|Date of birth||8 July 1958|
|Place of birth||Tel Aviv, Israel|
|Knessets||15, 16, 17, 18, 19|
|Party represented in Knesset|
|2001||Minister of Regional Co-operation|
|2001–2002||Minister without Portfolio|
|2002–2003||Minister of Agriculture|
|2003–2006||Minister of Immigrant Absorption|
|2004–2005||Minister of Housing & Construction|
|2006–2007||Minister of Justice|
|2006–2009||Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|2013–||Minister of Justice|
|2009–2012||Leader of the Opposition|
Tziporah Malkah "Tzipi" Livni Spitzer (Hebrew: ציפורה מלכה "ציפי" לבני שפיצר, pronounced [tsipoˈʁa malˈka ˈtsipi ˈlivni]; born 8 July 1958) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as Minister of Justice of Israel. She previously served as a minister in the Israeli cabinet from 2001 to 2009, most notably serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2009. Following her failure to form a government after the 2009 Israeli elections, she served as Israeli Opposition Leader from 2009 to 2012 and leader of Kadima, the largest party in the Knesset.
Raised an ardent nationalist, Livni has become one of her nation's leading voices for the two-state solution. In Israel she has earned a reputation as an honest politician who sticks to her principles. In 2011 Livni was named one of "150 Women Who Shake the World" by Newsweek and The Daily Beast.
Since 18 March 2013 she has served as the Israeli Minister of Justice under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, as leader of the liberal Hatnuah party, which won 6 seats in the January 2013 Israeli elections. She is also charged with overseeing the country's diplomatic initiatives and peace talks with the Palestinians.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Military service
- 3 Education, family, early career
- 4 Early political and public career
- 5 Cabinet minister
- 6 Joining Kadima
- 7 Deputy prime minister
- 8 Kadima leadership and prime minister-designation
- 9 2009 elections
- 10 Opposition leader
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Born in Tel Aviv, Livni is the daughter of Eitan Livni (born in Poland) and Sara (Rosenberg), both prominent former Irgun members. After Israel's independence, Eitan and Sarah Livni became the first couple to marry in the new state. Her father served as the chief operations officer of the Irgun.
As a child, Livni was a member of the Betar youth movement and played basketball for Elitzur Tel Aviv. Growing up in an Israel dominated by the Labor Party, Livni says she felt marginalized, believing that the establishment had minimized her parents’ contribution to Israel’s founding. Despite the hard-line image of the Irgun, she says her parents “were freedom fighters, not terrorists," and that they “respected the Arabs.” According to Livni, her parents acted only against the British army, and not civilians. During the 1984 Likud primaries, her father, who had served in the Knesset for Herut and Likud, did not campaign for a seat in the Knesset, and urged party members to support a Druze candidate instead because he thought it important for Likud to have Arab representation.
Tzipi Livni served as a lieutenant in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). According to an interview in Yediot Aharonot, described in The Sunday Times, she served in the elite Mossad unit responsible for Operation Wrath of God (also known as Bayonet) in the 1980s. She resigned from the IDF in August 1983 to marry and finish her law studies.
Education, family, early career
A graduate of Bar-Ilan University's Faculty of Law, she has practiced public and commercial law for 10 years. Livni resides in Tel Aviv. She is married to advertising executive Naftali Spitzer, and the couple have two children, Omri and Yuval. Livni has been a vegetarian since the age of 12. Besides her native language, Hebrew, Livni also speaks English and fluent French (having lived in Paris for a number of years).
Early political and public career
Livni entered politics in 1996 when she tried unsuccessfully to win a spot on Likud's list to the Knesset. She was appointed as head of the government-owned corporations authority in Netanyahu's government, and oversaw the privatization of a number of companies. While in this capacity, in 1998 she was considered a prominent candidate to become director general of the Finance Ministry."
Livni would later rue the decision to privatize certain companies and natural resources. As chairwoman of Hatnuah in 2013, she wrote, "I am not sure that today I would once again privatize Israel Chemicals and the natural resources at the Dead Sea."
