Type 22 frigate
HMS Cornwall transiting the Persian Gulf in 2007
|Builders:||Yarrow (Shipbuilders) Ltd,
|Operators:|| Royal Navy (former operator)
Romanian Naval Forces
|Preceded by:||Type 21|
|Succeeded by:||Type 23|
|Subclasses:||Batch 1 Broadsword
Batch 2 Boxer
Batch 3 Cornwall
|In commission:||3 May 1979 – 30 June 2011|
|Active:||6 (with Brazil, Romania and Chile)|
|Retired:||8 (2 sunk as targets)|
|Displacement:||Batch 1: 4,400 tonnes, standard
Batch 2: 4,800 tonnes, standard
Batch 3: 5,300 tonnes, standard
|Length:||Batch 1: 131.2 m (430 feet)
Batch 2: 146.5 m (480 feet)
Batch 3: 148.1 m (486 feet)
|Beam:||14.8 m (48 feet)|
|Draft:||Batch 1: 6.1 m (20 feet)
Batch 2 & 3: 6.4 m (21 feet)
Batch 1 & 2: 2-shaft COGOG
Batch 3 & Brave: 2-shaft COGAG
|Speed:||30 knots (56 km/h (full))
18 knots (33.3 km/h (cruise))
|Complement:||Batch 1: 222
Batch 2: 273
Batch 3: 250
Royal Navy Batch 3 were armed with;
1–2× Lynx Mk.8, armed with;
|Aviation facilities:||Flight deck and hangar|
The Type 22 Broadsword class was a class of frigate built for the British Royal Navy. Fourteen of the class were built in total, with production divided into three batches. HMS Cornwall was the last Royal Navy Type 22 frigate, retired from service on 30 June 2011.
Seven ships of the earlier batches have been sold to Brazil, Romania and Chile. Six of these remain in service and one was sold for scrap. Of the decommissioned vessels, two were sunk as targets, and five sold for scrap.
It was originally envisaged that all Type 22s would have names beginning with 'B' (Broadsword, etc.), following the 'A' names used for Type 21s (Amazon, etc.). This changed after the Falklands War when two replacement ships were ordered for the destroyers sunk (Sheffield and Coventry) and were named to commemorate them. Another vessel ordered earlier but not yet started, which was to be named "Bloodhound" was renamed "London".
The alphabetical progression was re-established with the Batch 3 ships (Cornwall, etc.) before being temporarily abandoned with the Type 23 class, named after Dukedoms (Norfolk, Lancaster, etc.). The Royal Navy's latest escort class (the Type 45 or Daring class) have re-introduced the alphabetical progression, using destroyer names from the 1930s and 1950s.
The names selected for the four Batch 3 ships were a mixture: two, Cornwall and Cumberland, revived County-class names previously carried both by First World War-era armoured cruisers, and by Second World War-era heavy cruisers. The other Batch 3s, Chatham and Campbeltown, were Town names, the former reviving a 1911 light cruiser name, and the latter commemorating the most famous of the US destroyers transferred to the Royal Navy in 1940; the name for HMS Chatham was selected as a salute to the Medway town, where the naval dockyard, established in 1570, had closed in 1984.
The Type 22 was designed to be a specialist anti-submarine warfare vessel as part of the Royal Navy's contribution to NATO. During Royal Navy service they evolved into general purpose frigate with weapons for use against other surface ships, aircraft and submarines. They were built in three batches giving rise to three sub-classes, the first Broadsword of four ships, the second Boxer of six ships and the third and final, Cornwall of four ships.
The four Broadswords (which included two Falklands War veterans) were sold to Brazil in the mid 1990s. Romania has acquired and modernised two of the Batch 2 ships, while a third was purchased by Chile.
Following the cancellation of the aircraft carrier programme CVA-01 in 1966, the Royal Navy undertook a reappraisal of the surface fleet, and concluded that the following five new ship types were required:
- A cruiser-type ship to operate large ASW helicopters (this requirement eventually led to the Invincible class carriers);
- An air defence destroyer smaller and cheaper than the 'County' class (this resulted in the Type 42 programme);
- A missile-armed frigate as an eventual successor to the Type 12 Leander class (this requirement led to the Type 22);
- A cheap patrol frigate (this requirement led to the Type 21); and
- A dual-role MCMV successor to the 'Ton' class (this resulted in the 'Hunt' class)
Of these, the air defence destroyer appeared to had been given highest priority, the imperative being to get Sea Dart to sea in numbers to replace the air defence capability which would be lost with the retirement of the carrier fleet.
