Type 30 rifle
|Type 30 Rifle|
Arisaka Type 30
|Place of origin||Empire of Japan|
|In service||1899–1945 (Japan)|
World War I,
Second Sino-Japanese War,
World War II
Chinese Civil War,
Indonesian National Revolution
|Number built||Rifles: 554,000 Carbines: 45,000|
|Weight||3.95 kilograms (8.7 lb)|
|Length||1,280 millimetres (50 in)|
|Barrel length||797 millimetres (31.4 in)|
|Rate of fire||10–15 rpm|
|Muzzle velocity||765 metres per second (2,510 ft/s)|
|Feed system||5-round internal magazine|
The Type 30 Rifle Arisaka (三十年式歩兵銃 Sanjū-nen-shiki hoheijū?, "year 30 type infantry firearm") was a box fed bolt-action repeating rifle that was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 (the 30th year of the Meiji period, hence "Type 30") to 1905.
History and development
The Imperial Japanese Army began development of a new rifle in December 1895 to replace the Murata rifle, which had been in use since 1880. The project was handled by the Koishikawa arsenal in Tokyo under the direction of Colonel Arisaka Nariakira, and was the first in a series of rifles which would be used through World War II.
The Type 30 was first designed for the semi-rimmed 6.5×50mm Arisaka cartridge. The visor could be set up to 2000 meters (2187.2 yards). Besides the standard rifle was also a carbine version, 962 mm (37.9 in) long, which was intended for the cavalry and other troops who needed a shorter or lighter weapon.  It had a visor that could be set up to 1500 meters (1640.4 yards). The prototype was called the "Type 29 rifle" and, after enhancements, was redesignated as the "Type 30". It went into production in 1899. This weapon could be equipped with the Type 30 bayonet.
The Type 30 was used by front-line Japanese forces in the Russo-Japanese War. Although it was a major improvement over the Type 22 rifle (also known as “Murata”), it had some reliability and safety issues. Based on combat experience, an improved version, the Type 38 rifle, was introduced in 1905, although not all units received the new version and, as a result, a mixture of models was retained by the Japanese Army into World War I  and even later into World War II.
The main production version was the long rifle but carbine versions were available for cavalry and mounted troops.
Type 30 Carbine
The Type 30 carbine or cavalry rifle (三十年式騎銃(三十年式騎兵銃) Sanjū-nen-shiki kijū (Sanjū-nen-shiki kiheijū)?) is a modified version made 300 mm (11.8 in) shorter than the infantry model (the carbine's barrel measures 480 mm (18.9 in) against 790 mm (31.1 in) for the standard infantry issue). The cavalry version also lacked a bayonet.
Developed from Type 30 and issued in small numbers as of Meiji 35 (1902). Kijirō Nambu made the minor modifications, intended to overcome some of the defects of the Type 30, including converting the gun-sight's rear sight leaf (rear sight ladder) from slide-out to a "fan out" (扇転式 ōten shiki?), and adding a dust cover (遊底覆 yūteifuku?). Unlike the Type 38 rifle bolt action, the crudely designed dust cover was not connected to the bolt action, and had to be manually moved before and after firing. However, the modified design was unable to overcome the shortcomings of the Type 30, and it was superseded by the Type 38 rifle. The army dumped firearms of this type onto the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Aside from Japan, the Type 30 was supplied to the British Royal Navy before World War I under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The British supplied some of these weapons to Russia as military assistance, and some found their way to Estonia and Finland.
- Estonia: Most Type 30s converted to take .303 British.
- Russian Empire (supplied from Britain as military assistance in World War I)
- Indonesia (captured from Japanese forces in World War II)
- Malaysia (captured from Japanese forces in World War II)
- Empire of Japan
- Nationalist Chinese forces: Captured from and used against invading Japanese forces in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- Chinese Red Army: Captured from and used against Japanese forces during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- United Kingdom: used by the Royal Navy.
- Honeycutt Jr., Fred L. and Anthony, Patt F. Military Rifles of Japan. Fifth Edition, 2006. Julin Books, U.S.A. ISBN 0-9623208-7-0.
- Honeycutt & Anthony p. 28
- Kowner, Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 437-438.
- anonymous (1903). 三十年式歩兵銃及騎銃保存法 (Sanjū-nen-shiki hoheijū oyobi kijū hozonhō) (NDL digital library). 武揚堂 (Buyōdō). pp. 1–2. (56pp)(Japanese)
- 海軍砲術史刊行会 (Kaigun hōjutsushi kankōkai) (1975). 海軍砲術史(Kaigun hōjutsushi, "Naval artillery history") (snippet). p. 780. "三十年式歩兵統を改良して三十五年式海軍銃を制定"
- Key. "三五年式海軍銃 (Type 35 marine rifle)". Keyのミリタリーなページ. Retrieved Feb 2013.
- Brent Snodgrass. "The Estonian Use Of The Mosin Nagant Line Of Rifles/Carbines". Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- Kowner, Rotem (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5: The Scarecrow Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 30 rifle.|