Livni was first elected to the Knesset as a member of the Likud party in 1999. When Likud leader Ariel Sharon became prime minister in July 2001, Livni was appointed Minister of Regional Co-operation, and thereafter held various Cabinet positions including Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Minister of Immigrant Absorption and Minister of Housing and Construction. She received the Abirat Ha-Shilton ("Quality of Governance") award for 2004. On 1 October 2005, she was appointed Minister of Justice after several months acting in that position.
In Sharon's Cabinet, Livni was an avid supporter of the prime minister's disengagement plan, and was generally considered to be among the key dovish or moderate members of the Likud party. She often mediated between various elements inside the party, and made efforts to achieve a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including successful efforts to have the pullout from the Gaza Strip ratified by the Knesset. On 12 November 2005, she spoke at the official annual commemoration of Yitzhak Rabin's assassination.
On 20 November 2005, Livni followed Sharon and Ehud Olmert into the new Kadima Party. Ahead of the 28 March elections, Livni was appointed to be the new Foreign Minister, while continuing to serve as Justice Minister, as a result of the mass resignation of Likud Party members from the government.
In the selection of candidates for the March 2006 Knesset election, Livni was awarded the number three position on Kadima's list of candidates, which effectively guaranteed her election to the Knesset.
Deputy prime minister
On 4 May 2006, with the swearing-in of the 31st Government, Livni became Vice (or Deputy) Prime Minister and retained the position of Foreign Minister. She ceased serving as Justice Minister at that time, but again held that position from 29 November 2006 to 7 February 2007, while still serving in her primary role of Foreign Minister.
After the March 2006 Knesset election, Livni was described as "the second most powerful politician in Israel". Livni is the second woman in Israel to hold the post of foreign minister, after Golda Meir. In 2007, she was included in the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World. Forbes ranked her the 40th most powerful woman in the world in 2006, 39th in 2007, and 52nd in 2008.
Livni became the first Israeli cabinet minister to explicitly differentiate Palestinian guerrilla attacks against Israeli military targets from terrorist attacks against civilians. In an interview on the US television news show Nightline, recorded on 28 March 2006, Livni stated, "Somebody who is fighting against Israeli soldiers is an enemy and we will fight back, but I believe that this is not under the definition of terrorism, if the target is a soldier."
On 2 May 2007, Livni called for Olmert's resignation in the wake of the publication of the Winograd Commission's interim report. She offered herself as leader of Kadima if Olmert decided to step down, and asserted her confidence in her ability to defeat him in a party election should he decline. However, her call was ignored by Olmert and her decision to stay in the Cabinet sparked some controversy.
Kadima leadership and prime minister-designation
In the Kadima leadership election held on 17 September 2008, Olmert decided not to stand for re-election as party leader, and stated he would resign as prime minister following the election. Livni and Shaul Mofaz emerged as the main rivals for the leadership. Livni won the Kadima leadership election by a margin of just 431 votes (1%). Palestinian peace negotiators were reportedly pleased with the result.
Upon declaring victory in the leadership election, Livni said the "national responsibility (bestowed) by the public brings me to approach this job with great reverence."
On 21 September 2008, Olmert, who was facing several criminal investigations, formally resigned his office in a letter submitted to president Shimon Peres, and the following day Peres formally asked Livni to form a new government. Livni faced tough negotiations with Kadima's coalition partners, particularly the Shas party, which had set conditions for joining a Livni government. Likud, the main opposition party, lobbied Shas and other parties seeking to bring about that result.
|Wikinews has related news:|
In February 2009 Israel held elections for the national parliament, the Knesset. Livni, foreign minister and head of the Kadima party, campaigned against Benjamin Netanyahu of the Likud party to lead the new government. While election results gave Kadima the most seats in the Knesset, parties to the right in Israel's political spectrum gained enough seats that a coalition government under Kadima leadership was unlikely. As a result, Israeli president Shimon Peres asked Netanyahu and Likud (which received one fewer seat than Kadima in the elections) to form a government; this is the first time in Israel's history that the party with the most seats was not asked to attempt to form a government.