Visually, the Type 12 lineage in the Type 22 design is less than obvious, though there are said to be similarities in the underwater hull form. Due to the workload of the Admiralty design department in the 1960s, a private design (Type 21) was purchased as an interim stop-gap whilst the Type 22 was under development. The design process, already hampered by the priority given to the Type 21 and the urgently needed Type 42, was further protracted by attempts to produce a common Anglo-Dutch design. The first Type 22 order was placed in 1972 with Yarrow Shipbuilders; Yarrow undertook much of the detailed design work whilst overall responsibility remained with the Ship Department at Bath.
The length of the first four Type 22s was dictated by the dimensions of the undercover Frigate Refit Complex at Devonport Dockyard. The ships would be powered by a combination of Olympus and Tyne gas turbines in a COGOG (COmbined Gas turbine Or Gas turbine) arrangement. Machinery spaces were sited as far aft as possible to minimise shaft lengths. The after configuration was dictated by the requirement for a large hangar and a full-width flight deck.
Weapons fit was determined by the primary ASW role combined with a perceived need for a general purpose capability. The principal ASW weapons systems were the ship's Lynx helicopter and triple torpedo tubes (STWS), with 2087 towed array sonar a key part of the sensors fit. Air defence was provided in the form of two 'six-pack' launchers for the Seawolf (GWS 25) point-defence missile system. Surface warfare requirements were met by the provision of four Exocet SSM launchers, the standard RN fit at that time.
The Broadsword design was unique to the Royal Navy in lacking a main gun armament. Although some of the Leander class frigates had lost their main gun during upgrades, Broadsword was the first to be designed from the beginning without a main cannon. This changed with the introduction of the Batch III ships.
Ordering of Type 22s proceeded slowly, in part because of the comparatively high unit cost of the ships. The unit cost of the last Type 12Ms had been about £10m; Type 21s cost around £20m each; when the first Type 22s were ordered, unit costs were estimated at £30m though, by the time that the first ship (HMS Broadsword) commissioned in 1979, inflation had driven this figure up to £68m, which was far higher than the cost of the contemporary Type 42s (HMS Glasgow, also commissioned in 1979, cost £40m).
After the first four ("Batch I") ships, the design was "stretched", with the Frigate Refit Complex suitably enlarged. Visually, and in addition to the increase in length, the biggest difference was the sharply raked stem, usually indicative of bow sonar (though none of the Batch II ships was thus fitted). An important addition to the Batch II group was a new Computer Assisted Command System (CACS-1), replacing the CAAIS fitted to the Batch I ships. A revised machinery installation was adopted from HMS Brave onwards, with Spey turbines replacing the previous Olympus. The future machinery arrangement would be COGAG (Combined Gas turbine And Gas turbine). By 1982, the quoted unit cost of a Type 22 had risen to £127m.
This might have been the end of the Type 22 programme had it not been for the Falklands War (1982), in which the two ships of the class present (Broadsword and Brilliant) acquitted themselves well. Replacements for ships lost in the South Atlantic were all of this class.
The last four ships of the class (the Batch III ships Cornwall, Cumberland, Campbeltown and Chatham) were of a greatly improved design. Reflecting lessons learned in the Falklands, the weapons fit was changed, becoming more optimised to a general warfare role; the only major weapon system shared with the previous vessels was the pair of six-cell Seawolf launchers. The ships were fitted with the 4.5" (114m) gun, primarily for NGS (Naval Gunfire Support for land forces). Exocet was replaced by the superior Harpoon with eight GWS 60 missile launchers fitted laterally abaft the bridge, and each ship would carry a Goalkeeper CIWS (Close-In Weapon System).
In their final form, the Type 22s were the largest frigates ever built for the Royal Navy – the follow-on Type 23 class would be appreciably smaller ships. Reflecting this, Type 22s were often deployed as flagships for NATO Task Groups.
