United States House of Representatives elections, 1878

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1878
United States
1876 ←
November 5, 1878
(8 states held elections between June 3, 1878 and September 3, 1879)

→ 1880

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 150 seats 141 seats
Seats before 155 seats 136 seats
Seats won 143 131
Seat change Decrease 12 Decrease 5
Popular vote 2,864,095 2,762,003
Percentage 40.9% 39.5%
Swing Decrease 9.3 Decrease 7.3

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Greenback Independent
Last election 0 seats 2 seats[1]
Seats before 0 seats 2 seats[2]
Seats won 13 6[3]
Seat change Increase 13 Increase 4
Popular vote 919,832
Percentage 13.1%
Swing Increase 13.1%

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878[4] for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. Notable freshmen included James B. Weaver, who would later run for President as the Greenback candidate in 1880 and the Populist candidate in 1892. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

Election summaries[edit]

143 6 13 131
Democratic I Gb Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Greenback Independent Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 7 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
California[5] District 4 1 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 1 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 9 7 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase 1
Illinois District 19 6 Decrease 2 12 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana[6] District 13 6 Increase 2 6 Decrease 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Iowa[6] District 9 0 Steady 7 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Kansas District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 10 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Louisiana District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[6] District 5 0 Steady 3 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 1 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 3 1 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 13 11 Increase 2 0 Decrease 4 1 Increase 1 1 Increase 1
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 3 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 7 Decrease 8 24 Increase 6 0 Steady 2 Increase 2
North Carolina District 8 6 Decrease 1 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[6] District 20 11 Increase 3 9 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[6] At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 27 8 Decrease 2 17 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 5 5 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 9 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont[6] District 3 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[6] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 293 143
48.81%
Decrease 12 131
44.71%
Decrease 5 13
4.44%
Increase 13 6
2.05%
Increase 4
House seats
Democratic
  
48.81%
Republican
  
44.71%
Greenback
  
4.44%
Ind. Democratic
  
2.05%

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. By the 1870s, the majority of states had moved their elections to that date. In 1878/9, there were still 7 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date:

California's elections were the last time that a state held congressional general elections after November.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  <=60% Democratic
  <=60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
   
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
   
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Complete list of races[edit]

Alabama[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Alabama 1 James T. Jones Democratic 1876 Lost renomination
Democratic hold
Thomas H. Herndon (D) 69.10%
Warner Bailey (G) 30.90%
Alabama 2 Hilary A. Herbert Democratic 1876 Re-elected Hilary A. Herbert (D) 56.25%
James P. Armstrong (R) 43.75%
Alabama 3 Jeremiah N. Williams Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
William J. Samford (D) 88.43%
French Strange (I) 9.64%
William M. Russell (R) 1.93%
Alabama 4 Charles M. Shelley Democratic 1876 Re-elected Charles M. Shelley (D) 55.38%
Jeremiah Haralson (R) 42.57%
Jonathan H. Henry (I) 2.04%
Alabama 5 Robert F. Ligon Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Thomas Williams (D) 70.51%
Theodore Nunn (G) 29.49%
Alabama 6 Goldsmith W. Hewitt Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Burwell B. Lewis (D) 70.51%
William R. Smith (I) 29.49%
Alabama 7 William H. Forney Democratic 1874 Re-elected William H. Forney (D) 96.57%
N. B. Mardis (I) 3.43%
Alabama 8 William W. Garth Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
William M. Lowe (G) 55.49%
William W. Garth (D) 44.51%

Arkansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Lucien C. Gause Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Poindexter Dunn (D) 100.0%
Arkansas 2 William F. Slemons Democratic 1874 Re-elected William F. Slemons (D) 57.20%
John G. Bradley (G) 43.80%
Arkansas 3 Jordan E. Cravens Independent Democratic 1876 Re-elected as a Democrat
Democratic gain
Jordan E. Cravens (D) 51.19%
Milton L. Rice (G) 48.81%
Arkansas 4 Thomas M. Gunter Democratic 1874 Re-elected Thomas M. Gunter (D) 59.77%
J. F. Cunningham (ID) 29.42%
Byrd Smith (G) 10.80%

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Re-elected Horace Davis (R) 48.41%
Clitus Barbour (Wkm) 44.50%
Charles R. Summer (D) 7.09%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Re-elected Horace F. Page (R) 51.87%
Thomas J. Clunie (D) 34.38%
H. P. Williams (Wkm) 13.75%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Retired
Democratic hold
Campbell P. Berry (D) 50.16%
Joseph McKenna (R) 49.61%
George T. Elliott (Wkm) 0.23%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Re-elected Romualdo Pacheco (R) 40.47%
Wallace Leach (D) 31.84%
James J. Ayres (Wkm) 27.68%

Colorado[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Colorado At-Large
None (New state)
Republican gain James B. Belford (R) 49.93%
Thomas M. Patterson (D) 41.93%
Henry C. Childs (G) 8.14%