The New York Times commended Livni for "refusing the extortionist conditions set by Shas," and endorsed her candidacy for prime minister, saying Israelis would have "a clear choice in February between a leader who has the courage to abandon tired old thinking on politics and security and one who has not." Although it expressed some doubts, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz also endorsed Livni for prime minister.
When Livni was tapped to form the next governing coalition, Palestinian political analyst Mahdi Abdel Hadi said that Livni has been received warmly in the Gulf, and that she is the leader most Arabs want to see as Israel's next prime minister. During the 2009 general elections, Arab media depicted her very negatively but as the lesser of the evils.
After an internal Foreign Ministry document stated that some European Union countries were considering freezing a planned upgrade in relations with Israel, Livni, as opposition leader, wrote in the message addressed to EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana, the EU's external relations commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner, and the EU's current council president, Czech foreign minister Karel Schwarzenberg: "You all know my commitment to peace between Israel and its neighbors and to the two-state solution, a commitment shared with the majority of the Israeli public. I believe that this kind of attitude, one which directly links an upgrade in relations with regional diplomatic progress, is overlooking the substantial gains that the upgrade could provide both to the people of Israel and the people of Europe."
Prior to Lebanon's 2009 general elections (and its inclusion of Hezbollah), Livni "acknowledged an important principle" from U.S. President Barack Obama's then-recent speech in Cairo that “Elections alone do not make true democracy.” She explained her position in a New York Times op-ed by alluding to her experience as Israel's justice minister when Hamas participated in Palestinian elections in 2006: "At the time, the counterargument was that the very participation in elections would act as a moderating force on extremist groups. With more accountability, such groups would be tempted to abandon their militant approach in favor of a purely political platform. But this analysis ignored the possibility that some radical groups sought participation in the democratic process not to forsake their violent agenda but to advance it." Livni advocated that "the international community must adopt at the global level what true democracies apply at the national one -— a universal code for participation in democratic elections. This would include requiring every party running for office to renounce violence, pursue its aims by peaceful means and commit to binding laws and international agreements." She added that "The intent here is not to stifle disagreement, exclude key actors from the political process or suggest that democracy be uniform and disregard local cultures and values."
Livni voiced support for Israel's gay community ahead of Gay and Lesbian Pride Month in June 2009. She addressed an event held at the gay community's municipal center in Tel Aviv's Meir Park. After a 1 August 2009 attack on a gay youth center that left two people dead and 15 wounded in Tel Aviv, Livni, who is in contact with the gay and lesbian community, said "This event should shake up society, and all the circles inherent in it, including the political establishment and the education system, and on this day deliver an unequivocal message against intolerance, incitement and violence, and to act against any manifestation of these." She attended a rally near the location of the attack, along with hundreds of Israelis and some other politicians, and urged Israel's gay and lesbian community to continue living their lives, despite the "hate crime."
Livni opposed Netanyahu's land reform bill.
On 8 October 2009, Livni was honored by Yale University as a Chubb Fellow for her work and the inspiration spurred by her activities. She is the third Israeli leader to receive this honor after Shimon Peres and Moshe Dayan. The list also includes former U.S. Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Livni referred to the Goldstone Report accusing Israel of committing war crimes in Gaza, and said there was a huge ethical gap between those seeking to murder children in their homes and those unintentionally harming civilians used by terrorists as human shields. Referring to the Israeli shelling of several UN schools in Gaza where thousands of civilians were taking shelter during the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Livni insisted that she "regret(s) every civilian casualty, but what happened at the UN school was not a mistake." Addressing the peace process, Livni said Israel is not involved in it as a favor to anyone, but that it is in the interest of all parties. At her next stop in Miami, Livni became the first Israeli woman to receive the International Hall of Fame Award from the International Women's Forum.
