Type D submarine

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Japanese submarine I-361.jpg
I-361 on 23 May 1945
Class overview
Name: Type D submarines
Builders: Kure Naval Arsenal
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Operators: Naval Ensign of Japan.svg Imperial Japanese Navy
Subclasses: I-361-class (Project Number S51)
I-372-class (Project Number S51B)
I-373-class (Project Number S51C)
Cost: I-361-class[1]
9,426,000 JPY
I-372-class and I-373-class[2]
9,719,000 JPY
Built: 1943–1945
In commission: 1944–1945
Planned: 18
Completed: 13
Cancelled: 5
Lost: 9 + 1 (After the end of the war)
Retired: 3
General characteristics
I-361 class (Type-D submarine)
Type: Transport submarine
Displacement: 1,440 long tons (1,463 t) surfaced
2,215 long tons (2,251 t) submerged
Length: 73.50 m (241 ft 2 in) overall
Beam: 8.90 m (29 ft 2 in)
Draft: 4.76 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × Kampon Mk.23B Model 8 diesels
1,850 bhp surfaced
1,200 shp submerged
2 shafts
Speed: 13.0 knots (24.1 km/h) surfaced
6.5 knots (12.0 km/h) submerged
Range: 15,000 nmi (28,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
120 nmi (220 km) at 3 knots (5.6 km/h) submerged
Test depth: 75 m (246 ft)
Capacity: I-361 to I-371 as built
85 tons freight
I-372 as built
90 tons gasoline
I-369 in July 1945[3]
100 tons gasoline
Complement: 55
Sensors and
processing systems:
1 × Type 22 surface search radar
1 × Type 13 early warning radar
Armament: I-361 as built
• 2 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes
• 2 × Type 95 torpedoes
• 1 × 14 cm/40 11th Year Type naval gun[4]
• 2 × Type 96 25mm AA guns
I-372 as built
• 1 × 14 cm L/40 naval gun
• 2 × Type 96 25mm AA guns
as Kaiten mother ship
• 2 × 533 mm torpedo tubes
• 2 × Type 95 torpedoes
• 5 × Kaiten
General characteristics
I-373 class (Modified Type-D submarine)
Type: Transport submarine
Displacement: 1,660 long tons (1,687 t) surfaced
2,240 long tons (2,276 t) submerged
Length: 74.00 m (242 ft 9 in) overall
Beam: 8.90 m (29 ft 2 in)
Draft: 5.05 m (16 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × Kampon Mk.23B Model 8 diesels
1,750 bhp surfaced
1,200 shp submerged
2 shafts
Speed: 13.0 knots (24.1 km/h) surfaced
6.5 knots (12.0 km/h) submerged
Range: 5,000 nmi (9,300 km) at 13 knots (24 km/h) surfaced
100 nmi (190 km) at 3 knots (5.6 km/h) submerged
Test depth: 100 m (330 ft)
Capacity: as built
110 tons freight
I-373 in June 1945[3]
200 tons gasoline
Complement: 55
Armament: as built
• 2 × 81 mm (3 in) Type 3 mortars
• 7 × Type 96 25mm AA guns

The I-361 class submarine (伊三百六十一型潜水艦 I-san-byaku-roku-jū-ichi-gata Sensuikan?), also called Type-D submarine (丁型/潜丁型潜水艦 Tei-gata/Sen-Tei-gata sensuikan?) or Sen'yu/Sen'yu-Dai type submarine (潜輸型/潜輸大型潜水艦 Sen'yu-gata/Sen'yu-Ōgata sensuikan?) was a type of the 1st class submarine in the Imperial Japanese Navy serving during the Second World War. The type name, was shortened to YuSensuikan Ō-gata (水艦 Transport Submarine-Large Type?).[5]

The I-373 class submarine (伊三百七十三型潜水艦 I-san-byaku-nana-jū-san-gata Sensuikan?), also called Type-D Modified submarine (丁型改潜水艦 Tei-gata Kai sensuikan?) was different from the I-361 class, however since the I-373 was a development form of the I-361 class, this article describes both of them.

Construction[edit]

After the Battle of Midway the IJN immediately planned a transport submarine. The type was based on the U 155 Deutschland. Her duties were transportation of troops (110 men, 10 tons freight and 2 landing crafts) in the areas where the enemy had air superiority. Later the demands for her were changed in sequence. The final demands were 65 tons in the hull and 25 tons on the upper deck (freight only). In the beginning the IJN did not intend to equip these boats with torpedos. Later, after strong demands from the front commanders, it was decided to equip them with torpedoes for self-defense. The I-372 class was designed as a tanker submarine based on the I-361 class. They were not allowed to be loaded with torpedoes.

Service[edit]

In 1944, their missions were transport from mainland Japan to remote islands. They had little success and suffered big damages. Of the 13 submarines, only 4 survived war.

Kaiten missions[edit]

In 1945, 7 submarines were converted to be Kaiten mother ships and assigned to the suicide attack operations for the Shinchō Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (神潮特別攻撃隊 Sinchō Special Attack Force?). They removed all guns and piled up five Kaitens on upper deck.

  • I-361
    • Assigned to the Todoroki group (轟隊?) on 24 May 1945, no success.
  • I-363
    • Assigned to the Todoroki group on 28 May 1945, sank (or damaged) one motor ship on 15 June 1945.
    • Assigned to the Tamon group (多聞隊?) on 8 August 1945, no success.
  • I-366
    • Assigned to the Tamon group on 1 August 1945, no success.
  • I-367
    • Assigned to the Shinbu group (振武隊?) on 5 May 1945, damaged USS Gilligan on 27 May 1945.
    • Assigned to the Tamon group on 19 July 1945, no success.
  • I-368
    • Assigned to the Chihaya group (千早隊?) on 20 February 1945, no success.
  • I-370
    • Assigned to the Chihaya group on 20 February 1945, no success.
  • I-372
    • No sorties.

