Type 56 assault rifle

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For the Chinese SKS variant of the same designation, see SKS#Variants.
Type 56 Assault Rifle

AK-47 and Type 56 DD-ST-85-01269.jpg

Type 56
Type Assault rifle
Place of origin China
Service history
In service 1956–present
Used by See Users
Wars Cold War
Rhodesian Bush War
Vietnam War
Laotian Civil War
Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Sino-Vietnamese War
Sri Lankan Civil War
Soviet war in Afghanistan
Iran–Iraq War
Thai–Laotian Border War
Gulf War
Croatian War of Independence
Bosnian War
Kosovo Conflict
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Iraq War
Cambodian–Thai border stand-off
Syrian civil war
Northern Mali conflict
and numerous others
Production history
Designed 1947
Manufacturer Norinco, Bangladesh Ordnance Factory (License-made)
Produced 1956 - present
Number built 10–15 million
Variants Type 56 Assault Rifle, Type 56-1 Assault Rifle, Type 56-2 Assault Rifle, Type 56-4 Assault Rifle QBZ-56C Assault Rifle, Type 56S, Type 84S rifle
Specifications
Weight Type 56: 4.03 kg (8.88 lb)
Type 56-1: 3.70 kg (8.16 lb)
Type 56-2/56-4: 3.9 kg (8.60 lb)
QBZ-56C: 2.85 kg (6.28 lb)
Length Type 56: 874 mm (34.4 in)
Type 56-1/56-2: 874 mm (34.4 in) w/ stock extended, 654 mm (25.7 in) w/ stock folded.
QBZ-56C: 764 mm (30.1 in) w/ stock extended, 557 mm (21.9 in) w/ stock folded.
Barrel length Type 56, Type 56-I, Type 56-II: 414 mm (16.3 in)
QBZ-56C: 280 mm (11.0 in)

Cartridge 7.62×39mm M43
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 650 rounds/min [1]
Muzzle velocity Type 56, Type 56-I, Type 56-II: 735 m/s (2,411 ft/s)
QBZ-56C: 665 m/s (2182 ft/s)
Effective firing range 100–800 m sight adjustments. Effective range 300-400 meters
Feed system 20, 30, or 40 round box magazine
Sights Adjustable iron sights

The Type 56 assault rifle is the Chinese variant of the Russian designed and produced AK-47 and AKM assault rifles.[2] The gun first began production in 1956 at State Factory 66 and continued so until 1973 when the responsibility of its manufacture was handed over to Norinco who continues to produce the rifle.

Service history[edit]

The Type 56 is a widely proliferated variant of the AK-47. While exact production figures are unknown, it is estimated[by whom?] that as many as 10 to 15 million Type 56 rifles have been produced since the 1950s.

During the Cold War period, the Type 56 was exported to many countries and guerilla forces throughout the world. Many of these rifles found their way to battlefields in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East and were used alongside other Kalashnikov rifles from both the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact nations of Eastern Europe.

Chinese support for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam before the mid-1960s meant that the Type 56 was frequently encountered by American soldiers in the hands of either Vietcong guerrillas or PAVN soldiers during the Vietnam war. The Type 56 was discovered in enemy hands far more often than regular Russian-made AK-47s or AKMs.[3]

When relations between China and the North Vietnam government declined in the 1970s and the Sino-Vietnamese War began, the Vietnamese government still had large numbers of Type 56 rifles in its arsenals, while the People's Liberation Army still used the Type 56 as its standard weapon. Thus, Chinese and Vietnamese forces fought each other using the same Type 56 rifles.

A pair of Type 56-2 rifles and a Type 69 RPG.

The Chinese Type 56 assault rifle saw considerable action in the hands of Iranian forces during the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s, with Iran purchasing large quantities of weapons from China for their war against Iraq. During the war, Iraq purchased a small quantity of Type 56 assault rifles from China, despite Iraq being a major recipient of Soviet weapons and assistance during the Iran–Iraq War, while also purchasing large number of AKMs from the USSR and Eastern Europe. Consequently, the Iran–Iraq War became another conflict in which both sides used the Type 56, much like the Sino-Vietnamese War.

Since the end of the Cold War, the Type 56 has been used in many conflicts across the world by various military forces. During the Croatian War of Independence and the Yugoslav Wars, the Type 56 was used by the armed forces of Croatia along with the other weapons they possessed. During the late 1990s, the Kosovo Liberation Army in Kosovo were also major users of the Type 56, with the vast majority of the weapons originating from People's Socialist Republic of Albania, which received Chinese support during much of the Cold War.

In the United Kingdom and the United States, the Type 56 and its derivatives are frequently used in the filming of movies and television shows, standing in for Russian-made AK-47s due to the rarity of AK-47 rifles, with some even being visually modified to resemble other AK-series rifles. As with all firearms used in cinematography, these weapons are adapted to fire blank ammunition. Versions of this weapon that have the full-auto firing ability deleted (referred to as "sporter" rifles) are also available for civilian ownership in most parts of the United States.

A Type 56-2 rifle with stock folded.