Patterson successfully contested the election and was seated March 4, 1877.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut 1 George M. Landers Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Joseph R. Hawley (R) 52.20%
George M. Landers (D) 43.79%
Herbert Baker (G) 3.67%
Horace Johnson (P) 0.34%
Connecticut 2 James Phelps Democratic 1874 Re-elected James Phelps (D) 53.19%
Benjamin Douglas (R) 45.86%
Calvin Harrington (P) 0.95%
Connecticut 3 John T. Wait Republican 1876 Re-elected John T. Wait (R) 53.75%
Charles W. Carter (R) 44.06%
Elisha Palmer (P) 2.18%
Connecticut 4 Levi Warner Democratic 1876 Retired
Republican gain
Frederick Miles (R) 48.70%
Frederick W. Bruggerhoff (R) 44.63%
James S. Taylor (G) 6.38%
Ambrose S. Rogers (P) 0.30%

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large James Williams Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Edward L. Martin (D) 78.10%
John G. Jackson (G) 21.90%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 56.80%
Simon B. Conover (R) 40.90%
Edmund C. Weeks (IR) 2.29%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Noble A. Hull (D) 50.03%
Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 49.97%

In the 2nd district the difference between the two candidates, in the initial returns, was just 22 votes. Bisbee challenged Hull's election, and was eventually awarded the seat on January 22, 1881.

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia 1 Julian Hartridge Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
John C. Nicholls (D) 62.76%
S. A. Corker (R) 37.24%
Georgia 2 William E. Smith Democratic 1874 Re-elected William E. Smith (D) 69.05%
E. C. Wade (R) 30.95%
Georgia 3 Philip Cook Democratic 1872 Re-elected Philip Cook (D) 100.0%
Georgia 4 Henry R. Harris Democratic 1872 Lost re-election
Independent Democratic gain
Henry Persons (ID) 56.09%
Henry R. Harris (D) 42.48%
L. J. Milam (I) 0.91%
J. C. Fuller (I) 0.51%
Georgia 5 Milton A. Candler Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Nathaniel J. Hammond (D) 55.64%
Reuben Arnold (G) 44.36%
Georgia 6 James H. Blount Democratic 1872 Re-elected James H. Blount (D) 99.44%
Scattering (I) 0.56%
Georgia 7 William H. Felton Independent Democratic 1874 Re-elected William H. Felton (ID) 52.47%
G. N. Lester (D) 47.53%
Georgia 8 Alexander H. Stephens Democratic 1872 Re-elected Alexander H. Stephens (D) 98.30%
Scattering (I) 1.70%
Georgia 9 Hiram P. Bell Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Independent Democratic gain
Emory Speer (ID) 50.51%
Joel A. Billups (D) 49.49%

Illinois[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Illinois 1 William Aldrich Republican 1876 Re-elected William Aldrich (R) 51.84%
James R. Doolittle (D) 30.41%
John McAscliff (S) 9.89%
William V. Barr (G) 7.86%
Illinois 2 Carter Harrison, Sr. Democratic 1874 Retired to run for Mayor
Republican gain
George R. Davis (R) 49.59%
Miles Kehoe (D) 29.29%
George A. Schilling (S) 11.85%
James Felch (G) 7.67%
J. H. Condon (I) 1.25%
John Sebolski (I) 0.35%
Illinois 3 Lorenzo Brentano Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Hiram Barber, Jr. (R) 53.06%
Lambert Tree (D) 29.26%
Benjamin Sebley (I) 12.78%
A. B. Cornell (G) 4.90%
Illinois 4 William Lathrop Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
John C. Sherwin (R) 61.79%
Jonathan C. Staighton (D) 21.50%
Augustus Adams (G) 16.71%
Illinois 5 Horatio C. Burchard Republican 1869 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Robert M. A. Hawk (R) 53.42%
Mortimer D. Hathaway (D) 23.33%
John M. King (G) 23.24%
Illinois 6 Thomas J. Henderson Republican 1874 Re-elected Thomas J. Henderson (R) 52.47%
James W. Haney (G) 31.94%
Charles Dunham (D) 15.59%
Illinois 7 Philip C. Hayes Republican 1876 Re-elected Philip C. Hayes (R) 46.54%
Alexander Campbell (G) 28.29%
W. S. Brooks (D) 25.17%
Illinois 8 Greenbury L. Fort Republican 1872 Re-elected Greenbury L. Fort (R) 49.72%
Chris C. Strawn (G) 29.01%
Thomas M. Shaw (D) 21.27%
Illinois 9 Thomas A. Boyd Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas A. Boyd (R) 43.76%
George A. Wilson (D) 40.68%
Aloxr H. Keighan (G) 15.56%
Illinois 10 Benjamin F. Marsh Republican 1876 Re-elected Benjamin F. Marsh (R) 44.50%
Delos P. Phelps (D) 42.33%
Alson J. Streeter (G) 13.17%
Illinois 11 Robert M. Knapp Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
James W. Singleton (D) 54.49%
James P. Dimmitt (R) 31.69%
William H. Pogue (P) 13.82%
Illinois 12 William M. Springer Democratic 1874 Re-elected William M. Springer (D) 47.69%
John Cook (R) 34.78%
John Mathers (G) 17.53%
Illinois 13 Thomas F. Tipton Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Adlai Stevenson I (D) 53.22%
Thomas F. Tipton (R) 46.26%
L. M. Bickmore (P) 0.52%
Illinois 14 Joseph G. Cannon Republican 1872 Re-elected Joseph G. Cannon (R) 46.16%
Maldon Jones (D) 38.84%
Jesse Harper (G) 15.00%
Illinois 15 John R. Eden Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Greenback gain
Albert P. Forsythe (G) 50.31%
Hiram B. Decias (D) 49.69%
Illinois 16 William A. J. Sparks Democratic 1874 Re-elected William A. J. Sparks (D) 48.75%
Basil B. Smith (R) 42.18%
James Creed (G) 9.07%
Illinois 17 William R. Morrison Democratic 1862 Re-elected William R. Morrison (D) 50.47%
John Baker (R) 43.04%
William E. Moberly (G) 6.48%
Illinois 18 William Hartzell Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
John R. Thomas (R) 46.62%
N. J. Allen (D) 44.37%
S. J. Davis (G) 9.02%
Illinois 19 Richard W. Townshend Democratic 1876 Re-elected Richard W. Townshend (D) 53.31%
Robert Bell (R) 34.64%
Seth F. Crews (G) 12.04%