Construction and running costs
|Pennant||Name||(a) Hull builder||Ordered||Laid down||Launched||Accepted into service||Commissioned||Est. building cost|
|F88||Broadsword||Yarrow, Glasgow||8 February 1974||7 February 1975||12 May 1976||21 February 1979||4 May 1979||£68.6M|
|F89||Battleaxe||Yarrow, Glasgow||5 September 1975||4 February 1976||18 May 1977||20 December 1979||28 March 1980||£69.2M|
|F90||Brilliant||Yarrow, Glasgow||7 September 1976||25 March 1977||15 December 1978||10 April 1981||15 May 1981||£102.2M|
|F91||Brazen||Yarrow, Glasgow||21 October 1977||18 August 1978||4 March 1980||11 June 1982||2 July 1982||£112M|
|F92||Boxer||Yarrow, Glasgow||25 April 1979||1 November 1979||17 June 1981||23 September 1983||22 December 1983||£147M|
|F93||Beaver||Yarrow, Glasgow||25 April 1979||20 June 1980||8 May 1982||18 July 1984||13 December 1984||£148M|
|F94||Brave||Yarrow, Glasgow||27 August 1981||24 May 1982||19 November 1983||21 February 1986||4 July 1986||£166M|
|Yarrow, Glasgow||23 February 1982||7 February 1983||27 October 1984||6 February 1987||5 June 1987||£159M|
|Swan Hunter, Wallsend.||2 July 1982||29 March 1984||26 March 1986||25 March 1988||26 July 1988||£151M|
|Swan Hunter, Wallsend.||14 December 1982||29 March 1984||8 April 1986||1 July 1988||14 October 1988||£147M|
|F99||Cornwall||Yarrow, Glasgow||14 December 1982||19 September 1983||14 October 1985||19 February 1988||23 April 1988||£131.05M|
|F85||Cumberland||Yarrow, Glasgow||27 October 1984||12 October 1984||21 June 1986||18 November 1988||10 June 1989||£141.17M|
|F86||Campbeltown||Cammell Laird, Birkenhead||January 1985||4 December 1985||7 October 1987||24 February 1989||27 May 1989||£161.97M|
|F87||Chatham||Swan Hunter, Wallsend.||28 January 1985||12 May 1986||20 January 1988||4 May 1990||£175.28M|
On 11 January 1985, Mr. Dalyell asked the Secretary of State for Defence: "what is the latest cost estimate of a type 22 frigate, with stores, spare parts and ammunition." The Secretary of State for Defence, Mr. Lee, replied: "The average cost of a batch III type 22 frigate is currently estimated at about £140 million at 1984–85 prices. The cost of embarked helicopters, the first outfit of stores, spare parts and ammunition are estimated at about £18 million at the same price level."
|Date||Running cost||What is included||Citation|
|1981–82||£11.0 million||Average annual running cost of Type 22s at average 1981–82 prices and including associated aircraft costs but excluding the costs of major refits.|||
|1985–86||£12 million||The average cost of running and maintaining a type 22 frigate for one year.|||
|1987–88||£4.8 million||The average annual operating costs, at financial year 1987–88 prices of a type 22 frigate. These costs include personnel, fuel, spares and so on, and administrative support services, but exclude new construction, capital equipment, and refit-repair costs.|||
|2001–02||£11.9 million||Type 22 Batch 3 frigate, average annual operating costs, based on historic costs over each full financial year. The figures include manpower, maintenance, fuel, stores and other costs (such as harbour dues), but exclude depreciation and cost of capital.|||
|2007–08||£32.45 million||"The annual operating cost for the Type 22 Class of Frigates, which comprises four ships, is £129.8M. This is based on information primarily from Financial Year 07/08 the last year for which this information is available, and includes typical day-to-day costs such as fuel and manpower and general support costs covering maintenance, repair and equipment spares. Costs for equipment spares are also included, although these are based on Financial Year 08/09 information as this is the most recent information available. Costs for weapon system support are not included as they could only be provided at disproportionate cost."|||
|2009–10||£32.725 million||"The average running cost per class... Type 22 is £130.9 million... These figures, based on the expenditure incurred by the Ministry of Defence in 2009–10, include maintenance, safety certification, military upgrades, manpower, inventory, satellite communication, fuel costs and depreciation.".|||
|2010–11||£16 million||"The projected operating cost for HMS Cumberland in financial year 2010–11, based on actual costs to February 2011 and those estimated for the remainder of the financial year".|||
In February 1998, the Secretary of State for Defence, Dr John Reid said: "Type 22 frigates achieved approximately 82 to 86 per cent. average availability for operational service in each of the last five years. This discounts time spent in planned maintenance."
