12th Armored Division (United States)

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12th Armored Division
12th US Armored Division SSI.svg
12th AD shoulder sleeve insignia
Active 1942–45
Country  United States
Branch  United States Army
Type Armored Division
Nickname "Hellcat Division"
Motto Speed Is the Password
Engagements

World War II

Commanders
Notable
commanders
Roderick R. Allen
U.S. Armored Divisions
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11th Armored Division (Inactive) 13th Armored Division (Inactive)


The 12th Armored Division was an armored division of the United States Army in World War II. It fought in the European Theater of Operations in France, Germany and Austria, between November 1944 and May 1945.

The German Army called the 12th Armored Division the "Suicide Division"[4] for its fierce defensive actions during Operation Nordwind in France, and General George S. Patton, Jr., nicknamed them "The Mystery Division"[5] when they were temporarily transferred to his command under the Third Army to cross the Rhine River.

The 12th Armored Division was one of only ten U.S. Divisions (and only one of two U.S. armored Divisions) during World War II that had African-American combat companies integrated into the Division. One of the African American soldiers, Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.[6][7]

History[edit]

The 12th Armored Division was activated on 15 September 1942.[8] Organization and initial training was at Camp Campbell, Kentucky, and continued at Camp Barkeley in Abilene, Texas. The division consisted of approximately 11,000 soldiers, and was composed of tank, field artillery, motorized infantry battalions and other support units.[9][10][a]

In early 1943 the Division adopted the nickname "The Hellcats", symbolizing its toughness and readiness for combat.[b][11]

While at Camp Barkeley, the 44th Tank Battalion was sent to the Pacific Theater of Operations on a special mission and later distinguished itself as the first unit to enter Manila. The 44th was replaced by the 714th Tank battalion.[12]

Walt Disney himself designed a logo for the 714th Armored Battalion.[13]

World War II[edit]

After completing training the Division left Abilene and departed from Camp Shanks, New York, for the European Theater of Operations on 20 September 1944. It landed at Liverpool, England on 2 October 1944. While awaiting replacement armor which had been borrowed by the U.S. Third Army, the 12th was sent to Tidworth Barracks[1] in Wiltshire, UK. It crossed the English Channel from Southampton, arrived at Le Havre, France, on 11 November 1944 and then traveled up the Seine River to Rouen to join the Seventh Army under Lieutenant General Alexander Patch. Advance elements met the enemy near Weisslingen in Alsace on 5 December, and the entire division moved against the Maginot Line fortifications two days later.[2]

In its advance, Rohrbach-lès-Bitche and towns surrounding Bettviller were liberated by 12 December 1944, and Utweiler, Germany was seized on 21 December. After a short period of rehabilitation and maintenance, the 12th rolled against the Rhine bridgehead at Herrlisheim that the Germans had established as part of their Operation Nordwind offensive. In order to seal the Battle of the Bulge, units of the Seventh Army were diverted north to assist the Third Army in capturing Bastogne. Due to this, the remainder of the Seventh Army, including the 12th Armored Division, was stretched thin holding a 126 miles (203 km) long front line with only eight divisions.[14]

German defenders repulsed two division attacks in the most violent fighting in the history of the division, during 8 to 10 January and 16 to 17 January 1945. The division's attacks at Herrlisheim failed to use combined-arms tactics and were defeated in detail, resulting in two tank and two armored infantry battalions taking heavy losses. Poor tactics were compounded by terrain that was almost tabletop-flat, offering the German defenders excellent fields of fire. However, enemy counterattacks failed also, in part because of the firm leadership of the commander of Combat Command B, Colonel Charles Bromley, who declared his headquarters expendable and ordered all personnel in the headquarters to prepare a hasty defense.[c][14]

The division was subsequently relieved by the U.S. 36th Infantry Division. The 12th Armored Division suffered over 1,700 battle casualties during the fighting in and around Herrlisheim. As a consequence, when African-American soldiers who were in non-combat positions were able to volunteer to become combat troops, Major General Roderick R. Allen was one of only ten Division commanders who allowed them to join the combat ranks.[6]

12th AD soldier with German prisoners of war, April 1945. United States National Archives, Group 208 of the Records of the Office of War Information 1926 – 1951, National Archives Identifier: 535840[15]

After recovering from the bruising experience at Herrlisheim, the 12th went over to the offensive and attacked south from Colmar, after being assigned to the French First Army under General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.[16][17] In a lightning drive, the 12th effected junction with French forces at Rouffach, on 5 February, sealing the Colmar Pocket and ending German resistance in the Vosges Mountains. Except for elements acting as a protective screen, the division withdrew to the St. Avold area for rest and rehabilitation. The Division was attached to the Third Army under General George S. Patton, Jr., on 17 March 1945 through its crossing of the Rhine on March 28.[1] The soldiers were ordered to remove their identifying unit insignias and vehicle markings were painted over,[18] disguising the fact that Patton had an additional tank division under his command. Thus the 12th was given the nickname "The Mystery Division".[5] The attack resumed on 18 March 1945.

Campaign map showing the operations of the 12th Armored Division in Europe from 5 December 1944 to 5 May 1945

In a quick drive to the Rhine, Ludwigshafen fell on 21 March, and two other important river cities, Speyer and Germersheim, were secured on 24 March, clearing the Saar Palatinate. Maintaining the rapid pace, the 12th crossed the Rhine River at Worms on 28 March over pontoon bridges, advanced toward Würzburg, and captured that city along with elements of the famed 42nd Infantry Division (United States).[19][20] After assisting in the seizure of Schweinfurt, the division continued toward Nuremberg on 13 April, taking Neustadt, then shifted south toward Munich on 17 April. Elements of the 12th raced from Dinkelsbühl to the Danube, where they found the bridge at Lauingen had been blown.[21] Moving quickly they captured the bridge at Dillingen intact before demolition men could destroy it. This bridge provided a vital artery for Allied troops flooding into southern Germany.[22]

The division spearheaded the Seventh Army drive, securing Landsberg, on 27 April and clearing the area between the Ammer and Wurm Lakes by the 30th. The 12th Armored Division is recognized as a liberating unit [23] of the Landsberg concentration camps near the Landsberg Prison, sub-camps of Dachau concentration camp on 27 April 1945. On 29 April 1945, the 12th AD liberated Oflag VII-A Murnau, a German Army POW camp for Polish Army officers interred north of the Bavarian town of Murnau am Staffelsee during World War II. [d][24]

Elements crossed the Inn River and the Austrian border at Kufstein on May 3.[25] The 12th Armored Division was relieved by the 36th Infantry Division on 4 May. On 5 May, Lieutenant (later Captain) John C. Lee, Jr., Co. B, 23rd Tank Battalion, organized the rescue of VIP French prisoners from an Alpine castle in Bavaria during the Battle for Castle Itter.[26] Under Lee's command were members of the German Wehrmacht, who combined forces with 2 tanks from the 12th to fight the SS Commander and soldiers guarding the prisoners. For leading the successful rescue of these prisoners, Lee was promoted to Captain and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.[27]

The 12th Armored Division engaged in security duty around Ulm[18] until 22 November 1945, when it left Marseille, France, for home. Some members of the 12th attended the US Army University, in either Biarritz, France or Shrivenham, England during this time.[18] [28]

It was deactivated on 3 December 1945, and on December 17, 1945, its battle flags were turned in at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.[29]

POWs[edit]

During its deployment the 12th Armored Division captured 72,243 Prisoners of War.[1] Among them were Adolf Eichmann[30] and Wernher von Braun.[31]

Casualties[edit]

Total 12th Armored Division complement: 10,937 at end of 1944;[32] 17,000 assigned to Division between activation and deactivation[33]

  • Wounded in Action: 2647[32]
  • Killed in Action: 814[32]
  • Prisoners of War: 427[32]
  • Total Battle Casualties: 3888[32]
  • Total Non-battle Casualties: 2,540[1]

Order of battle[1][edit]

  • Combat Command A (CCA)
  • Combat Command B (CCB)
  • Reserve Command (CCR)
  • 23d Tank Battalion
  • 43d Tank Battalion
  • 714th Tank Battalion
  • 17th Armored Infantry Battalion
  • 56th Armored Infantry Battalion
  • 66th Armored Infantry Battalion
  • 92d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanized)
  • 119th Armored Engineer Battalion
  • 152d Armored Signal Company
  • 493d Armored Field Artillery Battalion
  • 494th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
  • 495th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
  • 82d Armored Medical Battalion
  • 134th Ordnance Maintenance Battalion
  • Military Police Platoon
  • Divisional Band

