Typhoon Usagi (2013)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the 2013 typhoon. For other storms of the same name, see Typhoon Usagi (disambiguation).
Typhoon Usagi (Odette)
Violent Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 4 (Saffir–Simpson equivalent)
Usagi Sep 19 2013 0215Z.jpg
Typhoon Usagi near peak intensity on September 19, 2013
Formed September 16, 2013
Dissipated September 24, 2013
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 205 km/h (125 mph)
1-minute sustained: 250 km/h (155 mph)
Lowest pressure 910 mbar (hPa); 26.87 inHg
Fatalities 35 total
Damage $4.33 billion (2013 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Usagi, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Odette, was a violent tropical cyclone which affected Taiwan, the Philippines, China, and Hong Kong in September 2013. Usagi (ウサギ usagi?), which means the constellation Lepus or literally rabbit in Japanese, was the fourth typhoon and the nineteenth tropical storm in the basin. Developing into a tropical storm east of the Philippines late on September 16, Usagi began explosive intensification on September 19 and ultimately became a violent and large typhoon. Afterwards, the system weakened slowly, crossed the Bashi Channel on September 21, and made landfall over Guangdong, China on September 22.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

Early on September 16, 2013 the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) started to monitor a tropical depression, that had developed within an area of low-moderate vertical windshear about 1,300 km (810 mi) to the east of Manilla in the Philippines.[1][2] During that day as the systems low level circulation centre became better defined, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) named the system Odette.[3][4]

Late on the same day, JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm and named it Usagi (1319); at the same time, The JTWC upgraded it to a tropical depression 17W, owing to a tropical upper tropospheric trough cell located to the east in association with an anticyclone enhancing the outflow in the eastern and southern quadrants.[5]

On September 17, The JTWC upgraded Usagi to a tropical storm, as the system continued to consolidate and wrap tighter when slowly tracking westward along the extreme southern periphery of the subtropical ridge.[6] Early on September 18, JMA upgraded Usagi to a severe tropical storm; at noon, both JMA and The JTWC upgraded Usagi to a typhoon, as deep convection had completely wrapped around a developing eye with radial outflow and low vertical wind shear.[7] On September 19, Usagi began explosive intensification and formed a 28 km (17 mi) round eye; as the result, The JTWC upgraded Usagi to a category 5 equivalent-super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale at noon.[8] At 18Z, Usagi reached its peak intensity with 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 205 km/h (125 mph) and the atmospheric pressure at 910 hPa (26.87 inHg). On September 20, Usagi began an eyewall replacement cycle with a 75 km (47 mi) inner eyewall and a 190 km (120 mi) outer eyewall separated by a clearly defined moat, as well as the system began to weaken late on the same day due to land interaction between Taiwan and Luzon.[9]

Typhoon Usagi approaching Guangdong, China on September 22

When Usagi had ventured into the Bashi Channel early on September 21, the JTWC downgraded it to a typhoon for convection becoming more shallow.[10] However, sustained winds up to 180 km/h (110 mph) and the atmospheric pressure at 923 hPa (27.26 inHg) were recorded on Basco, Batanes when the eyewall passed the municipality.[11] Later, as the eyewall replacement cycle had completed, the eye became cloud-filled, although the environment remained favourable with excellent radial outflow and low vertical wind shear.[12] On September 22, Usagi’s eye resurged, allowing the typhoon maintaining intensity when approaching the coast of China.[13] At 11:40 UTC (19:40 CST), Typhoon Usagi made landfall over Shanwei, Guangdong, China with 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 85 knots (155 km/h, 100 mph) and the atmospheric pressure at 935 hPa (27.61 inHg).[14] Soon, the JTWC issued its final warning on Usagi, while the JMA downgraded it to a severe tropical storm at 18Z.[15] On September 23, the JMA downgraded the Usagi to a tropical storm and later a tropical depression in Guangxi. The system subsequently dissipated during September 24.[16]

Preparations and impact[edit]

At least two people, a 50-year-old man and a 20-year-old woman, drowned when a passenger boat capsized off northeastern Aurora province in the Philippines, and two others were missing. Cathay Pacific Airways and Dragonair said flights on September 21 were unaffected, but for one canceled flight. However, both airlines announced that flights to and from Hong Kong International Airport would be cancelled starting 6 p.m. September 22 and resume the next day if conditions allow.[17] In Taiwan, more than 3,000 people were evacuated from flood-prone areas and mountainous regions. Some mountain roads were blocked by landslides, and power outages suspended some train service.[18]

In response to the storm’s approach Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Observatory issued the No. 8 Gale or Storm Signal at 18:40 local time.[19] It made landfall near Shanwei of the Chinese Guangdong province, and passed to the north of Shenzhen, heading northeast. As the typhoon moved away from Hong Kong, the HKO lowered the typhoon signal to the Strong Wind Signal No. 3 at 09.25 the next morning. Usagi dissipated on September 24.

