TK-X (MBT-X) project aims to produce the new Type 10 main battle tank, to replace or complement the existing Type 74 and Type 90 main battle tanks that are currently in service with the Japan Ground Self Defense Force. Development began in the 1990s, and production was expected to start in 2010–2011. A prototype was revealed on February 13, 2008 at the Technology Research and Development Institute (TRDI) in Sagamihara. Heavy emphasis was placed on C4I capabilities as well as on performance, firepower, protection and mobility.[3]



The use of modular components significantly improves the side armor compared to the Type 90. The Commander's Panoramic Sight has been moved to the right and is located at a higher position than the Type 90, giving the commander a wide range of view.

The vehicle's armor consists of modular sections, providing the ability to mount varying degrees of protection depending on the mission profile as well as weight requirements. Vehicle weight is about 40 tonnes with the base configuration, and 48 tonnes when fully equipped. The prototype featured in 2008 at TRDI weighed 44 tonnes.[4]


Type 10 Main Battle Tank uses 120 mm smoothbore gun which was newly developed by Japan Steel Works. Japan Steel Works also manufactures Rheinmetall L44 120 mm smoothbore gun for the Type 90 MBT under licence.[5] There is an option for longer barrels of 50 and 55 calibers (L50, L55). The gun will fire newly developed APFSDS which is a significant increase compared to JM33 APFSDS. Type 10 can fire JM33 APFSDS or all standard 120 mm NATO ammunition. However, Type 10 APFSDS cannot be fired except by Type 10's gun.[6]


The Type 10 tank is equipped with C4I system (Command, Control, Communication, Computer & Intelligence). This can be incorporated into the JGSDF network to enable sharing of information among tanks, as well as connected to the infantry's outdoor computer network "Regiment Command Control System" (ReCS) to facilitate integrated military operations with the infantry troops.[2] Other features are as follows:

  • Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)[7] that allows the tank to reach 70 km/h forward as well as reverse.
  • Autoloader with crew of three (Commander and gunner in the turret, driver in the hull).
  • Hydropneumatic active suspension,[7] which allows it to adjust its stance and absorbs recoil when firing.
  • Day/night sights mounted around the turret, providing a full 360° coverage as well as providing input to the C4I system.[4]


The development costs as of 2008 are approximately JPY ¥48,400M (approximately USD $447M). Each unit is expected to cost approximately ¥700M ($6.5M).[4]

The Japanese Ministry of Defense formally acknowledged the Type 10 in December 2009. In 2010, the Japanese Ministry of Defense placed a ¥12,400M order for thirteen Type 10 tanks (Unit cost: ¥954M).[8]

These Type 10 tanks entered JGSDF service in January, 2012.[9]


On 4 January 2014, sources revealed that Turkey was interested in signing a joint development deal of tank engines based on the Type 10's engine. The Type 10 tank boasts of high mobility, including a backward movement speed of 70 km/h (43 mph).[10] The engine was to power the Turkish Altay indigenous tank. However, negotiations broke down and the deal was "off the agenda" by March 2014. Reasons included Japan's stringent arms export ban laws, the intention of Turkey to attempt to export the Altay, and Japan’s reluctance to license the joint engine.[11]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ 10式戦車 走行展示 Type10 Tank, Japan's new MBT. YouTube. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Introduction of the aircraft Type 10 tank -Japanese Ministry of Defense, Japan Defense Focus No.33 Column, Oct 2012
  3. ^ Japanese Ministry of Defense Technology Research and Development Institute (TRDI)http://www.mod.go.jp/trdi/en/programs/ground/ground.html
  4. ^ a b c Type 10 MBT-X Prototype (TK-X). GlobalSecurity.org
  5. ^ "Type 10 Tank of Japan Ground Self Defense Force". Global Military Review. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Japanese MOF report
  7. ^ a b "Accelerating Defence Acquisition: What Defence Can Learn From the World of Motorsport" RUSI Defence Systems, June 2008, pp. 81–82
  8. ^ Based on the production of thirteen Type 10 tanks during FY2010
  9. ^ "時事ドットコム:動画特集 陸上自衛隊「10式戦車」入魂式=量産型1号車に機甲の魂を注入". 時事ドットコム. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  10. ^ Japan is looking to develop an engine for main battle tank in collaboration with Turkey – Armyrecognition.com, 7 January 2014
  11. ^ Japan Deal Scrapped, Turkey Looking for Tank Engine – Defensenews.com, 5 March 2014


External links[edit]