Indiana[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Indiana 1 Benoni S. Fuller Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
William Heilman (R) 48.66%
Thomas E. Garvin (D) 45.77%
Thomas F. Debruler (G) 5.57%
Indiana 2 Thomas R. Cobb Democratic 1876 Re-elected Thomas R. Cobb (D) 55.06%
Richard M. Welman (R) 38.26%
William L. Green (G) 6.69%
Indiana 3 George A. Bicknell Democratic 1876 Re-elected George A. Bicknell (D) 57.91%
Ara E. Long (R) 35.99%
John F. Willy (G) 6.10%
Indiana 4 Leonidas Sexton Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Jeptha D. New (D) 50.49%
Leonidas Sexton (R) 48.85%
Robert Gregg (G) 0.66%
Indiana 5 Thomas M. Browne Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas M. Browne (R) 50.08%
William S. Holman (D) 47.03%
William C. Jeffries (G) 2.89%
Indiana 6 Milton S. Robinson Republican 1874 Retired
Democratic gain
William R. Myers (D) 47.89%
William Grose (R) 46.06%
Reuben A. Riley (G) 6.05%
Indiana 7 John Hanna Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Gilbert De La Matyr (G) 51.14%
John Hanna (R) 48.86%
Indiana 8 Morton C. Hunter Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Abraham J. Hostetler (D) 43.56%
Morton C. Hunter (R) 40.12%
Henry A. White (G) 16.31%
Indiana 9 Michael D. White Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Godlove S. Orth (R) 43.73%
James McCabe (D) 43.46%
Leroy Templeton (G) 12.81%
Indiana 10 William H. Calkins Republican 1876 Re-elected William H. Calkins (R) 45.16%
Morgan H. Weir (D) 39.41%
John N. Skinner (G) 15.44%
Indiana 11 James L. Evans Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
Calvin Cowgill (R) 47.23%
David D. Dykeman (D) 39.81%
David Moss (G) 12.96%
Indiana 12 Andrew H. Hamilton Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Walpole G. Colerick (D) 63.73%
John Studebaker (D) 36.27%
Indiana 13 John H. Baker Republican 1874 Re-elected John H. Baker (R) 47.20%
John B. Stoll (D) 42.04%
William C. Williams (G) 10.76%

In Indiana 7, Gilbert De La Matyr was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Iowa[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Iowa 1 Joseph C. Stone Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Moses A. McCoid (R) 48.58%
Wesley C. Hobbs (D) 30.38%
A. H. Breman (G) 21.05%
Iowa 2 Hiram Price Republican 1876 Re-elected Hiram Price (R) 49.75%
W. F. Brannan (D) 35.47%
Jacob Geiger (G) 14.77%
Iowa 3 Theodore W. Burdick Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Thomas Updegraff (R) 43.85%
Fred O'Donnell (D) 37.52%
S. T. Spangler (G) 18.63%
Iowa 4 Nathaniel C. Deering Republican 1876 Re-elected Nathaniel C. Deering (R) 60.83%
Luman H. Weller (G) 20.38%
William V. Allen (G) 18.79%
Iowa 5 Rush Clark Republican 1876 Re-elected Rush Clark (R) 52.78%
George Carter (D) 44.63%
Timothy Brown (G) 2.59%
Iowa 6 Ezekiel S. Sampson Republican 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
James B. Weaver (G) 53.35%
Ezekiel S. Sampson (R) 46.65%
Iowa 7 Henry J. B. Cummings Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Edward H. Gillette (G) 51.45%
Henry J. B. Cummings (R) 48.55%
Iowa 8 William F. Sapp Republican 1876 Re-elected William F. Sapp (R) 50.21%
George C. Hicks (G) 25.40%
John H. Keatley (D) 24.39%
Iowa 9 S. Addison Oliver Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
Cyrus C. Carpenter (R) 54.91%
L. Q. Hoggartt (G) 41.08%
Walter Brown (D) 4.00%

In Iowa 6, James B. Weaver was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

In Iowa 7, Edward H. Gillette was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Kansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kansas 1 William A. Phillips Republican 1872 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
John A. Anderson (R) 59.61%
J. R. McClure (D) 29.20%
E. Gale (G) 11.19%
Kansas 2 Dudley C. Haskell Republican 1876 Re-elected Dudley C. Haskell (R) 44.97%
C. W. Blair (D) 31.40%
P. P. Elder (G) 23.54%
Kansas 3 Thomas Ryan Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas Ryan (R) 56.83%
F. Doser (G) 24.90%
J. B. Fugate (D) 18.27%

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Andrew Boone Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Oscar Turner (ID) 42.87%
Lawrence S. Trimble (D) 34.97%
E. W. Bagby (R) 22.15%
Kentucky 2 James A. McKenzie Democratic 1876 Re-elected James A. McKenzie (D) 61.38%
John W. Feighan (R) 23.50%
Francis M. English (G) 15.12%
Kentucky 3 John W. Caldwell Democratic 1876 Re-elected John W. Caldwell (D) 46.32%
W. Godfrey Hunter (R) 42.10%
George Wright (G) 11.58%
Kentucky 4 J. Proctor Knott Democratic 1874 Re-elected J. Proctor Knott (D) 65.04%
J. D. Belden (R) 33.48%
John W. Lewis (G) 1.48%
Kentucky 5 Albert S. Willis Democratic 1876 Re-elected Albert S. Willis (D) 40.51%
J. Watts Kearney (D) 33.30%
Horace Scott (R) 24.48%
Blanton Duncan (G) 1.70%
Kentucky 6 John G. Carlisle Democratic 1876 Re-elected John G. Carlisle (D) 75.87%
Joseph H. Hermes (I) 24.13%
Kentucky 7 Joseph C. S. Blackburn Democratic 1874 Re-elected Joseph C. S. Blackburn (D) 69.78%
George C. Drane (R) 28.68%
John L. Scott (I) 1.54%
Kentucky 8 Milton J. Durham Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
Philip B. Thompson, Jr. (D) 53.80%
George Denny (R) 46.20%
Kentucky 9 Thomas Turner Democratic 1876 Re-elected Thomas Turner (D) 55.45%
John Dills (R) 43.15%
James G. Carter (G) 1.40%
Kentucky 10 John B. Clarke Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Elijah Phister (D) 65.34%
B. F. Bennett (R) 23.70%
James Kilgore (G) 10.97%

Louisiana[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Louisiana 1 Randall L. Gibson Democratic 1874 Re-elected Randall L. Gibson (D) 63.60%
H. C. Castellanos (R) 36.40%
Louisiana 2 E. John Ellis Democratic 1874 Re-elected E. John Ellis (D) 58.97%
E. N. Collom (G) 34.91%
Michael Hahn (R) 6.12%
Louisiana 3 Joseph H. Acklen Democratic 1876 Re-elected Joseph H. Acklen (D) 48.77%
R. O. Herbert (R) 33.89%
W. B. Merchant (ID) 17.34%
Louisiana 4 Joseph B. Elam Democratic 1876 Re-elected Joseph B. Elam (D) 89.15%
J. M. Wells (R) 10.85%
Louisiana 5 J. Smith Young Democratic 1878 (Special) Retired
Democratic hold
J. Floyd King (D) 77.87%
J. T. Ludling (R) 22.13%
Louisiana 6 Edward W. Robertson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Edward W. Robertson (D) 66.14%
W. L. Larimore (I) 33.86%

Maine[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Thomas B. Reed Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas B. Reed (R) 46.23%
Samuel J. Anderson (D) 32.00%
Edward H. Gove (G) 21.77%
Maine 2 William P. Frye Republican 1870 Re-elected William P. Frye (R) 49.20%
Solon Chase (G) 36.46%
S. Clifford Belcher (D) 14.34%
Maine 3 Stephen Lindsey Republican 1876 Re-elected Stephen Lindsey (R) 44.39%
William Philbrick (G) 32.60%
Franklin Smith (D) 23.01%
Maine 4 Llewellyn Powers Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
George W. Ladd (G) 56.14%
Llewellyn Powers (R) 43.86%
Maine 5 Eugene Hale Republican 1868 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Thompson H. Murch (G) 48.43%
Eugene Hale (R) 42.28%
Joseph H. Martin (D) 9.29%

