Typhlopidae are a family of blind snakes. They are found mostly in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and all mainland Australia and various islands. [2 ] The rostral scale overhangs the mouth to form a shovel-like burrowing structure. They live underground in burrows, and since they have no use for vision, their eyes are mostly [3 ] vestigial. They have light-detecting black eye spots, and teeth occur in the upper jaw. The tail ends with a horn-like scale. Most of these species are oviparous. Currently, ten genera are recognized containing over 200 species. [2 ] [4 ]
Geographic range [ edit ]
They are found in most tropical and many subtropical regions all over the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, islands in the Pacific, tropical America, and southeastern Europe.
[2 ] Taxon author
[2 ] Species
[2 ] Common name
Wallach, 1995 5
Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands
Afrotyphlops Broadley & Wallach, 2009
Austrotyphlops Wallach, 2006
Cyclotyphlops Bosch & Ineich, 1994
Indonesia: Selatan Province, southern Sulawesi
Grypotyphlops Peters, 1881
Cope, 1869 [7 ]
Megatyphlops Broadley & Wallach, 2009
Fitzinger, 1843 49
long-tailed blind snakes
Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China, the Lesser Sundas, Moluccas, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Palau Islands, Australia, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, the Loyalty Islands, the Fiji Islands, and possibly New Calidonia
Rhinotyphlops Fitzinger, 1843
India, the Middle East, and Africa south of the
Oppel, 1811 120
[2 ] Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, tropical and subtropical Asia, most of Africa,
Madagascar and certain islands of the Indian Ocean, the Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Central America, South America, and the West Indies
T Type genus [1 ]
Former genera [ edit ]
, formerly classified as a Typhlopidae, is now classed as a Xenotyphlops Xenotyphlopidae.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b c d McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
^ a b c d e f g "Typhlopidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System . Retrieved 14 August 2007.
^ Shine. R, 2007 Australian Snakes, a natural history, New Holland Publishers Chatswood ISBN 978-1-876334-25-3
^ Pyron, Robert Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T. and Wiens, John J. (2013). "A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes". BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 (1): 93–145. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-93. PMC 3682911. PMID 23627680.
^ a b Broadley, Donald G., and Wallach, Van (2009). "A review of the eastern and southern African blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae), excluding . Letheobia Cope, with the description of two new genera and a new species" Zootaxa (2255): 1–100.
^ Resurrected for a reclassified Rhinotyphlops acutus by Wallach (2003). Wallach, Van and Pauwels, Olivier S. G. (2004). "Typhlops lazelli, a new species of Chinese blindsnake from Hong Kong (Serpentes: Typhlopidae)". Breviora (512): 1–21.
^ Resurrected by Broadley and Wallach (2007). Wallach, Van; Brown, R. M.; Diesmos, A. C. and Gee, G. V. A. (2007). "An Enigmatic New Species of Blind Snake from Luzon Island, Northern Philippines, with a Synopsis of the Genus Acutotyphlops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae)". Journal of Herpetology 41 (4): 690–702.
External links [ edit ]