Ships – disposal and current state
|Sale contract signed||Re-commissioned
|F88||Broadsword||3 May 1979||30 June 1995 to Brazil.||18 November 1994||30 June 1995||Rio de janeiro||Active in Brazil as F Greenhalgh (F46)|
|F89||Battleaxe||28 March 1980||30 April 1997 to Brazil.||18 November 1994||30 April 1997||Active in Brazil as F Rademaker (F49)|
|F90||Brilliant||15 May 1981||30 August 1996 to Brazil.||18 November 1994||31 August 1996||Laid up in Brazil as F Dodsworth (F47)
Sold for Scrap 2012
|F91||Brazen||2 July 1982||30 August 1996 to Brazil.||18 November 1994||31 August 1996||Active in Brazil as F Bosísio (F48)|
|F92||Boxer||22 December 1983||4 August 1999 decommissioned.
|Sunk as target in August 2004.|
|F93||Beaver||13 December 1984||1 May 1999 decommissioned.
|21 February 2001 for scrap.||Sold for Scrap|
|F94||Brave||4 July 1986||23 March 1999 decommissioned.
|Sunk as target in August 2004 by the submarine, HMS Sceptre and the frigate, HMS Argyll.|
|F95||London||5 June 1987||14 January 1999 decommissioned.
|14 January 2003 to Romania.||21 April 2005||Active in Romania as Regina Maria (F222)|
|F96||Sheffield||26 July 1988||15 November 2002 decommissioned.||April 2003 to Chile.||5 September 2003||Valparaiso||Active in Chile as Almirante Williams (FF-19)|
|F98||Coventry||14 October 1988||December 2001 decommissioned.
|14 January 2003 to Romania.||9 September 2004||Active in Romania as Regele Ferdinand (F221)|
|F99||Cornwall||23 April 1988||Decommissioned 30 June 2011||July 2013 for scrap.||Scrapped|
|F85||Cumberland||10 June 1989||Decommissioned 23 June 2011||July 2013 for scrap.||Scrapped|
|F86||Campbeltown||27 May 1989||Decommissioned April 2011||July 2013 for scrap.||Scrapped|
|F87||Chatham||4 May 1990||Decommissioned 9 February 2011||July 2013 for scrap.||Scrapped|
In May 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked: "what was the planned service life of (a) HMS London, (b) HMS Beaver, (c) HMS Boxer and (d) HMS Brave; and what was the forecast date for withdrawal from Royal Navy service, prior to the decision in the Strategic Defence Review to dispose of them." The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied: "The planned service for each ship was 18 years. The additional information is given in the table." Note that the 18 years was dated from the date of acceptance, not the date first commissioned.
|Ship||Pre-SDR date for withdrawal||Citation|
|HMS Boxer||31 January 2002|||
|HMS Beaver||31 December 2002|||
|HMS Brave||29 February 2004|||
|HMS London||28 February 2005|||
In July 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked: when he planned to withdraw the remaining Type 22 Batch II frigates from service. The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied: "Plans for the withdrawal from service of the Type 22 Batch 2 frigates currently in service are as follows:"
- "HMS Sheffield 2012 – to be superseded by a T45 Destroyer"
- "HMS Coventry 2001 – to be superseded by HMS St. Albans, a T23 Frigate."