In Maine 4, George W. Ladd was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Daniel M. Henry Democratic 1876 Re-elected Daniel M. Henry (D) 52.49%
Samuel A. Graham (R) 47.51%
Maryland 2 Charles B. Roberts Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
J. Frederick C. Talbott (D) 66.87%
George B. Milligan (ID) 24.48%
A. P. McCombs (G) 8.66%
Maryland 3 William Kimmel Democratic 1876 Re-elected William Kimmel (D) 70.41%
Joseph Thompson (Lab) 29.59%
Maryland 4 Thomas Swann Democratic 1868 Retired
Democratic hold
Robert M. McLane (D) 58.98%
Jonathan C. Holland (R) 35.56%
William L. Quigley (Lab) 3.34%
Maryland 5 Eli J. Henkle Democratic 1874 Re-elected Eli J. Henkle (D) 53.97%
J. Parran Crane (R) 45.20%
Eugene B. Calvert (G) 0.84%
Maryland 6 William Walsh Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Milton Urner (R) 49.69%
George Peter (D) 43.62%
Horace Resley (G) 6.69%

In Maryland 4, William Quigley was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Massachusetts[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 William W. Crapo Republican 1874 Re-elected William W. Crapo (R) 62.32%
Matthias Ellis (D) 36.59%
Rodney French (P) 1.09%
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Harris Republican 1872 Re-elected Benjamin W. Harris (R) 58.75%
Edgar E. Dean (G) 22.05%
Edward Avery (D) 17.63%
Thomas J. Lothrop (P) 1.58%
Massachusetts 3 Benjamin Dean Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Walbridge A. Field (R) 51.03%
Benjamin Dean (D) 48.97%
Massachusetts 4 Leopold Morse Democratic 1876 Re-elected Leopold Morse (D) 60.34%
Martin Brimmer (D) 39.66%
Massachusetts 5 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1874 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Selwyn Z. Bowman (R) 58.37%
Nathan Clark (D) 41.63%
Massachusetts 6 George B. Loring Republican 1876 Re-elected George B. Loring (R) 44.52%
E. Moody Boynton (G) 44.03%
James H. Carleton (D) 11.45%
Massachusetts 7 Benjamin Butler Republican 1876 Retired to run for Governor
Republican hold
William A. Russell (R) 55.23%
John K. Tarbox (D) 32.29%
Samuel M. Stevens (G) 11.87%
James G. Abbott (P) 0.60%
Massachusetts 8 William Claflin Republican 1876 Re-elected William Claflin (R) 54.41%
Isaac Bradford (D) 44.74%
George W. Stacey (P) 0.85%
Massachusetts 9 William W. Rice Republican 1876 Re-elected William W. Rice (R) 54.41%
Isaac Bradford (D) 44.74%
George W. Stacey (P) 0.85%
Massachusetts 10 Amasa Norcross Republican 1876 Re-elected Amasa Norcross (R) 55.54%
Wilbur F. Whitney (G) 29.10%
James S. Grinnell (D) 15.36%
Massachusetts 11 George D. Robinson Republican 1876 Re-elected George D. Robinson (R) 51.75%
Edward H. Lathrop (BtD) 37.86%
Jarvis N. Dunham (D) 9.80%
Albert C. Woodworth (I) 0.60%

In Massachusetts 5, Nathan Clark was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In Massachusetts 11, Edward H. Lathrop was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Michigan[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Michigan 1 Alpheus S. Williams Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John S. Newberry (R) 40.85%
Alpheus S. Williams (D) 35.37%
John Heffron (G) 23.78%
Arthur D. Power (P) 0.22%
Michigan 2 Edwin Willits Republican 1876 Re-elected Edwin Willits (R) 40.85%
Ira B. Card (D) 29.71%
Levi H. Thomas (G) 24.07%
A. H. Lowie (P) 1.73%
Michigan 3 Jonas H. McGowan Republican 1876 Re-elected Jonas H. McGowan (R) 41.68%
John Dawson (G) 35.78%
James S. Upton (D) 18.38%
Samuel Dickie (P) 4.16%
Michigan 4 Edwin W. Keightley Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Julius C. Burrows (R) 47.14%
Andrew J. Eldred (D) 27.06%
Thomas R. Sherwood (G) 25.80%
Michigan 5 John W. Stone Republican 1876 Re-elected John W. Stone (R) 45.77%
Charles C. Comstock (G) 43.73%
Hiram J. Hoyt (D) 9.93%
Dennis Dreskell (P) 0.57%
Michigan 6 Mark S. Brewer Republican 1876 Re-elected Mark S. Brewer (R) 45.10%
Hugh McCurdy (D) 37.99%
James I. Meade (G) 15.32%
M. M. Burnham (P) 1.59%
Michigan 7 Omar D. Conger Republican 1876 Re-elected Omar D. Conger (R) 47.39%
William T. Mitchell (D) 35.48%
Charles F. Mallory (G) 17.13%
Michigan 8 Charles C. Ellsworth Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Roswell G. Horr (R) 39.72%
B. M. Thompson (D) 31.70%
Herbert M. Hoyt (G) 28.15%
Michigan 9 Jay A. Hubbell Republican 1872 Re-elected Jay A. Hubbell (R) 53.08%
John Powers (D) 26.01%
George Parmelee (G) 20.91%

Minnesota[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Minnesota 1 Mark H. Dunnell Republican 1870 Re-elected Mark H. Dunnell (R) 57.48%
William Meighan (D) 39.66%
George W. Green (P) 2.86%
Minnesota 2 Horace B. Strait Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Henry Poehler (D) 50.01%
Horace B. Strait (R) 47.50%
George C. Chamberlain (G) 2.06%
Isaac C. Stearns (P) 0.43%
Minnesota 3 Jacob H. Stewart Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
William D. Washburn (R) 53.88%
Ignatius L. Donnelly (D) 46.12%

