- Typhoid fever, also called abdominal typhus occasionally, caused by a certain type of subspecies of Salmonella enterica, i.e. Salmonella Typhi.
- Paratyphoid fever - a disease similar to typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella paratyphi.
- Typhinia - an obsolete synonym for Relapsing fever, a group of spirochetoses caused by Borrelia.
These three diseases were considered as one until first half of 19th century (typhoid fever was separated from typhus in 1829, and relapsing fever was differentiated in 1843).
In a number of other languages (especially Slavic, such as Russian, Bulgarian, or Ukrainian), these three groups of different infectious diseases share the same basic name ("тиф" for the Cyrillic languages). In German, the term Typhus refers to typhoid fever, whereas rickettsioses are referred to as Fleckfieber.
- Typhus (Dungeons & Dragons) - A dungeons and dragons character
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