Type D escort ship

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IJN No2 escort vessel in 1944.jpg
No.2 on 26 February 1944 at Tokyo Bay
Class overview
Name: No.2 class escort ship
Builders: Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
Fujinagata Shipyards
Harima Zōsen Corporation
Hitachi Zōsen Corporation
Ishikawajima Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard
Operators: Naval Ensign of Japan.svg Imperial Japanese Navy
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Navy
Naval Ensign of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Navy
Naval Ensign of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Liberation Army Navy
Preceded by: Ukuru class
Cost: 5,363,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1946
In commission: 1944–1987
Planned: 203
Completed: 67
Cancelled: 136
Lost: 26
Retired: 41
General characteristics [1]
Type: Escort ship
Displacement: 740 long tons (752 t) standard
Length: 69.5 m (228 ft)
Beam: 8.6 m (28 ft 3 in)
Draught: 3.05 m (10 ft)
Propulsion: 1 shaft, geared turbine engines, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW)
Speed: 17.5 knots (20.1 mph; 32.4 km/h)
Range: 4,500 nmi (8,300 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h)
Complement: 160
Sensors and
processing systems:
/Type 22-Go radar
Type 93 sonar
Type 3 hydropnhone
Armament:

As built :
• 2 × 120 mm (4.7 in)/45 cal DP guns
• 6 × Type 9625 mm (0.98 in) AA machine guns (2×3)
• 12 × Type 3 depth charge throwers
• 1 × depth charge chute
• 120 × depth charges
From 1944 :
• as above, plus

• 1 × 80 mm (3.1 in) mortar

The Type D escort ships (丁型海防艦 Tei-gata kaibōkan?) were a class of ships in the service of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese called them "Type D" coast defence ships, and they were the sixth class of Kaibōkan (Kai = sea, ocean, Bo = defence, Kan = ship), a name used to denote a multi-purpose vessel.[2]

Background[edit]

The Type D, like the Ukuru-class and Mikura-class, were dedicated to the anti-aircraft and anti-submarine role.

In 22 April 1943, the Navy General Staff decided a mass production of escort ships, because of the urgent need to protect the convoys which were under constant attack. The plan was to build a basic escort ship of around 800 tons, with a simple design for easy construction. The first designs, for "Type A" Etorofu class and "Type B" Mikura class, still needed too many man-hours for building, so in June 1943, the Navy General Staff planned for a simplified design. The result was the Ukuru class, and a scaled down model of the Mikura class, which became the "Type C" and "Type D" escort classes.

Design[edit]

Because of Japan's deteriorating war situation, the Type D class was a further simplification of the Ukuru design and were built to the same design as the Type C escort ship. However, due to a shortage of diesel engines to power both groups of vessels, the Type D were powered by turbine engines. This gave a slight increase in speed, from 16.5 to 17.5 knots, but a reduction in range and endurance, 4500 miles at 16 knots instead of 6500 miles. The Type D was the only Kaibokan type to use turbines.

They were smaller by 200 tons than the Ukuru’s and engines that propelled them were also smaller, at 2500 SHP vs 4200 for the Ukurus. Because of the decrease in engine power, the speed fell from 19.5 to 17.5 knots. The number of 4.7" guns went from three to two. The number of depth charges aboard was the same, 120, but the number of depth charge throwers was decreased from 18 to 12 and the depth charge chutes were decreased from two to one.

Due to the simplifications of the design, a significant saving was made in construction time. The Type D escorts required approximately 20,000 man-hours each, compared to the 35,000 man-hours of the Ukurus and the 57,000 man-hours of the Mikuras.