Throughout Guangdong, China, at least 15,000 homes were destroyed and 152,000 hectares of crops were lost. Total economic losses in the province reached ¥17.76 billion (US$2.9 billion).[20] At least 50 people have died in Asia;[21] of this number, 30 deaths occurred in Guangdong province of south China.[22]

Philippines[edit]

Early on September 17, PAGASA issued the public storm warning signal number 1 for Cagayan, Calayan and the Babuyan island groups, however these were lifted later that day as Usagi was expected to remain almost stationary for 24 – 36 hours.[23][24] PAGASA subsequently reissued warning signal number 1 for Cagayan, Calayan, Isabela and the Babuyan island group, during the next day after the system became a typhoon and started moving again.[25] Early the next day as the system intensified further Signal 1 and 2 were hoisted for 7 and 5 areas respectively. Later that day as Usagi approached Northern Luzon and the JTWC reported that the system had become a super typhoon signal 4 was raised for the Batanes island group while signal 3 was hoisted for the Calayan and Babuyan Island groups and various other areas were placed under signals 1 and 2.

China[edit]

Within China a total of 35 people were killed, while 15 rivers within Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Jiangxi were flooded between September 23 - 25.[26] Within Guangdong and Fujian province, heavy to heavy rain was recorded, with the Liangshan mountain in Fujian Province recording 407 mm (16.0 in) of rain, while 308 mm (12.1 in) of rain was measured in the Gaojiping, Guangdong Province.[26]

Taiwan[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

As Usagi neared to Hong Kong, news and media began rapidly reporting on "the strongest storm in 34 years" that would hit Hong Kong. However, on the evening of the impact, Usagi's course veered north, and instead of making a direct or near-direct hit, Usagi made landfall some 130 kilometers (80 miles) to the east, and continued further northward that expected. Subsequently, the city faced only faced the strongest storm of the year; Typhoon Vicente from the previous year was more damaging in Hong Kong. Still, Usagi caused significant damage, and prompted the Hong Kong Observatory to issue the No. 8 Gale or Storm Wind signal, and keep in force for 14 hours.

Macau[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center (September 16, 2013). "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory September 16, 2013 00z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  2. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (September 15, 2013). "Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Western and South Pacific Ocean September 15, 2013 22z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  3. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (September 16, 2013). "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert September 16, 2013 04z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Alert: Tropical Depression "Odette" September 16, 2013 09z". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  5. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 17W (Seventeen) Warning Nr 01". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  6. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 03". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 08". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 12". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  9. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 15". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 18". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Violent "Super" Typhoon Usagi / Odette Saturday Evening Update". Westernpacificweather.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "PROGNOSTIC REASONING FOR TYPHOON 17W (USAGI) WARNING NR 19". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 17W (Usagi) Warning Nr 22". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  14. ^ "台风"天兔"已致广东25人死亡". BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  15. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "TYPHOON 17W (USAGI) WARNING NR 024". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2013-09-24T06:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Special arrangement for assistance during typhoon disruption". Cathay Pacific. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Typhoon Usagi hammers Taiwan, Philippines, approaches Hong Kong". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved September 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ "TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNING". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved September 22, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Typhoon Usagi kills 29 in China's Guangdong". Guangzhou, China: Xinhua General News. September 24, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Typhoon blows into China, kills 33 people in Asia". The Hindu. September 23, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Typhoon Usagi kills at least 25 people in China". BBC News. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Tropical Storm "Odette (Usagi)" September 17, 2013 03z". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. September 17, 2013. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Tropical Storm "Odette (Usagi)" September 17, 2013 09z". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. September 17, 2013. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Typhoon "Odette (Usagi)" September 18, 2013 15z". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. September 18, 2013. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  26. ^ a b China Meteorological Agency (November 22, 2013). "Member Report: China". ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee: 8th Integrated Workshop/2nd TRCG Forum. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. p. 16. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 

External links[edit]