In Minnesota 1, William Meighan was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In Minnesota 3, Ignatius L. Donnelly was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Mississippi[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Mississippi 1 Henry L. Muldrow Democratic 1876 Re-elected Henry L. Muldrow (D) 59.35%
Reuben Davis (G) 40.25%
W. D. Frazee (I) 0.40%
Mississippi 2 Van H. Manning Democratic 1876 Re-elected Van H. Manning (D) 52.02%
J. H. Amacker (R) 44.94%
C. H. Allen (I) 2.88%
Daniel B. Wright (G) 0.16%
Mississippi 3 Hernando Money Democratic 1874 Re-elected Hernando Money (D) 100.0%
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1874 Re-elected Otho R. Singleton (D) 100.0%
Mississippi 5 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1874 Re-elected Charles E. Hooker (D) 87.53%
J. B. Deason (R) 12.47%
Mississippi 6 James R. Chalmers Democratic 1876 Re-elected James R. Chalmers (D) 83.26%
E. J. Castello (R) 16.74%

Missouri[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Missouri 1 Anthony F. Ittner Republican 1876 Retired
Democratic gain
Martin L. Clardy (D) 48.36%
Henry Ziegenhein (R) 33.26%
Henry Eshbaugh (G) 12.69%
F. Westermeyer (S) 5.69%
Missouri 2 Nathan Cole Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Erastus Wells (D) 42.70%
Nathan Cole (R) 41.21%
John Hogan (G) 13.31%
William Hossfield (S) 2.78%
Missouri 3 Lyne Metcalfe Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Richard G. Frost (D) 45.23%
Lyne Metcalfe (R) 33.25%
H. C. Vandillen (G) 13.83%
G. Bartholomeus (S) 7.13%
Missouri 4 Robert A. Hatcher Democratic 1872 Retired
Democratic hold
Lowndes H. Davis (D) 61.35%
Sol G. Kitchen (G) 34.79%
Charles E. Moss (R) 3.86%
Missouri 5 Richard P. Bland Democratic 1872 Re-elected Richard P. Bland (D) 56.64%
J. J. Ware (G) 40.24%
W. C. Mings (I) 3.11%
Missouri 6 Charles H. Morgan Democratic 1874 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
James R. Waddill (D) 43.99%
Charles G. Burton (R) 28.77%
M. H. Ritchey (G) 27.24%
Missouri 7 Thomas T. Crittenden Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Alfred M. Lay (D) 51.49%
James Boyd (G) 26.75%
A. A. Underwood (R) 21.77%
Missouri 8 Benjamin J. Franklin Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Samuel L. Sawyer (ID) 48.95%
John T. Crisp (D) 44.87%
L. G. Jeffers (G) 6.17%
Missouri 9 David Rea Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Nicholas Ford (G) 51.74%
David Rea (D) 48.26%
Missouri 10 Henry M. Pollard Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Gideon F. Rothwell (D) 47.19%
Henry M. Pollard (R) 34.69%
E. J. Broaddus (G) 18.12%
Missouri 11 John B. Clark, Jr. Democratic 1872 Re-elected John B. Clark, Jr. (D) 98.92%
Scattering (I) 1.08%
Missouri 12 John M. Glover Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
William H. Hatch (D) 45.09%
John M. London (G) 38.34%
Dan M. Draper (R) 16.56%
Missouri 13 Aylett H. Buckner Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
Aylett H. Buckner (D) 59.21%
T. J. Fagg (G) 32.57%
T. B. Robinson (IG) 8.22%

In Missouri 13, T. J. Fagg was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.

Nebraska[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nebraska At-Large Frank Welch Republican 1876 Died September 4, 1878
Republican hold
Edward K. Valentine (R) 56.58%
J. W. Davis (D) 43.42%

In the Nebraska At-Large District, J. W. Davis was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Nevada[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nevada At-Large Thomas Wren Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Rollin M. Daggett (R) 51.81%
W. E. Deal (D) 48.19%

New Hampshire[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Frank Jones Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Joshua G. Hall (R) 50.57%
Herbert F. Norris (D) 40.88%
Lafayette Chesley (G) 8.55%
New Hampshire 2 James F. Briggs Republican 1876 Re-elected James F. Briggs (R) 52.10%
Alvah W. Sulloway (D) 39.57%
Cyrus A. Sulloway (G) 8.33%
New Hampshire 3 Henry W. Blair Republican 1874 Elected to the U.S. Senate
Republican hold
Evarts W. Farr (R) 49.06%
Henry O. Kent (D) 44.68%
James W. Johnson (G) 6.27%