Construction[edit]

The design work for the Type D ships started in March 1943, at the same time as for the Ukuru class. They were built concurrently with the Ukuru class and the Type C-class. The Type D were given even numbers while the Type C were given odd numbers. The Type D were constructed using prefabricated sections that enabled them to be built in as little as three to four months. The lead ship, "No.2" (CD-2) was constructed at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, laid down on 5 October 1943, launched on 30 December 1943, and completed on 28 February 1944. CD-198 was the fastest build, being constructed in only 71 days; she was laid down on 31 December, 1944, and completed on 11 March 1945.[3]

Service[edit]

No.134 on 6 April 1945

Most of the Type D escorts were assigned to the Escort Fleet. However, they were not able to stop the American submarine offensive. One drawback was they did not have an effective fire-control system. They were equipped only with one height rangefinder for the AA guns and were powerless against an air attack. Despite being simple to construct they however proved themselves very durable for their size. Of the 22 instances of torpedoes striking them, they survived 9 times, with the CD-30 being struck and surviving on two separate occasions. Of the seven occasions when they struck mines, only one sank.

During the war 68 ships were finished out of the 200 planned; 25 were sunk during the war. [4]

Successes[edit]

  • USS Harder was sunk on August 24, 1944 by CD-22.[5]
  • USS Scamp was sunk on November 11, 1944 by CD-4.[5]
  • USS Swordfish may also have been sunk by CD-4 on January 4, 1945, though evidence is unclear.[5]
  • USS Snook was sunk by CD-8, CD-32, and CD-52 with Okinawa on April 9, 1945.[5]
  • USS Bonefish was sunk on June 19, 1945 by CD-158 with CD-63, CD-75 and CD-207 and Okinawa.[5]
  • USS Salmon was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-22 with CD-33 and CD-29 on October 30, 1944.
  • USS Halibut was rendered unfit for further service by damage from CD-6 on November 14, 1944.[6]

Ships in class[edit]