Awards[edit]

  • Division authorized by France to incorporate Arms of the City of Colmar in its division insignia for action in liberating the city.[37][36]
    Colmar Coat of Arms

Individual awards:[1]

Commanders[2][edit]

  • Major General Carlos Brewer (September 1942 – August 1944)
  • Major General Douglass T. Greene (August–September 1944)
  • Major General Roderick R. Allen (September 1944 – July 1945)
  • Brigadier General Willard Ames Holbrook, Jr. (July 1945 to inactivation)

Assignments in the European Theater of Operations[1][edit]

  • 13 November 1944: Ninth Army, Twelfth Army Group
  • 5 December 1944: XV Corps, Seventh Army, Sixth Army Group.
  • 27 December 1944: XXI Corps.
  • 30 December 1944: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 3 January 1945: XV Corps.
  • 6 January 1945: VI Corps.
  • 3 February 1945: XXI Corps.
  • 11 February 1945: XV Corps.
  • 28 February 1945: XXI Corps.
  • 17 March 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group, but attached to the XX Corps, Third Army, Twelfth Army Group.
  • 24 March 1945: XXI Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
  • 26 March 1945: XV Corps.
  • 31 March 1945: XXI Corps.
  • 4 May 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.

Assignments of the 12th AD to Higher Commands[1][edit]

Date Assigned to Corps Assigned to Army Attached to Army Assigned to Army Group Attached to Army Group

  • 07.10.1944 UK Base ETOUSA
  • 13.11.1944 Ninth Army 12th Army Group
  • 05.12.1944 XV Operations Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 27.12.1944 XXI Operations Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 30.12.1944 Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 03.01.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 06.01.1945 VI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 03.02.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 11.02.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 28.02.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 17.03.1945 XX Operations Third Army,6th Army Gp 12th Army Group
  • 24.03.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 26.03.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 31.03.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
  • 04.05.1945 Seventh Army 6th Army Group

Detachments of units of the 12th Armored Division to other Commands[1][edit]

Unit Attached to From date (dd.mm.yyyy) To date (dd.mm.yyyy)
92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron Normandy Base Section 18.11.1944 30.11.1944
119th Engineer Battalion, C Company Normandy Base Section 18.11.1944 30.11.1944
493rd Armored FA Battalion, C Battery Normandy Base Section 18.11.1944 30.11.1944
493rd Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 05.12.1944 07.12.1944
494th Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 05.12.1944 07.12.1944
495th Armored FA Battalion 100th Infantry Division 05.12.1944 07.12.1944
43rd Tank Battalion, A Company 103rd Infantry Division 05.12.1944 07.01.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 106th Cavalry Group 23.12.1944 02.01.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 103rd Infantry Division 26.12.1944 02.01.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 26.12.1944 06.01.1945
23rd Tank Battalion, A Company 100th Infantry Division 01.01.1945 07.01.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 100th Infantry Division 02.01.1945 06.01.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 02.01.1945 06.01.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 79th Infantry Division 07.01.1945 14.01.1945
CC B 79th Infantry Division 07.01.1945 15.01.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 3rd Algerian Infantry Division 15.01.1945 16.01.1945
49th Armored FA Battalion 36th Infantry Division 20.01.1945 23.01.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 36th Infantry Division 20.01.1945 23.01.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 36th Infantry Division 21.01.1945 23.01.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 3rd Algerian Infantry Division 23.01.1945 02.02.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 3rd Algerian Infantry Division 24.01.1945 02.02.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 3rd Algerian Infantry Division 24.01.1945 02.02.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 117th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron 02.02.1945 [e]
494th Armored FA Battalion 28th Infantry Division 04.02.1945 09.02.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 28th Infantry Division 07.02.1945 10.02.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 10.02.1945 13.02.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 10.02.1945 16.02.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 11.02.1945 12.02.1945
714th Tank Battalion 70th Infantry Division 12.02.1945 17.02.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 13.02.1945 16.02.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 44th Infantry Division 14.02.1945 16.02.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 17.02.1945 09.03.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 17.02.1945 9.03.1945
CC A 70th Infantry Division 02.03.1945 08.03.1945
CC R 101st Cavalry Group 02.03.1945 08.03.1945
43rd Tank Battalion, C Company 63rd Infantry Division 09.03.1945 14.03.1945
493rd Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 13.03.1945 17.03.1945
494th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 13.03.1945 17.03.1945
495th Armored FA Battalion 70th Infantry Division 13.03.1945 17.03.1945
92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron 63rd Infantry Division 5.03.1945 16.03.1945
CC A 94th Infantry Division 22.03.1945 22.03.1945
CC A 42nd Infantry Division 07.04.1945 13.04.1945

Attachments (Units officially attached to the 12th Armored Division) [1][edit]

  • 572nd Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) AW Battalion (SP) 04.12.1944-18.05.1945
  • CC V, 2nd French Armored Division 30.04.1945-04.05.1945
  • 101st Cavalry Group 08.04.1945-04.05.1945
  • 42nd Reconnaissance Troop, 42nd Infantry Division 13.04.1945-14.04.1945
  • 99th Chemical Mortar Battalion, A Company, 07.03.1945-08.03.1945
  • 206th Engineer Combat Battalion 18.03.1945-20.03.1945
  • 256th Engineer Combat Battalion 14.04.1945-21.04.1945
  • 290th Engineer Combat Battalion 21.04.1945-04.05.1945
  • 204th Field Artillery Group 18.03.1945-22.03.1945
  • 342nd Field Artillery Battalion 28.03.1945-04.05.1945
  • 933rd Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer) 31.03.1945-19.04.1945
  • 36th Field Artillery Group, Headquarters 01.04.1945-19.04.1945
  • 937th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer) 01.04.1945-04.05.1945
  • 935th Field Artillery Battalion (4.5 inch Gun) 11.04.1945-19.04.1945
  • 977th Field Artillery Battalion, A Batt (155mm Gun) 24.04.1945-25.04.1945
  • 1st & 2nd Bn, 22nd Infantry Reg, 4th Infantry Division 02.04.1945-03.04.1945
  • 3rd Bn, 222nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 02.04.1945-08.04.1945
  • 2nd Bn, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 05.04.1945-07.04.1945
  • G Co, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 10.04.1945-12.04.1945
  • 3rd Bn, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 12.04.1945-14.04.1945
  • 15th CT, 3rd Infantry Division 24.04.1945-25.04.1945
  • 827th Tank Destroyer Battalion 19.12.1944-13.02.1945

Memorials Recognizing the 12th Armored Division[38][edit]

12th Armored Division Association[edit]

12th Armored Division Memorial Museum

The 12th Armored Division Association was founded on 15 September 1945 at Heidenheim, Germany, on the occasion of the third anniversary of the Division's activation.[42] Its publication, the "Hellcat News", was first published in 1943 and has been nearly continuously published monthly by the 12th Armored Division Association since its founding.[43] The Association also operates the 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum in Abilene, Texas.[44]

See also[edit]

Remembering the Veterans and Their Service[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Division complement at the end of 1944 was 10.937; a total of over 17,000 soldiers had been assigned to the 12th AD between 1942 and deactivation in 1946, including the 44th Armored Bn transferred to the Pacific Theater of Operations, casualties and replacement troops who saw service
  2. ^ "In early 1943, Private Francis Beckman (493rd Armored Field Artillery Battery C) won a division contest to come up with a nickname, earning a three-day weekend pass."
  3. ^ “[On 19 Jan 1945, at] about 5 p.m., 400 German infantrymen supported by 17 tanks almost succeeded in attacking across the Zorn from Landgraben River. North of Herrlisheim, the Germans pushed across the Zorn and almost overran CCB's command post in Rohrwiller. As clerks and other personnel started to panic and prepared to evacuate the area, Colonel Bromley shouted out: "Stop this goddamn panic. We're not retreating anywhere. We're defending this command post; we're holding this line. We're soldiers; we have weapons; we're expendable."
  4. ^ "Oflag VIIA was liberated by Troop B, 116th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (MECZ), Combat Command A of the 12th Armored Division, XXI Corps of the American 7th Army, on 29th April 1945.According to 12 Armored Division records (Daily Journal) the camp was liberated at 16:55 in the afternoon. The 116th was the second squadron of the 101st Cavalry Group. Task Force 2 contained Co. A and/or B 66th Armoured (sic) Infantry, plus Co. C of the 43rd Tank Battalion and a platoon of light tanks from Co. D of the 43rd Tank Battalion."
  5. ^ Date missing from unit records

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "U.S. Army Center of Military History, Office of the Theater Historian, Paris, France. Order of Battle of the United States Army - World War II European Theater of Operations. Part I - Order of Battle of Divisions. 12th Armored Division". History.army.mil. December 1945. pp. 521–530. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "12th Armored Division - World War II Divisional Combat Chronicles". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "Books of the 12th Armored Division". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  4. ^ ""Speed is the Password: The Story of the 12th Armored Division", Stars and Stripes G.I. Series, Paris: printed by Desfosses-Neogravure". Lonesentry.com. 1945. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "”Mystery Division at Rhine: Patton’s Forces Chasing Germans on Road Back”". Joseph Driscoll, New York Herald-Tribune, 22 March 1945, archived at the 12th Armored Memorial Museum website, accessed 4-20-2015. 
  6. ^ a b "African American Platoons in World War II". History Net: Where History Comes Alive - World & US History Online. 
  7. ^ John C. Ferguson, Hellcats: The 12th Armored Division in World War II (Military History of Texas Series). State House Press (31 August 2004)
  8. ^ "12th Armored Division". unithistories.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "Hellcat News--12th Armored Division Newsletter". alc.org. 
  10. ^ James M. Myers. "Camp Barkeley". Handbook of Texas Online (Texas State Historical Association). Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "12th Armored Division - Timeline". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. 1 November 1943. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  12. ^ "12th Armored Division, "The Hellcats"". patriotfiles.com. 
  13. ^ "“Walt Disney Draws, Copywrites Critter for 714th”". The Hellcat News (West Texas Digital Archives) 2: 2. 10 August 1944. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  14. ^ a b ""Death of an American Combat Command"". World War II Magazine, January 1999, archived at the 12th Armored Memorial Museum website. 
  15. ^ "A Negro soldier of the 12th Armored Division stands guard over a group of Nazi prisoners captured in the surrounding German forest., 04/1945". Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  16. ^ "U.S. Army Center of Military History, Campaigns of World War II: A World War II Commemorative Series - Ardennes-Alsace (CMH Pub 72-26)". History.army.mil. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  17. ^ Bernard L. Rice (December 1997). "Recollections of a World War II Combat Medic" (PDF). Indiana Magazine of History (12tharmoredmuseum.com). XCIII. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c Dr. Max S. Eagelfeld, 82nd Armored Med Bn, Co. C, 12th AD. "Personal recollections and oral history video". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  19. ^ "Combat Highlights of the United States 12th Armored Division in the ETO". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  20. ^ "12th Armored Division History Book - Vol One: Combat in Germany". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  21. ^ "The Patriot Files : Dedicated to the preservation of military history". patriotfiles.com. 
  22. ^ "The Capture of Dillingen Bridge". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  23. ^ "The 12th Armored Division". ushmm.org.  "The 12th Armored Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the United States Army Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1988."
  24. ^ Rempfer, Olivier (2011). "Les photos oubliées". hollow.one.free.fr. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  25. ^ "Speed is the Password: The Story of the 12th Armored Division - WWII G.I. Stories Booklet". Lonesentry.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23. 
  26. ^ Harding, Stephen (2013). The Last Battle: When U.S. and German Soldiers Joined Forces in the Waning Hours of World War II in Europe. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-82209-4 "Among these were 14 French notables, including two former premiers, Édouard Daladier and Paul Reynaud; Gen.Maxime Weygand and Gen. Maurice Gamelin, both former commanders of the French Armies; Jean Borotra, international tennis star; Michael Clemenceau, son of the former French Prime Minister; Gen. Charles de Gaulle's sister Marie-Agnès Cailliau, right-wing leader François de La Rocque,and future Nobel Prize winner Léon Jouhaux. It is rumored that Heinrich Himmler was planning on using these VIPs as hostages to trade to secure his escape in the event that Germany lost the war."