In the mid-1980s, Sri Lanka started to replace their L1A1 Self-Loading Rifles (SLR) and HK G3s with the Type 56. Currently, they use the fixed stock, under-folding stock and side-folding stock variants.

The Type 81, Type 95 and Type 03 replaced Type 56 in PLA front line service, but the Type 56 remains in use with reserve and militia service. Type 56s are still in production by Norinco for export customers.

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, many Chinese Type 56 assault rifles were given to Afghan Mujahideen guerrillas to fight Soviet forces in Afghanistan by the Chinese, the Pakistanis, and the Americans who obtained them from third party arms dealers.[4][5]

Bangladesh navy sailor fires a Type 56-2 rifle.

Use of the Type 56 in Afghanistan also continued well into the 1990s and the early 21st century as the standard rifle of the Taliban when Taliban forces seized control of Kabul in 1996 (a majority of the Chinese small arms used by the Taliban were provided by Pakistan).[3]

Since the overthrow of the Taliban by U.S.-led Coalition forces in late 2001, the Chinese Type 56 assault rifle has been utilized by the Afghan National Army, with many rifles serving alongside the Russian AK-47 and AKM rifles.

The Type 56 has been seen regularly in the hands of militants from the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the armed wing of Hamas in the Palestinian territories; these weapons are most likely provided by Iran[citation needed], which is both a known supporter of Hamas and a major consumer of Chinese weaponry.[citation needed]

The Type 56 has been used by the Janjaweed in the Darfur region of Sudan with pictures and news footage showing members of the Janjaweed carrying Type 56 rifles (most of them provided by the Sudanese government).

Compared to AK-47 and AKM[edit]

The gas-operated mechanism of a Type 56 rifle.

Originally, the Type 56 was a direct copy of the AK-47, and featured a milled receiver, but starting in the mid-1960s, the guns were manufactured with stamped receivers much like the Soviet AKM. Visually, most versions of the Type 56 are distinguished from the AK-47 and AKM by the fully enclosed hooded front sight (all other AK pattern rifles, including those made in Russia, have a partially open front sight). Many versions also feature a folding bayonet attached to the barrel just aft of the muzzle. There are three different types of bayonets made for Type 56 rifles. The first type 56s were near identical copies of the Soviet milled AK-47. It is speculated[by whom?] that the Chinese had to reverse engineer a copy of the AKM with the stamped receiver as they were not given a licence to produce the AKM and RPK by the Soviets because of failing relations after the Sino-Soviet split.

Type 56-1 (left), Type 84S (center), and Type 56 (right). Note that the Type 56 rifles in this image have been fitted with the distinctive slant compensator of the AKM, a feature not found on the original Type 56
  • The Type 56 has a 1.5mm stamped receiver (like the RPK, although it lacks the reinforced trunnion of the RPK) versus the 1mm stamping of the AKM.
  • The barrel on the Type 56 is similar to the AK-47 and heavier than that of the AKM.
  • The front sights are fully enclosed, compared to the AKM and AK-47 which are partially opened.
  • Has the double hook disconnector of the AK-47 rather than the single hook disconnector of the AKM.
  • Has a smooth dust cover like the AK-47 and unlike the ribbed dust cover of the AKM.
  • May have a folding spike bayonet (nicknamed the "pig sticker") as opposed to the detachable knife bayonets of the AK-47 and AKM. There are three different types of spike bayonets made for Type 56 rifles. Type 56 assault rifles are the only AK-pattern assault rifles that use spike bayonets.
  • Military issued versions of the Type 56 lack the threaded muzzle found on the AK-47 and AKM, this means they cannot use an AKM compensator or blank-firing device. Commercial versions of the Type 56 may or may not have a threaded muzzle.
  • Has a blued finish like the AK-47 and unlike the AKM, which has a black oxide finish or a parkerized finish.
  • Has "in the white" bolt carrier, while the AKM bolt carrier is blued.
  • Like the AK-47, sights will only adjust to 800 metres, whereas AKM sights adjust to 1000 metres.
  • Nearly all Type 56's lack the side mount plate that was featured on many variations of the AK-47 and AKM.
  • Lacks the hammer release delay device of the AKM. The lack of hammer retarder is perhaps due to a preference of a slightly higher rate of fire, and simplicity. And did not have anything to do with thickness of the receiver, as the RPK included the hammer retarder also.
  • The gas relief ports are located on the gas tube like the AK-47, unlike the AKM which had the gas relief ports relocated forward to the gas block.
  • The fixed stock of a Type 56 has a less in-line stock like the AK-47, opposed to the AKM which has a straighter stock.