Media related to Type 22 frigates at Wikimedia Commons
- "HMS Cumberland faces scrap heap". News & Star. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Defence Policy and Business | Changes to Royal Navy's surface fleet announced". Defence News. Ministry of Defence. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- British Destroyers & Frigates. Template:Page 339
- Frigate with formidable firepower, BBC News
- The term used in Navy Estimates and Defence Estimates is "accepted into service". Hansard has used the term acceptance date. Leo Marriott in his various books uses the term "completed", as does Jane's Fighting Ships. These terms all mean the same thing: the date the Navy accepts the vessel from the builder. This date is important because maintenance cycles, etc. are generally calculated from the acceptance date.
- "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, First Outfits)." – Text from Defences Estimates
"They do not include other costs, such as those for Government Furnished Equipment (GFE)—as they are not held centrally for each ship and could be provided only at disproportionate cost." Bob Ainsworth, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, 16 July 2008.
- Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7-page 103.
- Hansard HC Deb 24 November 1977 vol 939 cc869-70W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about contracts, 24 November 1977.
First Type 22 Frigate (HMS Broadsword) the planned order date when tender invited was October 1973. The contract was placed in February 1974.
- Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence regarding warship costs, 23 October 1989. said 21 February 1979.
Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7-page 103 said 24 January 1979.
- Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 452W The response to a question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008, said 4 May 1979.
Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7-page 103 says 3 May 1979.
- Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence regarding warship costs, 23 October 1989. This section is mislabelled – it is the first part of the table that is continued on Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W .
- Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 19866, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7-page 20 says £68 million
Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982–83 says £68.6M.
- Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 451W and 452W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008.
- Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982–83 also says £69.2M.
- Hansard: HC Deb 23 November 2000 vol 357 c271W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the cost when new of (a) HMS London, (b) HMS Boxer, (c) HMS Beaver and (d) HMS Brave, 23 November 2000.
- Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc358-61W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence on 23 October 1989 asking him to list the Royal Navy vessels built in each of the past 15 years, showing the cost of each and the yards in which they were constructed.
- www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk Type 22 Broadsword (Boxer) class frigates
- HMS Sheffield – Sheffield History – Sheffield Memories
- Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1988-89pub Jane's Publishing, ISBN 0-7106-0858-6, pages 657–8.
- Hansard 24 May 2007 : Column 1390W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence which naval vessels have been sold by the Royal Navy in the last five years; what the (a) vessel type, (b) service cost and (c) destination country was in each case; and if he will estimate the (i) original costs of each vessel and (ii) financial gains accrued to public funds as a result of each sale, 24 May 2007.
- HMS Coventry F98
- Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence on 23 October 1989 asking him to list the Royal Navy vessels built in each of the past 15 years, showing the cost of each and the yards in which they were constructed. This states 28 January 1988 – the 1988 must be a scanning error for 1985.
- "Hansard 11 January 1985 c561W". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 11 January 1985. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Hansard HC Deb 16 July 1982 vol 27 cc485-6W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 1982.
- Hansard HC Deb 22 January 1987 vol 108 c730W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 22 January 1987.
- Hansard HC Deb 10 March 1989 vol 148 c44W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 10 March 1989.
- Hansard HC Deb 9 September 2003 vol 410 cc346-7W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence 9 September 2003.
- Hansard 9 Sep 2009, Column 2001W
- 24 November 2010 Written Answers
- Hansard 3 Mar 2011, Column 563W
- Hansard 5 Feb 1998 : Column: 762 Answer by Secretary of State for Defence, Dr Reid, 5 February 1998.
- Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1996–97 Pub Jane's Information Group, 1996, ISBN 0-7106-1355-5 pages 766–7.
- Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002–03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8-page 60.
- Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002–03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8-page 761.
- Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008–09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 970710628459 page 628.
- "BBC HMS Sheffield is decommissioned". BBC News. 11 October 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008–09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 970710628459 page 110.
- "www.hmscoventry.co.uk". www.hmscoventry.co.uk. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Hansard HC Deb 22 May 2000 vol 350 cc318-9W Response by the Minister of State for the Armed Forces, to a question: "what was the planned service life of (a) HMS London, (b) HMS Beaver, (c) HMS Boxer and (d) HMS Brave; and what was the forecast date for withdrawal from Royal Navy service, prior to the decision in the Strategic Defence Review to dispose of them."
- Hansard 11 Jul 2000 : Column: 449W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence.