Tyrol (state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tyrol
Tirol
Tirolo
State of Austria
Flag of Tyrol
Flag
Coat of arms of Tyrol
Coat of arms
Location of Tyrol
Country  Austria
Capital Innsbruck
Government
 • Landeshauptmann Günther Platter (ÖVP)
Area
 • Total 12,683.85 km2 (4,897.26 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 714,469
 • Density 56.33/km2 (145.9/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code AT-7
NUTS Region AT3
Votes in Bundesrat 5 (of 62)
Website www.tirol.gv.at

Tyrol (/tɪˈrl, t-, ˈtrl/; German: About this sound Tirol , Italian: Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historic Princely County of Tyrol, corresponding with the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck.

Geography[edit]

The state is split into two parts – a larger called North Tyrol (Nordtirol), and the smaller East Tyrol (Osttirol) – by a 20-kilometre (12 mi) wide strip of the Alpine divide where the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg borders directly on the Italian province of South Tyrol. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2 (4,897.26 sq mi), it is the third largest state in Austria.

North Tyrol borders on the federal state of Salzburg in the east and on Vorarlberg in the west, in the north it adjoins the German state of Bavaria, and in the south Italian South Tyrol (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region) as well as the Swiss canton of Graubünden. East Tyrol also borders on the federal state of Carinthia in the east and on the Italian Province of Belluno (Veneto) in the south.

The state's territory is entirely located in the Eastern Alps at the important Brenner Pass. The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner within the Hohe Tauern range at the border with Carinthia, and with an elevation of 3,797 m (12,457.35 ft) it is also the highest mountain of Austria.

Towns[edit]

Innsbruck, view from Mt. Bergisel

The capital Innsbruck is known for its university, especially in medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Kitzbühel, Ischgl and St. Anton, but has no cities besides Innsbruck. The 14 largest towns in Tyrol are:

Town Inhabitants
January 2011
1. Innsbruck 120,147
2. Kufstein 17,388
3. Telfs 14,626
4. Schwaz 12,995
5. Hall in Tirol 12,695
6. Wörgl 12,645
7. Lienz 11,955
8. Imst 9,494
9. Rum 8,850
10. St. Johann in Tirol 8,766
11. Kitzbühel 8,207
12. Landeck 7,713
13. Zirl 7,641
14. Wattens 7,625

Administrative divisions[edit]

Districts of Tyrol

The state is divided into 10 districts (Bezirke); one of them, Innsbruck, is a statutory city. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are:

Statutory city:

North Tyrol:

East Tyrol:

History[edit]

Main article: History of Tyrol
Tyrolean pilgrims, 19th century
Golden Roof, Innsbruck

In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Raetia (left of the Inn River) and Noricum and from the mid-6th century was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tirol Castle, achieved Imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138 and their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right.

When the Counts of Tyrol became extinct in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner counts of Görz. In 1271 the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it (as "outer county") to his comital possessions around Gorizia ("inner county"). The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner dynasty, Margaret bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420 the comital residence was relocated from Meran to Innsbruck. The Tyrolean lands were re-united, when the Habsburgs also inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500.

In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, which the next year became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire. But Tyrol was ceded to Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Laterly South Tyrol was ceded to Kingdom of Italy, was client state of First French Empire by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat whole Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. It was a Cisleithanian Kronland (royal territory) of Austria-Hungary from 1867. The County of Tyrol then extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including in addition to North Tyrol and East Tyrol the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino (Welschtirol) as well as three municipalities, which today are part of the adjacent Province of Belluno. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.

After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence in 1955.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°16′6.92″N 11°23′35.72″E / 47.2685889°N 11.3932556°E / 47.2685889; 11.3932556