As opposition leader, Livni noted in a 2009 Knesset speech that she herself did not support Yitzhak Rabin's policies at the time. "The dispute is around the question of whether you can have it both ways -– maintaining Israel as a Jewish state and keeping the entire Land of Israel," she said. Political analysts see Livni's speech at the 2003 commemoration rally for Rabin as a turning point in her political career when she became more popular among the Israeli peace camp. She delivered a speech which many found deeply moving in which she said the day Rabin was murdered was "the day that the skies fell down on me because of what happened to us, to all the citizens of Israel." As foreign minister, Livni would again attend the memorial for Rabin in 2009. Labor Party officials were not keen on this idea, fearing that her appearance would cost them votes. Some Kadima officials also seemed reluctant, fearing her appearance at left-wing event would send some votes Likud's way. Livni attended the memorial for Rabin in 2009.
After a draft document authored by Sweden (the then-holder of the rotating EU presidency) surfaced that calls officially for a division of Jerusalem and implies that the EU would also recognize a unilateral Palestinian declaration of statehood, Livni wrote a letter to Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt, saying it was "wrong and not helpful," and that she conveyed "deep concern regarding what appears to be an attempt to prejudge the outcome of issues reserved for final status negotiations." European efforts to "dictate for either party the nature of the outcome on the status of Jerusalem," she said, would only serve to endanger the fulfillment of "our shared vision of two states for two peoples into a reality." Livni also called on France to speak up against the draft during her meeting with Sarkozy in Paris.
In December 2009, Livni travelled to Paris and met with French president Nicolas Sarkozy. "Time is against us," she told reporters following talks at the Elysee Palace that also touched on Iran. "We discussed the need to re-launch the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians, and I believe that this is part of Israel's interest to relaunch the negotiations from the point at which we stopped basically a year ago."
During the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Livni was criticized by Arab League Chairman Amre Moussa as, "I am greatly surprised by, and I reject, the words of the Israeli foreign minister (Livni), who asks: 'Is there a humanitarian crisis? There is no humanitarian crisis in Gaza.' " Livni was quoted as saying "Israel has been supplying comprehensive humanitarian aid to the Strip... and has even been stepping this up by the day." Israel would later allow a daily three-hour truce during the offensive to enable aid to flow through a humanitarian corridor.
Livni declared that the 2009 Gaza military offensive had "restored Israel's deterrence... Hamas now understands that when you fire on its citizens it responds by going wild – and this is a good thing."
UK arrest warrant
In December 2009, a warrant for Livni's arrest was understood to have been issued by a London court at the weekend, following an application by lawyers acting for some of the Palestinian victims of Operation Cast Lead, focused on Livni's role in Israel's war against Hamas-run Gaza at the turn of the year. It was withdrawn after she cancelled her visit. For several years, Palestinian activists have made largely unsuccessful attempts to prosecute Israeli officials in European courts under the universal jurisdiction system. The warrant was issued on 12 December and revoked on 14 December 2009, after it was revealed that Livni had not entered British territory. Israeli government experts on international law have advised cabinet ministers with a security background and senior IDF officers not to visit Britain, Spain, Belgium or Norway, because in these countries they risk being arrested on charges of alleged war crimes through “universal jurisdiction” laws. The warrant was later denounced as "cynical" by the Israeli foreign ministry.
British Foreign Secretary David Miliband contacted Livni and his Israeli counterpart Avigdor Lieberman to formally explain the incident on behalf of the British government. Secretary Miliband had expressed concern at the situation and said officials were looking "urgently at ways in which the UK system might be changed in order to avoid this sort of situation arising again". Judges in the United Kingdom can issue arrest warrants for war crimes suspects around the world under the Geneva Convention Act 1957, without any requirement to consult public prosecutors -— something Miliband said was "unusual". Foreign Office minister Ivan Lewis, also Jewish and former Vice-Chair of Labour Friends of Israel, said Wednesday that Britain was "absolutely determined to make sure that this can never happen again". "Because Israel is a strategic partner and close friend of the UK, it is absolutely essential representatives of the state of Israel can visit Britain freely to talk about the Middle East peace process," he told the BBC. J Street applauded Miliband's rejection of the warrant and "his promise to pursue a change in the law that would prevent unfortunate events like these from happening in the future."
Prime Minister Gordon Brown expressed his regret over the warrant and broke off from climate talks in Copenhagen to call Livni and reassure her that she was "most welcome in Britain any time." According to a statement released by Livni's office, Brown also promised to seek legislative changes to ensure no Israeli official would risk arrest while on British soil. Livni replied by saying: "The situation must be repaired immediately."
Yehuda Blum, Israel's former ambassador to the United Nations and a professor of law at Hebrew University of Jerusalem commented: "The abuse and misuse of this concept of universal jurisdiction should be discontinued." Blum said the law was intended for use in cases with no clear jurisdiction, such as piracy in international waters, and should not be expanded for political aims. Israeli officials, acting under orders from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, told the British ambassador they expect quick action to change the law. In London, chagrined British officials said they were seeking solutions.
Livni called the arrest warrant "an abuse of the British legal system". At a security conference in Israel, Livni did not directly address the arrest warrant but defended Israel's conduct during Operation Cast Lead, saying she "would make the same decisions all over again". "When the state of Israel has to do the right thing, it has to be done – condemnation or no condemnation, statements or no statements, arrest warrants or no arrest warrants... This is the role of leadership, and as far as I’m concerned I would repeat each and every decision."
In November 2011, the three candidates opposed to Tzipi Livni in 2008 called for a primary to be held as soon as possible, citing the probability of Knesset elections soon. On 19 January 2012, Livni set the primary date for 27 March 2012. Livni lost by a wide margin (64.5% to her 35.5%) to challenger and former defense minister Shaul Mofaz. In May 2012 Livni resigned from the Knesset.
On 27 November 2012, she announced the establishment of a new party, called Hatnuah ("The Movement"). She was joined by seven members of Knesset from the Kadima Party: Yoel Hasson, Robert Tiviaev, Majalli Wahabi, Orit Zuaretz, Rachel Adato, Shlomo Molla and Meir Sheetrit. Former Labor leaders Amram Mitzna and Amir Peretz also joined the party.
- Government 31 The Knesset
- Ginsburg, Mitch (27 March 2012). "Kadima primaries: Mofaz wins landslide victory over Livni". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Kadima Party". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- "Profile: Tzipi Livni". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Benny Morris (14 December 2008). "Israel's crisis of leadership". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- Westcott, Kathryn (2 May 2007). "Tzipi Livni: Israel's 'Mrs Clean'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Livni, don't give in". Haaretz. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- McGirk, Tim (5 June 2008). "Israel's Mrs. Clean". Jerusalem: Time. Retrieved 25 April 2010.[dead link]
- Isabel Kershner (26 October 2008). "As Israeli Elections Are Called, Livni Is Assessed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008.
- "Livni named one of 150 'women who shake the world'". The Jerusalem Post. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2011. "Tzipi Livni was named one of the 150 most influential women 'who shake the world' on a list by The Daily Beast and Newsweek."
- Verma, Sonia (2 May 2007). "Next in Line". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- "News in Brief". Haaretz. 9 October 2007. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
- Yigal Hai (10 October 2007). "'My mother was a warrior'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011.
- Shavit Ben-Arie, Havrot HaKnesset, 2011 (Hebrew).
- Ben Birnbaum (23 August 2013). "The Believer: Tzipi Livn and the Quest for Peace in Israel and Palestine". The Daily Beast (Newsweek). Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Interview with Tzipi Livni at Hudson Union Society (15 July 2010). Tzipi Livni - Difference between freedom fighter & terrorist (YouTube). New York: Hudson Union Society. "My father and my mother, both of them were freedom fighters, not terrorists. And it's very important to say this—not because it's about my parents—because they acted against the British army, and not civilians. And this is a distinction that needs to be made also today. I cannot accept the words that say, 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter.'"