Ship # Ship Builder Completed Fate
2701 No.2 (第2号海防艦, Dai 2 Gō Kaibōkan?)
the same shall apply hereinafter
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 28-02-1944 Decommissioned on 20-09-1945. Scrapped on 20-07-1948.
2702 No.4 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 07-03-1944 Sunk by aircraft at Toba, 28-07-1945. Salvaged and scrapped on 30-06-1948.
2703 No.6 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 15-03-1944 Sunk by USS Atule at south of Hidaka, 13-08-1945.[6]
2704 No.8 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 29-02-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16-07-1947. Later scrapped.
2705 No.10 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 29-02-1944 Sunk by USS Plaice at west of Tokara Islands, 27-09-1944.
2706 No.12 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 22-03-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United States, 05-09-1947. Scrapped on 30-11-1947.
2707 No.14 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 27-03-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 06-07-1947, and renamed Tsinan. Captured by People's Liberation Army 1949, and renamed Wuchang (215). Decommissioned in 1982.
2708 No.16 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 31-03-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14-08-1947. Later scrapped.
2709 No.18 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 08-03-1944 Sunk by aircraft at east of Quảng Ngãi, 29-03-1945.
2710 No.20 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 11-03-1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft at northwest of San Fernando, 29-12-1944. Sink on 30-12-1944.
2711 No.22 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 24-03-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United States, 05-09-1947. Scrapped on 31-12-1947.
2712 No.24 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 28-03-1944 Sunk by USS Archer-Fish at west of Iwo Jima, 28-06-1944.
2713 No.26 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-05-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United States, 06-09-1947. Scrapped on 13-10-1947.
2714 No.28 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-05-1944 Sunk by USS Blenny at Dasol Bay, 24-12-1944.
2715 No.30 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 26-06-1944 Sunk by aircraft at Yura, 28-07-1945. Salvaged and scrapped 1948.
2716 No.32 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 30-06-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 16-07-1947. Later scrapped.
2717 No.34 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 25-08-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 05-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-32 (1947), target ship TsL-63 (1954), repair ship PM-75 (1957). Decommissioned on July 23, 1958 and scrapped.
2718 No.36 Fujinagata Shipyards 21-10-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 19-07-1947. Scrapped on 03-01-1948.
2719 No.38 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 10-08-1944 Sunk by USS Hardhead at west of Corregidor, 25-11-1944.
2720 No.40 Fujinagata Shipyards 22-12-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 29-08-1947, and renamed Chenan (PF-72). Decommissioned 1963.
2721 No.42 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 25-08-1944 Sunk by USS Puffer at northwest of Agunijima Island, 10-01-1945.
2722 No.44 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-08-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 05-07-1947. Sunk as target at 34°48′N 139°42′E / 34.800°N 139.700°E / 34.800; 139.700, 25-08-1947.
2723 No.46 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 29-08-1944 Sunk by naval mine at Mokpo, 17-08-1945.
2724 No.48 Fujinagata Shipyards 13-03-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28-08-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-42 (1947), target ship TsL-42 (1948), dispatch ship Abakan (1949). Decommissioned on June 2, 1959 and scrapped.
2725 No.50 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 13-10-1944 Decommissioned on 20-11-1945. Scrapped on 05-05-1948.
2726 No.52 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 25-09-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-36 (1947), tdispatch ship Naryn (1954). Decommissioned on March 11, 1958 and scrapped.
2727 No.54 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 30-09-1944 Heavy damaged by aircraft at Calayan, 15-12-1944. Later scuttled.
2728 No.56 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 27-09-1944 Sunk by USS Bowfin at south of Tateyama, 17-02-1945.
2729 No.58 Fujinagata Shipyards 08-04-1946 Surrendered to United States, 31-07-1947. Scrapped on 30-11-1947.
2730 No.60 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 09-11-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14-08-1947. Later scrapped.
2731 No.62 Hitachi Zōsen, Mukōjima Shipyard Construction stopped on 22-05-1945. Sink at Kure, 14-01-1946. Salvaged and scrapped, May 1948.
2732 No.64 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15-10-1944 Sunk by USS Pipefish at east of Hainan Island, 03-12-1944.
2733 No.66 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 21-10-1944 Sunk by aircraft off Shantou, 13-03-1945.
2734 No.68 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 20-11-1944 Sunk by aircraft at west of Amami Ōshima, 24-03-1945.
2735 No.70 Hitachi Zōsen, Onomichi Factory Construction stopped on 01-04-1945. Later scrapped.
2736 No.72 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 25-11-1944 Sunk by USS Haddo at west of Taedong River, 01-07-1945.
2737 No.74 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 10-12-1944 Sunk by aircraft at Muroran, 14-07-1945.
2738 No.76 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 23-12-1944 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28-08-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-44 (1947), target ship TsL-44 (1948), patrol ship SKR-49 (1954). Refitted, rearmed and ceded to Chinese People's Liberation Army on June 25, 1955.
2739 No.78 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 04-04-1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-37 (1947), dispatch ship Murgab (1954). Decommissioned on March 11, 1958 and scrapped.
