Typhoon Durian

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This article is about the 2006 typhoon. For other storms of the same name, see Typhoon Durian (disambiguation).
Typhoon Durian (Reming)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Durian 29 Nov 2006.png
Typhoon Durian at peak intensity on November 29, 2006
Formed November 25, 2006
Dissipated December 7, 2006
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 250 km/h (155 mph)
Lowest pressure 915 mbar (hPa); 27.02 inHg
Fatalities More than 1,500[1][2]
Damage At least $530 million (2006 USD)
Areas affected Yap State, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia
Part of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season and the 2006 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

Typhoon Durian (international designation: 0621, JTWC designation: 24W, PAGASA name: Reming) was an intense tropical cyclone that wreaked havoc in the Philippines, causing massive loss of life when mudslides from the Mayon Volcano buried many villages. The name Durian was submitted to the naming list by Thailand, which refers to a fruit, Durio zibethinus.[3]

Durian first made landfall in the Philippines packing strong winds and heavy rains that caused mudslides near Mayon Volcano. After causing massive damage in the Philippines, it exited into the South China Sea and weakened slightly, before managing to reorganise and restrengthen into a typhoon shortly before its second landfall, this time in Vietnam near Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, causing further damage of more than US$400 million. In all, Durian killed almost 2,000 people, and left hundreds more missing. Damages in the Philippines from the typhoon amounted to 5.086 billion PHP (US$130 million).[4]

Meteorological history[edit]

Map showing the path of the storm; the points indicate the storm's position and intensity at six-hour intervals, and is colored using the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.

Durian formed as a tropical depression on November 25, 2006 near Chuuk State. Situated south of a ridge, the system tracked west-northwest over a region characterized by low wind shear and good upper-level divergence.[5] Late on November 26 the depression intensified into a tropical storm and was named Durian. Steady strengthening took place over the following two days as the system approached the Philippines. After attaining typhoon status on November 29,[6] Durian underwent a period of rapid intensification,[5] culminating with it attaining peak winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) and a barometric pressure of 915 mbar (hPa; 27.02 inHg). Durian brushed the southern coast of the Catanduanes at this intensity, where a record gust of 320 km/h (200 mph) was observed.[6][7]

Slight weakening took place before the storm made landfall in the Bicol Region.[6] Land interaction precipitated further degradation of storm, though it retained typhoon status upon emerging over the South China Sea on December 1.[5] Some re-intensification occurred, with Durian reaching a secondary peak on December 3. Subsequently, increasingly hostile conditions caused the system to weaken to a tropical storm as it turned southwest. Durian struck southern Vietnam early on December 5 as a tropical storm before diminishing to a tropical depression.[6] The system turned westward once again and crossed Malay Peninsula. Failing to reorganize, Durian degenerated into a remnant low on December 7 before ultimately dissipating two days later off the coast of Andhra Pradesh, India.[8]

Preparations[edit]

Yap State[edit]

The typhoon was designated as a tropical depression by the Japan Meteorological Agency on November 25 and later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began issuing regular warnings that it was moving west-northwest toward Yap State.

Philippines[edit]

Durian on November 30, making landfall over the Philippines.
Durian approaching Vietnam

Officials ordered the evacuation of citizens along coastal areas. In nearby Naga City, about 1,500 citizens left for emergency shelters. 1,000 were evacuated elsewhere in the region,[9] including 120 in the capital city of Manila and more than 800 in Legazpi City. In and around Manila, officials closed schools and canceled at least 11 flights at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, including 9 domestic flights. The Coast Guard grounded all vessels on open waters, stranding around 4,000 ferry passengers in Quezon province. 25 provinces in the archipelago were placed on storm alert.[10]

Vietnam[edit]