Class variants[edit]

The Type-D submarines were divided into four classes:

  • Type-D/Sen'yu (丁型/潜輸(伊三百六十一型 Tei-gata/Sen'yu, I-361-class?)
  • Type-D/Sen'yu Mod. (丁型/潜輸改(伊三百七十二型 Tei-gata/Sen'yu-Kai, I-372-class?)
  • Type D Mod. (丁型改(伊三百七十三型 Tei-gata Kai, I-373-class?)
  • Type D Mod.2/Type D 2 (S60 Type) (丁型改2/潜丁2型(第2968号艦型) Tei-gata Kai-2/Sen-Tei-2-gata, 2968th vessel-class (Dai-2968-Gō kan-gata)?). The 2968th vessel class boats were not built and remained only a design.

I-361 class[edit]

Boat # Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
5461 I-361 [6] Kure Naval Arsenal 16 February 1943 30 October 1943 25 May 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship on 7 February 1945. Sunk by aircraft from USS Anzio at east of Okinawa Island 22°22′N 134°09′E / 22.367°N 134.150°E / 22.367; 134.150 on 30 May 1945.
5462 I-362 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 17 March 1943 29 November 1943 23 May 1944 Sunk by USS Fleming at Caroline Islands 12°08′N 130°28′E / 12.133°N 130.467°E / 12.133; 130.467 on 18 January 1945.
5463 I-363 Kure Naval Arsenal 1 May 1943 12 December 1943 8 July 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship on 30 March 1945. Sunk by naval mine off Miyazaki on 29 October 1945. Salvaged and scrapped on 26 January 1966.
5464 I-364 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 26 July 1943 15 February 1944 14 June 1944 Sunk by USS Sea Devil at Bōsō Peninsula 34°30′N 145°23′E / 34.500°N 145.383°E / 34.500; 145.383 on 15 September 1944.
5465 I-365 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 15 May 1943 17 December 1943 1 August1944 Sunk by USS Scabbardfish at Tōkyō Bay 34°44′N 141°01′E / 34.733°N 141.017°E / 34.733; 141.017 on 28 November 1944.
5466 I-366 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 26 August 1943 29 March 1944 3 August 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship on 3 March 1945. Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Sunk as target off Gotō Islands on 1 April 1946.
5467 I-367 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 22 October 1943 28 April 1944 15 August 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship on 1 January 1945. Decommissioned on 30 November 1945. Sunk as target off Gotō Islands on 1 April 1946.
5468 I-368 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 15 July 1943 29 January 1944 25 August 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship in early 1945. Sunk by aircraft from USS Anzio at west of Iwo Jima 24°07′N 140°19′E / 24.117°N 140.317°E / 24.117; 140.317 on 27 February 1945.
5469 I-369 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 1 September 1943 9 March 1944 9 October 1944 Converted to a tanker submarine in June 1945;[3] decommissioned on 15 September 1945. Surrendered to United States at Yokosuka, later scrapped.
5470 I-370 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 4 December 1943 26 May 1944 4 September 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship in early 1945. Sunk by USS Finnegan at south of Iwo Jima 22°45′N 141°27′E / 22.750°N 141.450°E / 22.750; 141.450 on 26 February 1945.
5471 I-371 Mitsubishi, Kōbe Shipyard 22 March 1944 21 July 1944 2 October 1944 Sunk by USS Lagarto at Bungo Channel 32°40′N 132°33′E / 32.667°N 132.550°E / 32.667; 132.550 on 24 February 1945.

I-372 class[edit]

Project number S51B. She was going to become a lead ship of the Modified Type D submarines (I-373 class), at first. However, the IJN wanted a submarine as soon as possible. She was built to tanker submarine by a revised I-361 drawings.

Boat # Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
2961 I-372 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 10 February 1944 22 June 1944 8 November 1944 Converted to a Kaiten mother ship on 16 February 1945. Sunk by USN carrier aircraft from Task Force 38 at Yokosuka on 18 July 1945. The I-372 was raised, towed to deep water, and scuttled in August 1946.

I-373 class[edit]

Project number S51C. Improved model of the I-361 class. Furthermore, the IJN was planned reinforced model of the I-373 class,[7] also. However all of them were cancelled.

Boat # Name Builder Laid down Launched Completed Fate
2962 I-373 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 15 August 1944 30 November 1944 14 April 1945 Converted to a tanker submarine in June 1945;[3] sunk by USS Spikefish at East China Sea 29°02′N 123°53′E / 29.033°N 123.883°E / 29.033; 123.883 on 13 August 1945.
2963 I-374 Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 24 October 1944 Construction stopped on 17 April 1945 (40% complete), later scrapped.
2964 I-375 Cancelled on 17 April 1945.
2965 - 2967

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Senshi Sōsho Vol.88 (1975), p.50–51
  2. ^ Senshi Sōsho Vol.88 (1975), p.94–95
  3. ^ a b c d Senshi Sōsho Vol.88 (1975), p.272–273
  4. ^ Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 p.191
  5. ^ The 潜輸大 read as "Sen'yu-Dai", but the 潜輸大型 read as "Sen'yu-Ō-gata" in Japanese.
  6. ^ 伊号第361潜水艦 (I-Gō Dai-361 Sensuikan?). The same shall apply hereinafter.
  7. ^ Project Number S60, Type D II submarine (潜丁2型 Sen Tei Ni-Gata?)

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]