- "Knesset Member, Tzipi Livni". Knesset.gov.il. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Mahnaimi, Uzi (15 February 2009). "Looking for love: Livni the lonely spy". The Sunday Times (London). Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
- "Livni's past in Mossad not spectacular". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- Tzipi Livni Government Roles
- Cohen, Roger (7 July 2007). "Her Jewish State". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2007. "Mirla Gal, who would reach the top of the Mossad during a 20-year career, met Livni in first grade. [...] “We were curious because her world wasn’t ours,” Gal said over lunch at a beachfront Tel Aviv restaurant. “Even then she was principled. When I was 12, she turned vegetarian and has been ever since.”"
- Ilan Lior (19 January 2013). "In Q&A with Haaretz readers, Livni rues decision to privatize Dead Sea resources". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013.
- "Tzipi Livni Government Roles". Archived from the original on 17 April 2004. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- "Behind the Lines: And who, may we ask, is Tzipi Livni?". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
- Cohen, Roger (8 July 2007). "Her Jewish State". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Macintyre, Donald (2 August 2008). "Tzipi Livni: Agent of change". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- "Tzipi Livni (1958– )". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 10 September 2002. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- "Tzipi Livni Named Vice Premier in Israel". The Washington Post. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
- Condoleezza Rice (3 May 2007). "Tzipi Livni". Time. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2007.
- "#40 Tzipora Livni". Forbes. 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010.
- "The 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 30 August 2007.
- "The Most Powerful 100 Women sorted by rank". Forbes. 27 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010.
- Antonio Cassese (15 December 2006). "The Multifaceted Criminal Notion of Terrorism in International Law". Journal of International Criminal Justice Advance Access (Oxford University Press).
- Benn, Aluf (8 July 2007). "Livni and Fayad meet, discuss improving Palestinians' lives". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Olmert's Survival Prospects Dim Amid Livni Challenge Bloomberg, 3 May 2007
- "'I have the qualifications to be PM'". The Jerusalem Post. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.[dead link]
- Verter, Yossi; Mazal Mualem (2 May 2007). "PM Olmert to tell deputy Livni: Stop undermining me, or resign". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Ethan Bronner (3 May 2009). "Israel Faces a Hard Sell in Bid to Shift Policy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- "Israel FM slams swastika image of Pope". AFP. Google News. 20 October 2008. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Somfalvi, Attila (1 August 2008). "Poll: Livni beats Netanyahu, who beats Mofaz". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- "Livni to lead Israel ruling party". BBC News. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Hider, James (27 September 2008). "New Golda Meir’ Tzipi Livni wins election to be Prime Minister after extra time". The Times (London). Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "Levni set to be Israel's PM". Video.nytimes.com (The New York Times). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Livni declared winner of Kadima election". ABC News. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009.
- "Olmert formally submits his resignation to Peres". Haaretz. 21 September 2008.
- Gil Hoffman and Greer Fay Cashman (22 September 2008). "Peres entrusts Livni with forming gov't". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- "Israel's Livni now in battle for premiership". AFP (Google News). 7 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008.
- "Shas: If Livni wants a coalition, she must fulfill our demands". Haaretz. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010.
- Yossi Verter; Mazal Mualem; Barak Ravid (22 September 2008). "Livni offers Barak 'full partnership' in new gov't". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008.
- Yair Ettinger (22 September 2008). "Netanyahu asks Shas to back bid for early general elections". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008.
- Amy Tiebel (20 February 2009). "Netanyahu urges moderates to join broad government". International Herald Tribune. Fox News. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Tzipi Livni's choice, now Israel's choice". The New York Times. 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. (registration required (. ))
- "Livni is the preferred candidate". Haaretz. 10 February 2009. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009.