2740 No.80 Hitachi Zōsen, Mukōjima Shipyard Construction stopped on 01-04-1945. Later scrapped.
2741 No.82 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-12-1944 Sunk by aircraft at ENE of Kimchaek, 10-08-1945.
2742 No.84 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-12-1944 Sunk by USS Hammerhead at ENE of French Indochina, 29-03-1945.
2743 - 2750 Even numbers from No.86 to No.100 Cancelled in August 1944.
2751 No.102 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 20-01-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 28-08-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-46 (1947), target ship TsL-46 (1948). Decommissioned on January 21, 1960 and scrapped.
2752 No.104 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-01-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 29-08-1947, and renamed Taian (PF-71). Decommissioned 1963.
2753 No.106 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard 14-01-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 05-07-1947. Sunk as target at 34°45′N 139°44′E / 34.750°N 139.733°E / 34.750; 139.733, 21-07-1947.
2754 - 2755 No.108 and No.110 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2756 No.112 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 24-10-1944 Sunk by USS Barb at northeast of Cape Crillon, 18-07-1945.
2757 No.114 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2758 No.116 Ishikawajima Heavy Industries 28-11-1945 Decommissioned 25-03-1946. Later scrapped.
2759 No.118 Kawasaki, Kōbe Shipyard 27-12-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31-07-1947. Captured by People's Liberation Army, May 1949, and renamed Changsha (216). Decommissioned in 1982.
2760 No.120 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2761 No.122 Tōkyō Ishikawajima Shipyard Construction stopped in March 1945. Later scrapped.
2762 No.124 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 09-02-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Scrapped on 01-02-1948.
2763 No.126 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 26-03-1945 Decommissioned on 05-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 14-08-1947. Later scrapped.
2764 No.128 Cancelled in Spring 1944.
2765 No.130 Harima Zōsen 12-08-1944 Sunk by aircraft at east of Quảng Ngãi, 29-03-1945.
2766 No.132 Harima Zōsen 07-09-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Scrapped on 02-07-1948.
2767 No.134 Harima Zōsen 30-09-1944 Sunk by aircraft at south of Xiamen, 06-04-1945.
2768 No.136 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2769 No.138 Harima Zōsen 23-10-1944 Sunk by aircraft at San Fernando, 02-01-1945.
2770 No.140 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2771 No.142 Kawasaki, Senshū Shipyard 07-04-1946 Surrendered to Soviet Union, 29-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-38 (1947), target ship TsL-38 (1948), dispatch ship Arkhara (1949), patrol ship SKR-48 (1954). Refitted, rearmed and ceded to Chinese People's Liberation Army on February 11, 1955. Under the name Chih-17 served until 1987.
2772 No.144 Harima Zōsen 23-11-1944 Sunk by USS Besugo at east of Malay Peninsula, 02-02-1945.
2773 - 2774 No.146 and No.148 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2775 No.150 Harima Zōsen 24-12-1944 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 04-07-1947. Sunk as target at 35°28′N 123°25′E / 35.467°N 123.417°E / 35.467; 123.417, 18-08-1947.
2776 No.152 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2777 No.154 Harima Zōsen 07-02-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 04-09-1947. Scrapped on 01-03-1948.
2778 No.156 Harima Zōsen 08-03-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 04-09-1947. Scrapped on 11-12-1947.
2779 No.158 Harima Zōsen 13-04-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United States, 25-07-1947. Scrapped on 31-12-1947.
2780 No.160 Harima Zōsen 16-08-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to United Kingdom, 08-09-1947. Scrapped on 21-02-1948.
2781 - 2792 Even numbers from No.162 to No.184 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2793 No.186 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15-02-1945 Sunk by aircraft at Amami Ōshima, 02-04-1945.
2794 No.188 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
2795 No.190 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 21-02-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Scrapped on 31-03-1948.
2796 No.192 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 28-02-1945 Decommissioned on 25-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31-07-1947, and renamed Tsuan. Decommissioned 1952.
2797 No.194 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 15-03-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 06-07-1947, and renamed Weihai. Captured by People's Liberation Army, 23-04-1949, and renamed Tsinan (219). Decommissioned 1982.
2798 No.196 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-03-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Surrendered to Soviet Union, 05-07-1947. Served in Soviet Pacific Ocean Fleet as patrol ship EK-33 (1947), dispatch ship Turgai (1954). Decommissioned on March 11, 1958 and scrapped.
2799 No.198 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 31-03-1945 Decommissioned on 05-10-1945. Surrendered to Republic of China 31-07-1947. Captured by People's Liberation Army, May 1949, and renamed Sian (220). Decommissioned 1982.
2800 No.200 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 20-04-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Scrapped on 01-07-1948.
2801 No.202 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 07-07-1945 Decommissioned on 30-11-1945. Scrapped on 01-01-1948.
2802 No.204 Mitsubishi, Nagasaki Shipyard 11-07-1945 Decommissioned on 20-11-1945. Scrapped on 31-01-1948.
2803 - 2843 Even numbers from No.206 to No.286 Cancelled in Autumn 1944.
60 vessels All canceled before being named.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Conway p206-207
  2. ^ ""coast defense ships." The Japanese used this curious rating to denote a multi-purpose vessel." Worth P. 208
  3. ^ http://www.combinedfleet.com/CD-198_t.htm
  4. ^ Conway p207
  5. ^ a b c d e http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq39-1.htm
  6. ^ a b http://www.combinedfleet.com/CD-6_t.htm

External links[edit]

References[edit]