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1 Clement H. Sinnickson Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
George M. Robeson (R) 48.11%
C. C. Grosscup (G) 31.85%
Nathan T. Stratton (D) 20.04%
New Jersey 2 John H. Pugh Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Hezekiah B. Smith (D) 50.59%
John H. Pugh (R) 47.44%
Charles E. Baker (P) 1.97%
New Jersey 3 Miles Ross Democratic 1874 Re-elected Miles Ross (D) 44.15%
Amos Clark (R) 43.06%
Washington L. Hope (G) 12.56%
James A. Bradley (P) 0.24%
New Jersey 4 Alvah A. Clark Democratic 1876 Re-elected Alvah A. Clark (D) 45.05%
Frederick A. Potts (R) 38.77%
George H. Larison (G) 16.18%
New Jersey 5 Augustus W. Cutler Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Charles H. Voorhis (R) 44.92%
Thomas W. Demarest (D) 41.60%
Erastus E. Potter (G) 13.48%
New Jersey 6 Thomas B. Peddie Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
John L. Blake (R) 49.72%
Andrew Albright (D) 43.19%
Francis C. Bliss (G) 7.09%
New Jersey 7 Augustus A. Hardenbergh Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Lewis A. Brigham (R) 50.82%
Patrick H. Laverty (D) 43.26%
J. B. Winant (G) 5.48%
C. C. Burr (ID) 0.44%

In New Jersey 2, Hezekiah B. Smith was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

New York[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 James W. Covert Democratic 1876 Re-elected James W. Covert (D) 50.84%
James Otis (R) 43.44%
Samuel J. Crooks (G) 5.27%
Egbert T. Smith (P) 0.45%
New York 2 William D. Veeder Democratic 1876 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Daniel O'Reilly (ID) 55.24%
Edward C. Litchfield (D) 41.54%
Abraham Bennett (G) 3.22%
New York 3 Simeon B. Chittenden Republican 1874 SE Re-elected Simeon B. Chittenden (R) 58.40%
Richard H. Huntley (D) 35.10%
Joseph P. Jones (G) 3.51%
N. McGregor Steele (P) 3.00%
New York 4 Archibald M. Bliss Democratic 1874 Re-elected Archibald M. Bliss (D) 54.03%
William H. Lyon (R) 36.28%
C. Osborn Ward (S) 3.45%
John C. Keelly (ID) 3.23%
William Hansom (G) 3.01%
New York 5 Nicholas Muller Democratic 1874 Re-elected Nicholas Muller (D-TH) 52.27%
Thomas F. Burke (R) 45.98%
George Blair (G) 1.55%
James E. Kerrigan (G) 0.10%
Alexander Frey (S) 0.10%
New York 6 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1873 SE Re-elected Samuel S. Cox (D-TH) 62.44%
Maurice S. D'Vries (R) 36.22%
Isaac Bennett (S) 1.34%
New York 7 Anthony Eickhoff Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Edwin Einstein (R) 48.53%
Anthony Eickhoff (D) 45.63%
John W. Jahelka (G) 5.12%
Thomas Green (I) 0.72%
New York 8 Anson G. McCook Republican 1876 Re-elected Anson G. McCook (R) 60.73%
Lawrence R. Jerome (D) 35.49%
William W. Averill (IGb) 3.68%
Frederick E. Sinner (S) 0.09%
New York 9 Fernando Wood Democratic 1866 Re-elected Fernando Wood (D-TH) 37.12%
John Hardy (D-ATD) 33.05%
Wilson Berryman (R) 29.21%
Joseph Kunze (G) 0.62%
New York 10 Abram Hewitt Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
James O'Brien (D-ATD) 54.16%
Orlando B. Potter (D-TH) 43.29%
John G. Shuck (I) 1.54%
Garret Nagle (I) 1.01%
New York 11 Benjamin A. Willis Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Levi P. Morton (R) 65.65%
Benjamin A. Willis (D-TH) 32.92%
G. Wallace Bryant (D-ATD) 1.18%
New York 12 Clarkson Nott Potter Democratic 1876 Retired
Republican gain
Alexander Smith (R) 49.64%
Marcius L. Cobb (D) 39.76%
Nicholas Smith (G) 10.60%
New York 13 John H. Ketcham Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Ketcham (R) 62.78%
Orlando D. Baker (D) 33.39%
John V. Doty (G) 2.73%
George Potter (P) 0.85%
Aaron J. Stevens (I) 0.26%
New York 14 George M. Beebe Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John W. Ferdon (R) 44.43%
George M. Beebe (D) 42.42%
William Voorhis (G) 12.22%
Stephen Merritt (P) 0.93%
New York 15 Stephen L. Mayham Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
William Lounsbery (D) 47.52%
George S. Nichols (R) 39.75%
John R. Erkson (G) 12.24%
James H. Coutant (P) 0.49%
New York 16 Vacant since the death of Terence J. Quinn on June 18, 1878. Democratic 1876 Republican gain John Mosher Bailey (R) 41.13%
Francis H. Woods (D) 40.47%
Henry Hilton (G) 18.39%
New York 17 Martin I. Townsend Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Walter A. Wood (R) 55.34%
Charles E. Patterson (D) 31.86%
Richard H. Ferguson (G) 12.80%
New York 18 Andrew Williams Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold John Hammond (R) 54.84%
John Ross (D) 29.69%
Leonard G. McDonald (G) 15.47%
New York 19 Amaziah B. James Republican 1876 Re-elected Amaziah B. James (R) 70.59%
Louis Hasbrouck (D) 29.41%
New York 20 John H. Starin Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Starin (R) 56.71%
Alexander J. Thomson (D) 34.78%
Frederick F. Wendell (G) 8.27%
James H. Bronson (P) 0.24%
New York 21 Solomon Bundy Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold David Wilber (R) 48.07%
Bryon J. Scofield (D) 31.82%
Salmon G. Cone (G) 18.81%
Fred T. Jarvis (P) 1.29%
New York 22 George A. Bagley Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Warner Miller (R) 51.39%
Levi H. Brown (D) 40.33%
Harry Lewis (G) 7.27%
Simon P. Gray (P) 1.00%
New York 23 William J. Bacon Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold Cyrus D. Prescott (R) 42.95%
John T. Spriggs (D) 38.41%
James Mitchell (G) 16.61%
John W. Meais (P) 1.98%
New York 24 William H. Baker Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Joseph Mason (R) 50.65%
Sebastian Duffy (D) 47.55%
Winfield S. Smyth (P) 1.80%
New York 25 Frank Hiscock Republican 1876 Re-elected Frank Hiscock (R) 55.96%
John M. Weiting (D) 42.83%
Lemuel N. Stratton (P) 1.21%
New York 26 John H. Camp Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Camp (R) 53.02%
Charles F. Durston (D) 40.55%
Martin L. Wolley (G) 6.05%
William D. Osborne (P) 0.38%
New York 27 Elbridge G. Lapham Republican 1874 Re-elected Elbridge G. Lapham (R) 54.47%
David A. Pierpont (D) 45.42%
Thomas H. Howell (P) 0.11%
New York 28 Jeremiah W. Dwight Republican 1876 Re-elected Jeremiah W. Dwight (R) 54.47%
William L. Mudge (D) 38.72%
Epenetus Howe (G) 6.53%
Gardine C. Hibbard (P) 0.73%
New York 29 John N. Hungerford Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold David P. Richardson (R) 42.82%
Francis G. Babcock (D) 32.75%
Ralph Beaumont (G) 24.43%
New York 30 Elizur K. Hart Democratic 1876 Retired Republican gain John Van Voorhis (R) 43.49%
Alexander B. Lamberton (D) 37.55%
Nathan G. Brown (G) 10.00%
Alphonso A. Hopkins (P) 8.97%
New York 31 Charles B. Benedict Democratic 1876 Retired Republican gain Richard Crowley (R) 56.33%
Cyrus E. Davis (D) 39.17%
Galen Miller (G) 2.51%
Joseph W. Grosvenor (P) 1.03%
James F. Gordon (I) 0.96%
New York 32 Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ray V. Pierce (R) 52.34%
Daniel N. Lockwood (D) 44.37%
Augustus R. Grote (P) 3.28%
New York 33 George W. Patterson Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold Henry Van Aernam (R) 49.87%
Lorenzo Morris (D) 29.55%
Silas Vinton (G) 20.58%