Variants[edit]

Bolivian Marines sitting on inflatable boats, carrying Type 56 rifles and scuba equipment during the military parade in Cochabamba.
  • Type 56 – Basic variant introduced in 1956. Copy of the AK-47 with a fixed wooden stock and permanently attached spike bayonet. In the mid-1960s production switched from machined to stamped receivers, mimicking the improved (and cheaper) Russian AKM, while the permanently attached bayonet became optional. Still used by Chinese reserve and militia units.
  • Type 56-I – Copy of the AKS-47, with an under-folding steel shoulder stock and the bayonet removed to make the weapon easier to carry. As with the original Type 56, milled receivers were replaced by stamped receivers in the mid-1960s, making the Type 56-1 an equivalent to the Russian AKMS.
  • Type 56-II – Improved variant and copy of AKM. Introduced in 1980, with a side-folding stock. Mainly manufactured for export and rare in China.
  • Type 56-4 – Under folding stock copy of Type 56-1 in 5.56x45 NATO. 1/12 barrel twist to stabilize the M193 Nato cartridge. Under folding spike bayonet. Chrome plated bore and chamber. Selective fire. Barrel is extended past front sight 3 3/4 inches. Threaded flush muzzle cap. English fire control markings "S" and "F" for export version. No marking on the full auto selection. Rear sight calibrated to 800 metres. Stamped receiver. Serial number marked on bolt carrier, bolt, receiver cover, receiver.
  • Type 56C (QBZ-56C) – Short-barrel version, introduced in 1991 for the domestic and export market. The QBZ-56C as it is officially designated in China, is a carbine variant of the Type 56-II and supplied in limited quantities to some PLA units. The Chinese Navy is now the most prominent user. Development began in 1988, after it was discovered that the Type 81 assault rifle was too difficult to shorten. In order to further reduce weight the bayonet lug was removed. The QBZ-56C is often carried with a twenty round box magazine, although it is capable of accepting a standard Type 56 thirty round magazine.[6]
  • Type 56S or Type 56 Sporter, also known as the MAK-90 (Model of the AK)-1990 – civilian version with only semiautomatic mode.[7]
  • NHM 91 – Sporterized RPK-style version with a stamped receiver and 20" heavy barrel.
  • Type 84S – A civilian version of the Type 56 rifle chambered for the 5.56x45mm NATO round.
  • KL-7.62 – An unlicensed, reverse-engineered Iranian copy of the Type 56. The original version of the KL-7.62 was indistinguishable from the Type 56, but in recent years DIO appears to have made some improvements to the Type 56 design, adding a plastic stock and handguards (rather than wood) and a ribbed receiver cover (featured on most AKM variants, but missing from the Type 56).
  • MAZSudanese licensed copy of the Type 56 made by Military Industry Corporation.

Other Type 56 weapons[edit]

The "Type 56" designation was also used for Chinese versions of the SKS and of the RPD, known as the Type 56 carbine and Type 56 light machine gun respectively. However, unlike the popular Type 56 rifle, all Type 56 carbines have been removed from military service, except a few used for ceremonial purposes and by local Chinese militia. The Type 56 light machine gun is still used by the Cambodian Army and Sri Lankan Army.

Users[edit]

A Beninese soldier with a Type 56.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ world.guns.ru on Type 56. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  3. ^ a b Gordon Rottman (24 May 2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series assault rifles. Osprey Publishing. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-1-84908-835-0. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Ibp Usa; International Business Publications Staff; Global Investment and Business Center, Inc. Staff (May 2000). Afghanistan: A "Spy" Guide. Int'l Business Publications. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7397-7000-9. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  5. ^ Bobi Pirseyedi (1 January 2000). The Small Arms Problem in Central Asia: Features and Implications. United Nations Publications UNIDIR. p. 16. ISBN 978-92-9045-134-1. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  6. ^ "详解中国首款QBZ56C型短突击步枪(组图)" (in Simplified Chinese). Sina.com. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  7. ^ Norinco. Chicom47.net. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  8. ^ 070317-A-LI455-010. Defenseimagery.mil. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  10. ^ http://ljplus.ru/img4/5/1/517design/siria03.jpg.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ http://www.bdmilitary.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=324&Itemid=138
  12. ^ Photo Details. Marines.mil (2009-06-16). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  13. ^ Bolivia Land Forces military equipment and vehicles Bolivian Army. Armyrecognition.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  14. ^ Working Papers. Small Arms Survey (2011-12-01). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  15. ^ Unwin, Charles C.; Vanessa U., Mike R., eds. (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN 0760730946. 
  16. ^ http://bbs.tiexue.net/post2_3359984_1.html
  17. ^ http://bbs.tiexue.net/post2_1189872_1.html
  18. ^ "Gunmen Kill Dozens in Terror Attack at Kenyan Mall". New York Times.com. 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  19. ^ "Gunmen attack mall in Kenya". NBS News.com. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  20. ^ Elena Torreguitar. National Liberation Movements in Office: Forging Democracy with African Adjectives in Namibia (2009 ed.). Peter Lang GMBH. p. 159. ISBN 978-3-631-57995-4. 
  21. ^ Rwanda
  22. ^ "S Sudan rebels 'control key state'". BBC News. 2013-12-21. 
  23. ^ "MAZ". Military Industry Corporation. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  24. ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Syrian_soldier_aims_an_AK-47.JPEG/1280px-Syrian_soldier_aims_an_AK-47.JPEG.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ http://www.dvidshub.net/image/35377/tajik-ncos-learning-new-responsibilities-during-us-led-exchange#.UlyhphBAfW0

External links[edit]