- "¥T The Players of World War 3: Tzipi Livni -The Mossad Graduate ¥T". YouTube. 18 September 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Marc Lynch (10 February 2010). "Arabs watching the Israeli elections". Lynch.foreignpolicy.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Zvi Bar'el (11 February 2009). "Arab media declares early Israel election victory for 'extreme right'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Arab media: 'Which extremist will Israel elect?'". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Barak Ravid (24 April 2009). "Livni urges EU: Don't halt EU-Israel relations upgrade". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Tzipi Livni (26 May 2009). "On the iranian issue, there is no opposition or coalition in Israel". YouTube. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Tzipi Livni (5 June 2009). "Democracy’s Price of Admission". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2011.
- Natasha Mozgovaya (2 June 2009). "Livni, Clinton voice support for gay community in Israel and U.S". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "ציפי לבני באירוע פתיחת חודש הגאווה". Facebook.com. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Ben Hartman; Yuval Goren, Noah Kosharek and Barak Ravid (8 February 2009). "Livni to gay Israelis: Don't let hate crime stop you living your lives". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009.
- Yuval Azoulay (29 July 2009). "Livni: Netanyahu after headlines, not Israel's interests". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Chris McGreal and Rory McCarthy; Mark Tran (6 January 2009). "Israeli shelling kills dozens at UN school in Gaza". Archived from the original on 8 January 2009.
- "'No Negotiations' with Hamas". Spiegel Online. 13 January 2009. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009.
- Yitzhak Benhorin (20 June 1995). "Livni honored by Yale University". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Livni slams Goldstone report at Yale". The Jerusalem Post. 9 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- Yair Ettinger, Jonathan Lis and Ofri Ilani (30 October 2009). "Leaders, family eulogize former PM Yitzhak Rabin 14 years on". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Yossi Verter (30 October 2008). "Livni, Barak to vie for support of peace camp at Rabin memorial". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 9 November 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Dana Weiler-Polak (24 December 2006). "Obama in address to memorial rally: Give meaning to Yitzhak Rabin's death". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 235 April 2010.
- Barak RAvid (19 December 2009). "Livni to Sweden: Ditch EU plan on dividing Jerusalem". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "'France should oppose EU J'lem draft'". The Jerusalem Post. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- "AFP: Israel opposition leader holds talks with Sarkozy". AFP. Google. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Hamas warns of more hostages Sunday". Gulf Daily News. 4 January 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Livni: No crisis in Gaza Strip". Al Jazeera English. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Israel briefly halts Gaza attacks". BBC News. 7 January 2009. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Sengupta, Kim; Macintyre, Donald (13 January 2009). "Israeli cabinet divided over fresh Gaza surge". The Independent. Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Ian Black and Ian Cobain (14 December 2009). "British court issued Gaza arrest warrant for former Israeli minister Tzipi Livni". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Foreign Ministry outraged over U.K. arrest warrant against Livni". Haaretz. 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Marcus Dysch (14 December 2009). "Livni cancels JNF visit to UK". The Jewish Community Online. Archived from the original on 18 December 2009.
- "Israel condemns attempt in a UK court to arrest Livni". BBC News. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- "Britain apologizes to Livni over arrest warrant". Haaretz. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- "British PM calls Israel's Livni over arrest warrant". AFP. Google News. 16 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "J Street’s Blog » Tzipi Livni". J Street. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Blomfield, Adrian (16 December 2009). "Brown calls Livni to express regret at arrest warrant". Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Israeli officials routinely face UK legal threats". MINA. Macedonia Online. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Tzipi Livni: UK warrant a legal 'abuse'". BBC News. 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Tzipi Livni resigns as member of Israeli parliament". BBC News Online. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Former Israeli FM Tzipi Livni announces return to politics, forms new party". Haaretz. 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Gil Hoffman (27 November 2012). "Livni returns to politics with The Tzipi Livni Party". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tzipi Livni.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Tzipi Livni|
- Tzipi Livni's official website (Hebrew)
- Tzipi Livni on the Knesset website
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at Ha'aretz
- Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post
- Tzipi Livni collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Works by or about Tzipi Livni in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Tzipi Livni at the Notable Names Database
- Interview on YouTube by Leon Charney on The Leon Charney Report
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of Kadima