In New York 2, Daniel O'Reilly was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.

In New York 5, Thomas Burke was also endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In New York 6, Samuel S. Cox was endorsed by the state Greenback Party, and Maurice S. D'Vries was endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In New York 8, Lawrence Jerome was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 10, James O'Brien was also endorsed by the state Republican Party. For the purposes of simplicity he is listed as having been elected an Independent Democrat.

In New York 24, John Spriggs was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 25, John Weiting was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 27, David Pierpont was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Lost re-election
Democratic gain
John S. Richardson (D) 61.70%
Joseph Rainey (R) 38.30%
South Carolina 2 Richard H. Cain Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Michael P. O'Connor (D) 60.94%
Edmund W. M. Mackey (R) 39.06%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Re-elected D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 79.44%
J. F. Ensor (R) 20.56%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Re-elected John H. Evins (D) 96.84%
Alexander S. Wallace (R) 3.16%
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
George D. Tillman (D) 71.24%
Robert Smalls (R) 28.76%

South Carolina was one state rampant with voter fraud, particularly through the use of tissue ballots, thin ballots hidden in the normal ballot, typically 10 to 20 at a time. The almost statewide exclusion of Republicans as Commissioners of Elections, and the ensuing appointment of nearly all Democratic Managers of Elections, allowed to Democratic Managers to perpetrate this scheme. When the votes were counted and more votes than voters were found, the Managers removed and destroyed the Republican ballots resulting in the complete takeover of the state.[7][8][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2 Independent Democrats
  2. ^ 2 Independent Democrats
  3. ^ 6 Independent Democrats
  4. ^ 1879 in California, the last regular Congressional election in an odd-numbered year
  5. ^ Elections held late
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Elections held early
  7. ^ The New York Times, November 16, 1878 - NYT Free Archive
  8. ^ The New York Times, February 5, 1879 - NYT Free Archive
  9. ^ The Life of James Abram Garfield, by William Ralston Balch, 1881