On November 30, while the typhoon was over the Philippines, the Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control and the National Committee for Search and Rescue sent telegraphs advising of the typhoon to search and rescue teams stationed along the entire coast of the country (Quảng Ninh Province to Cà Mau). All provinces along the South China Sea were advised to assist an estimated 14,585 vessels in the path of the storm.[11] All craft were later banned from leaving harbors.[12] Requests were also made to neighboring countries to allow Vietnamese fishermen to take refuge in their ports.[13] Strong wind warnings were disseminated to residents between Phú Yên and Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Provinces by December 2. These areas, as well as the inland provinces of Đắk Lắk, Lâm Đồng, and Bình Phước redirected all focus on the typhoon and the potential for life-threatening flash flooding.[14] Evacuation orders for southern provinces were issued by December 3, with Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh Hung stating, "the evacuation must be completed by Monday morning [December 4]."[12] Threatening an area not frequented by typhoons, many residents did not heed warnings as weather conditions ahead of the storm were calm. Approximately 6,800 people in Ninh Thuận Province complied with the evacuation orders; however, officials requested the assistance of the Vietnamese Army to relocate roughly 90,000 people.[15] Following an unpredicted southerly shift in the storm's track towards the Mekong Delta, Hung later urged residents and officials to prepare for the storm, "all provinces should prepare so that we do not have another Linda."[16]

Impact[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Satellite-derived rainfall totals due to Durian for the period 24 November to 1 December 2006 for the Central Philippines. Rainfall totals exceeding 200 mm (~8 inches) are shown in red and extend from the western Philippine Sea across southern sections of Luzon, Catanduanes Island, and northern Samar.

Upon making landfall, the powerful winds of the hurricane blew away houses, uprooted trees,[9] and left tens of thousands of residents without power. Widespread flooding was reported in Legazpi City.[10]

The typhoon produced heavy rainfall across its path, with localized totals reaching over 18 inches in Albay province. Earlier eruptions of Mayon Volcano combined with the rainfall to result in widespread mudslides across the province.[17]

The next day, reports of deaths or injuries had not reached the media centres.[9] Two weeks later, the death toll had risen to at least 720.[18]

The death toll in Albay due to mudslides from Mayon Volcano stands between 800-1,000 but the final death toll is not known, because large areas buried by major lahars around the volcano cannot be excavated.

Vietnam[edit]

Strong winds capsized several boats offshore Vietnam, killing two with one missing.[19] In Bình Thuận Province alone, 820 boats sank,[20] and throughout the country 896 fishing boats sank.[21]

Heavy rainfall from the typhoon destroyed 22 schools and 1,120 houses in Bình Thuận Province. Strong winds from Durian blew off the roofs of about 500 houses in Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province.[20] Throughout the nation, the passage of the typhoon destroyed 34,000 homes, with an additional 166,000 damaged. Typhoon Durian killed 98 in the country and injured 1,770 others. [1]

Aftermath[edit]

Typhoon Durian Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) image. It shows the well-defined eye of the storm and the clouds surrounding it.

Philippines[edit]

On December 3, due to the significant impact of Durian on the Philippines, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a state of calamity in the Philippines, ordering the immediate release of 1 billion Philippine pesos ($20.7 million, 2006 USD) for relief in areas affected by Durian, Typhoon Xangsane, and Typhoon Cimaron.[22] This relief fund was increased to 3.6 billion pesos ($74.8 million, 2006 USD) on December 6, including an additional 150 million pesos ($3.1 million) for power grid repair.[23]

The international response came shortly after the calamity status was declared. On December 3, Canada released $1 million ($860,000 USD) for local relief through its embassy in Manila and through the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.[22][24] UNICEF donated 4,000 packages containing food, mattresses, and blankets, and UNOCHA donated $1– 2 million (USD) for relief supplies.[24] Spain donated $250,000 (USD) and sent medical teams, medicines, food, and supplies to affected areas.[25] The United States donated $250,000 plus supplies through the USAID program, and the Filipino community on Saipan contributed cash, food, and supplies.[24] Australia released $1 million ($792,000 USD) through its AusAID program.[24] Indonesia sent two C-130 Hercules aircraft to Legazpi City, carrying a total of 25 tons of food, medicine, and clothing valued at 1.17 billion Indonesian rupiah ($129,000 USD).[25] Japan pledged tents, blankets, generators, and water management equipment through the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[25] Malaysia donated 20 tons of food and medicines, and Singapore sent two batches of supplies valued at $50,000 (USD) through Singapore Airlines.[24] The Republic of Korea pledged $100,000 (USD) cash, while the People's Republic of China pledged $200,000 (USD).[25] Israel donated $7,500 (USD), mostly in medicines and medical supplies.[25]