  27. ^ Mayer, John G (26 May 1945). "12th Men Free French Big-Wigs" (PDF). Hellcat News (12th Armored Division Newspaper) 3 (West Texas Digital Archive). p. 3. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  28. ^ "The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany 1944-1946. Center of Military History, Army Historical Series, Washington, D. C., 1990. CHAPTER XVIII: The Occupation Troops, p. 329". Center of Military History. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  29. ^ "”12th Armored Division Association: Our History”". 12th Armored Division Association. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  30. ^ Orville Sarles, 493rd Arm Fd Art Bat / B Battery, 12th Armored Division Oral History Project. "Detained by men of the 493rd Arm Fd Art Battery near Ulm, Bavaria, but released when identity was not discovered". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  31. ^ Col. F.P. Field (ret). "The Capture of Werner Von Braun". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c d e "12th Armored Division members Killed in Action - Casualties of the United States 12th Armored Division". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  33. ^ "12th Armored Division Association". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  34. ^ "Tactics Department : The armored School, Fort Knox, Kentucky : Military Monograph" (PDF). 12tharmoredmuseum.com. 10 January 1946. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  35. ^ "Armored Divisions - 12 12th Armored Division - World War II Archives of Wartime Publications". Wartimepress.com. 15 September 1942. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  36. ^ a b "Speed is the Password: The Story of the 12th Armored Division - WWII G.I. Stories Booklet". Lone Sentry. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  37. ^ "Armored Divisions - 12 12th Armored Division - World War II Archives of Wartime Publications". Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  38. ^ "Books of the 12th Armored Division". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  39. ^ http://www.12tharmoredmuseum.com/view_books.asp?book=26&folder=hellcat&image=21&max=81&chapter_title=Bronze%20Plaque%20at%20Fort%20Knox
  40. ^ "Don F. Pratt Memorial Museum". campbell.army.mil. 
  41. ^ "Place Col Meigs Plaque". westpointaog.org. 
  42. ^ "12th Armored Division Association - 12th Armored Division Association Official Site". 12tharmoreddivisionassociation.us.  "One purpose of the organization, as stated in its constitution, was to "commemorate the memories of fallen comrades and enjoy the companionship of those still with us." The Association assumed responsibility for continued publication of the "Hellcat News", the division newspaper started during the war. Today the paper continues to be published by the 12th Armored Association in conjunction with the 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum in Abilene, Texas.In addition to veterans who were among the 11,000 soldiers who fought with the 12th Armored division, the Association has members who are spouses and family (Legacy members) of Division veterans. The Association elects a "Hellcat of the Year", which has been awarded every year since the first meeting of the Association. Col. Richard A Gordon, (CCR) was elected as the first president of the Association at its founding meeting. The first state-side reunion was held at the Hotel Commodore, New York City, 13–24, September 1947. Both annual national conventions and regional chapter meetings are announced in the "Hellcat News"."
  43. ^ "The Hellcat News". The 12th Armored Division Association. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  "Published periodically beginning in 1943 during the Division's basic training at Camp Campbell, Kentucky and at Camp Barkeley, Abilene, Texas and then resumed publication on 19 May 1945 in Heidenheim, Germany following cessation of combat in Europe. Since 1947, the newsletter has been nearly continuously published monthly by the 12th Armored Division Association through the 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum in Abilene, Texas"
  44. ^ "The 12th Armored Division Museum". The 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  "The Twelfth Armored Division Memorial Museum is located in Abilene, Texas, near the site of the former Camp Barkeley where the Division trained prior to being sent into battle. The Museum holds collections of the 12th Armored Division World War II archives, memorabilia, and oral histories, along with selected equipment and material loaned or donated by others. The education plan focuses on expanding academic access to World War II historical materials, veterans, and their families; preserving the history of the 12th Armored Division for study, research, and investigations by future generations; providing training in public history professions, developing new education programs for students and establishing a technology bridge between the 12th Armored Division Historical Collection and the public."

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Brendan Phibbs, M.D., Our War for the World (2002) (originally issued as The Other Side of Time, 1987), a combat surgeon in the 12th Armored Division, covers the division's experiences in Europe. The book has been called "one of the best five Allied memoirs of the World War II".
  • Mark D. Van Ells, ed., The Daily Life of an Ordinary American Soldier in World War II: The Letters of Wilbur C. Berget". Edwin Mellen Press, 2008.
  • Speed is the Password: The Story of the 12th Armored Division
  • John C. Ferguson, Hellcats: The 12th Armored Division in World War II (Military History of Texas Series). State House Press (31 August 2004)
  • Edward Monroe-Jones, Crossing the Zorn: The January 1945 Battle at Herrlisheim as Told by the American and German Soldiers Who Fought It. McFarland, 2010