German Type IX submarine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Type IX U-boat)
Jump to: navigation, search
U-505
U-505, a type IXC U-boat
Class overview
Operators:  Kriegsmarine
 Imperial Japanese Navy (U-511 and U-862)
 Soviet Navy (post war; U-1231 as B-26)
Preceded by: Type VII submarine
Succeeded by: Type X submarine
Built: 1937–1944
In commission: 1938–1945
Completed: 283[citation needed]
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Propulsion: 2 × MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,400 hp (3,300 kW)
2 × SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (740 kW)
6 × Daimler-Benz MB501 20 cylinder Diesel marine engines with total power of 9,000hp (IX-D Variant)
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Complement: 48 to 56 (55 to 63 in Type IXD)
Armament: 6 × torpedo tubes (4 bow, 2 stern)
22 × 53.3 cm (21.0 in) torpedoes (24 in Type IXD)
1 × 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun[1] with 110 rounds
Various combinations of AA cannons: Common calibers 20mm, 30mm and 37mm

The Type IX U-boat was designed by Germany in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities. Type IX boats were briefly used for patrols off the eastern United States in an attempt to disrupt the stream of troops and supplies bound for Europe. The extended range came at the cost of longer dive times and decreased maneuverability, which is why the smaller Type VII was produced in greater numbers and used for the bulk of operations.[citation needed] It was derived from the Type IA, and appeared in various sub-types.

Type IXs had six torpedo tubes; four at the bow and two at the stern. They carried six reloads internally and had five external torpedo containers (three at the stern and two at the bow) which stored ten additional torpedoes. The total of 22 torpedoes allowed U-boat commanders to follow a convoy and strike night after night. As mine-layers they could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, but many of the IXC boats were not fitted for mine operations.

Secondary armament was provided by one large Utof 105/45 gun with about 110 rounds. Anti-aircraft armament differed throughout the war. They had two periscopes in the tower. Types IXA and IXB had an additional periscope in the control room, which was removed in Type IXC and afterward.

Type IXA[edit]

General characteristics (IXA)[2]
Displacement: 1,032 t (1,016 long tons) surfaced
1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.5 m (251 ft 0 in) overall
58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced
7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged
Range: 10,500 nmi (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
65 nautical miles (120 km; 75 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged

List of Type IXA submarines[edit]

AG Weser of Bremen built eight Type IXA U-boats.

Type IXB[edit]

General characteristics (IXB)[2]
Displacement: 1,051 t (1,034 long tons) surfaced
1,178 t (1,159 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.5 m (251 ft 0 in) overall
58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced
7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged
Range: 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
64 nautical miles (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged

Type IXB was an improved model with an increased range. It was the most successful version overall with each boat averaging a total of over 100,000 tonnes sunk.

Notable IXB boats included U-123 commanded by Reinhard Hardegen, which opened up the attack in the US waters in early 1942 known as Operation Drumbeat, and U-107 operating off Freetown, Sierra Leone under the command of Günther Hessler, which had the most successful single mission of the war ever with close to 100,000 tonnes sunk.

List of Type IXB submarines[edit]

AG Weser of Bremen built 14 Type IXB U-boats.

Type IXC[edit]

General characteristics (IXC)[2]
Displacement: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced
1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) overall
58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h) surfaced
7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged
Range: 13,450 nmi (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
63 nautical miles (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged

Type IXC was a further refinement of the class with storage for an additional 43 tonnes of fuel, increasing the boat's range. This series omitted the control room periscope leaving the boats with two tower scopes.

As mine-layers they could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, though U-162 through U-170 and U-505 through U-550 (35 boats), were not fitted for mine operations.[3]

One IXC carries the distinction of being the only U-boat sunk in the Gulf of Mexico, U-166.

U-505 survives at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, and as of 2005 has been completely renovated.[4]

List of Type IXC submarines[edit]

AG Weser and Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg built 54 Type IXC submarines.


Type IXC/40[edit]

General characteristics (IXC/40)[2]
Displacement: 1,144 t (1,126 long tons) surfaced
1,257 t (1,237 long tons) submerged
Length: 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) overall
58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.86 m (22 ft 6 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.67 m (15 ft 4 in)
Speed: 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h) surfaced
7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged
Range: 13,850 nmi (25,650 km; 15,940 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
63 nautical miles (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged

Type IXC/40 was an improved Type IXC with slightly increased range and surfaced speed. The remains of U-534 are on display at Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead.[5]

List of Type IXC/40 submarines[edit]

AG Weser and Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg, built 87 of this type.

Type IXD[edit]

General characteristics (IXD)[6]
Displacement: 1,610 t (1,580 long tons) surfaced
1,799 t (1,771 long tons) submerged
Length: 87.58 m (287 ft 4 in) overall
68.5 m (224 ft 9 in) pressure hull
Beam: 7.5 m (24 ft 7 in) overall
4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)
Draft: 5.35 m (17 ft 7 in)
Speed: 20.8 knots (38.5 km/h) surfaced
6.9 knots (12.8 km/h) submerged
Range: 9,500 nmi (17,600 km; 10,900 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced
57 nautical miles (106 km; 66 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged

Type IXD was significantly longer and heavier than the IXC/40. It was faster than the IXC but at the cost of slightly reduced range. They had three pairs of Daimler Benz diesels: two pairs for cruise and one for high speed or battery recharge. There were three variants: the IXD1, IXD2 and IXD/42. The IXD1 had unreliable engines and they were later converted for use in surface transport vessels. The IXD2 comprised most of the class and had a range of over 23,700 miles. The IXD/42, was almost identical but with more engine power (5,400 ehp instead of 4,400).

In 1943 and 1944 the torpedo tubes were removed from a number of IXD boats converted for transport use. In their new role they could transport 252 tonnes of cargo.

List of Type IXD submarines[edit]

AG Weser of Bremen built 30 Type IXD U-boats.

Several Type IXD/42 U-boats were contracted to be built AG Weser of Bremen, but only two were commissioned. They were:

  • U-883 was launched on April 28, 1944 and commissioned March 27, 1945. Her career ended in Operation Deadlight.
  • U-884 was launched on May 17, 1944 but was badly damaged on March 30, 1945 by US bombs while still in the dockyard.
  • U-885, U-886, U-887 and U-888 were laid down but construction halted on September 30, 1943 when all IXD/42 contracts were cancelled.

See also[edit]

Media related to Type IX submarines at Wikimedia Commons

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 pp.248&249
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner, p. 105.
  3. ^ Gröner, p. 106.
  4. ^ "U-505 (German Submarine)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  5. ^ "The U-Boat Story - The Story of World War 2 German Submarine U-534". u-boatstory.co.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  6. ^ Gröner, p. 114.
Bibliography
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). "U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher". Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.