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam, which had recently been affected by Typhoon Xangsane, the national government released 150 billion Vietnamese đồng ($9 million, 2006 USD) in food and supplies to families in affected areas.[26] The United States donated $100,000 (USD), and its Oxfam organisation donated $200,000 (USD) to the most affected provinces.[26] The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement launched an emergency appeal for $2.47 million (USD) to support the efforts of the Vietnam Red Cross, which distributed over 2,000 packets of supplies and over 2 tonnes of rice, medicine, and clothes.[27]

Retirement[edit]

Due to the significant amounts of damage and fatalities Durian caused, it was decided at the 39th annual meeting of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee in Manila in December 2006 that the name Durian, along with four others, would be retired from the name list.[28] In December 2007, the committee selected the name Mangkhut to replace Durian on the Western Pacific basin name lists beginning in 2008.[29] Its PAGASA name, Reming, was also retired by PAGASA. In 2010 the name selected by PAGASA to replace Reming was Ruby.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Analysis: Indonesia: Earthquake - May 2006, Disaster data: A balanced perspective - Mar 2007, Analysis: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Disaster data: A balanced perspective - Mar 2007
  2. ^ Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoons Revised Appeal No. MDRVN001 Operation Update No. 3, Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Xangsane - Sep 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoons Revised Appeal No. MDRVN001 Operation
  3. ^ "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea". RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  4. ^ http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stormstats/CostliestPhilippineTyphoons.htm
  5. ^ a b c Gary Padgett, Kevin Boyle, and Simon Clarke (March 7, 2007). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary – November 2006" (Report). Typhoon 2000. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d (Japanese) "台風0621号 (0621 Durian)" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  7. ^ Dominic Alojado and David Michael V. Padua (July 29, 2010). "Strongest Typhoons of the Philippines (1947–2009)". Typhoon 2000. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Typhoon 24W 2006 (Durian) Best Track" (.TXT). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Powerful Typhoon Durian lashes eastern Philippines". USA Today. Associated Press. 2006-12-01. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  10. ^ a b "Powerful Typhoon Durian blows away houses, knocks off power as it slams into Philippines". Associated Press. 2006-11-29. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  11. ^ "Viet Nam: Flash report No. 367 - 1st December 2006". Government of Vietnam. ReliefWeb. December 1, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "Vietnam evacuates 50,000 ahead of typhoon Durian". Hanoi, Vietnam: ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. December 4, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Typhoon Durian claims 18 lives in Vietnam". Hanoi, Vietnam: ReliefWeb. Xinhua. December 5, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Viet Nam: Urgent telegraph - No.09 typhoon with strong wind force". Government of Vietnam. ReliefWeb. December 2, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Vietnam evacuates 90,000 ahead of typhoon Durian". Hanoi, Vietnam: ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. December 4, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Typhoon kills 44 in Vietnam, flooding fears". Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: ReliefWeb. Reuters. December 5, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  17. ^ Steve Lang (2006). "Typhoon Durian Triggers Massive Mudslides in the Philippines". NASA. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  18. ^ Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: NDCC media update - Typhoon "Reming" (Durian) 13 Dec 2006
  19. ^ CBC (2006-12-04). "Vietnam braces for weakened Typhoon Durian". CBC News. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  20. ^ a b "Typhoon Durian tears into southern Vietnam, killing 26". Reuters. 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  21. ^ United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2006). "Viet Nam: Typhoon Durian OCHA Situation Report No. 1". Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  22. ^ a b Contributions: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: PGMA declares state of national calamity in aftermath of typhoon 'Reming', Press Releases: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: PGMA declares state of national cala
  23. ^ Manila Bulletin Online
  24. ^ a b c d e Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: Typhoon OCHA Situation Report No. 4
  25. ^ a b c d e Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: NDCC media update - Typhoon "Reming" (Durian) 06 Dec 2006, 6pm
  26. ^ a b Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoon Durian OCHA Situation Report No. 2
  27. ^ Press Releases: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Vietnam: Emergency funds sought following Durian
  28. ^ (Chinese) ESCAP/WMO台风委员会第三十九次届会在菲律宾召开
  29. ^ "Typhoon Committee adopt new typhoon name". China Meteorological Agency. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11. 

External links[edit]