U.S. Open (golf)
|Location|| United States
Ardmore, Pennsylvania in 2013
|Course(s)||Merion Golf Club,
East Course in 2013
|Par||70 in 2013|
|Length||6,846 yd (6,260 m) in 2013|
Japan Golf Tour
|Prize fund||$8,000,000 in 2012
|Tournament record score|
|Aggregate||268 Rory McIlroy (2011)|
|To par||–16 Rory McIlroy (2011)|
|2013 U.S. Open (golf)|
The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open golf tournament of the United States. It is the second of the four major championships in golf, and is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. It is staged by the United States Golf Association (USGA) in mid-June, scheduled so that, if there are no weather delays, the final round is played on the third Sunday, which is Father's Day.
The U.S. Open is staged at a variety of courses, set up in such a way that scoring is very difficult with a premium placed on accurate driving. U.S. Open play is characterized by tight scoring at or around par by the leaders, with the winner usually emerging at around even par. A U.S. Open course is seldom beaten severely, and there have been many over-par wins (in part because par is usually set at 70 except for the very longest courses). Normally, an Open course is quite long and will have a high cut of primary rough (termed "Open rough" by the American press and fans), undulating greens (such as at Pinehurst No. 2 in 2005, which was described by Johnny Miller of NBC as "like trying to hit a ball on top of a VW Beetle"), and pinched fairways (especially on what are expected to be less difficult holes). Some courses that are attempting to get into the rotation for the U.S. Open will undergo renovations to develop these features. Rees Jones is the most notable of the "Open Doctors" who take on these projects; his father Robert Trent Jones had filled that role earlier. As with any professional golf tournament, the available space surrounding the course (for spectators, among other considerations) and local infrastructure also factor into deciding which courses will host the event.
The U.S. Open is the only one of the four major championships which does not go immediately to a playoff if two or more players are tied at the end of the four rounds. Instead, the players play a fifth 18-hole round the following day (Monday), but if a tie still exists after that round, then a sudden-death playoff is held. Only three times has the U.S. Open gone to sudden-death after the playoff round, most recently in 2008 when Tiger Woods defeated Rocco Mediate on the first additional playoff hole.
Coverage of The U.S. Open is broadcast on television by NBC and ESPN, with additional online coverage of a marquee group provided by ESPN via the U.S. Open's official website. Of golf's broadcast television partners in the U.S., NBC is the only network to provide four days of major tournament coverage (CBS, which airs the Masters and the PGA Championship, only provides weekend coverage of its tournaments; since 2010, the Open Championship has not been aired live on an over-the-air network, with all four rounds airing on ESPN and only edited highlights screened by ABC).
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
The first U.S. Open was played on October 4, 1895, on a nine-hole course at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island. It was a 36-hole competition and was played in a single day. Ten professionals and one amateur entered. The winner was a 21-year-old Englishman named Horace Rawlins, who had arrived in the U.S. in January that year to take up a position at the host club. He received $150 cash out of a prize fund of $335, plus a $50 gold medal; his club received the Open Championship Cup trophy, which was presented by the USGA.
In the beginning, the tournament was dominated by experienced British players until 1911, when John J. McDermott became the first native-born American winner. American golfers soon began to win regularly and the tournament evolved to become one of the four majors.
Since 1911, the title has been won almost exclusively by players from the United States. Since 1950, players from only six countries other than the United States have won the championship, most notably South Africa, which has won five times since 1965. A streak of four consecutive non-American winners occurred from 2004 to 2007 for the first time since 1910. These four players, South African Retief Goosen (2004), New Zealander Michael Campbell (2005), Australian Geoff Ogilvy (2006) and Argentine Ángel Cabrera (2007), are all from countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Northern Ireland's Graeme McDowell (2010) became the first European player to win the event since Tony Jacklin of England in 1970.
Qualification and prizes 
The U.S. Open is open to any professional, or to any amateur with an up-to-date men's USGA Handicap Index not exceeding 1.4. Players (male or female) may obtain a place by being fully exempt or by competing successfully in qualifying. The field is 156 players.
About half of the field is made up of players who are fully exempt from qualifying. As of the most recent U.S. Open in 2012, the exemption categories are:
- Winners of the U.S. Open for the last ten years
- Winner and runner-up from the previous year's U.S. Amateur
- Winner of the previous year's Amateur Championship
- The previous year's Mark H. McCormack Medal winner for the top-ranked amateur golfer in the world
- Winners of each of Masters Tournament, Open Championship and PGA Championship for the last five years
- Winners of the last three Players Championships
- Winner of the current year's BMW PGA Championship
- Winner of the last U.S. Senior Open
- Top 10 finishers and ties from the previous year's U.S. Open
- Players who qualified for the previous year's Tour Championship
- The top 60 in the Official World Golf Ranking (OWGR) as of two weeks before the start of the tournament
- The top 60 in the OWGR as of the tournament date
The exemptions for amateurs apply only if the players remain amateurs as of the tournament date.
Before 2011, the sole OWGR cutoff for entry was the top 50 as of two weeks before the tournament. An exemption category for the top 50 as of the tournament date was added for 2011, apparently in response to the phenomenon of golfers entering the top 50 between the original cutoff date and the tournament (such as Justin Rose and Rickie Fowler in 2010).
Through 2011, exemptions existed for leading money winners on the PGA, European, Japanese, and Australasian tours, as well as winners of multiple PGA Tour events in the year before the U.S. Open. These categories were eliminated in favor of inviting the top 60 on the OWGR at both relevant dates. Starting with the 2012 championship, an exemption was added for the winner of the current year's BMW PGA Championship, the European Tour's equivalent of The Players Championship.
Potential competitors who are not fully exempt must enter the Qualifying process, which has two stages. Firstly there is Local Qualifying, which is played over 18 holes at more than 100 courses around the United States. Many leading players are exempt from this first stage, and they join the successful local qualifiers at the Sectional Qualifying stage, which is played over 36 holes in one day at several sites in the U.S., as well as one each in Europe and Japan. There is no lower age limit and the youngest-ever qualifier was 14-year-old Andy Zhang of China, who qualified in 2012 after Paul Casey withdrew days before the tournament.
The purse at the 2012 U.S. Open was $8 million, and the winner's share was $1.44 million. The European Tour uses conversion rates at the time of the tournament to calculate the official prize money used in their Race to Dubai (€6,433,971 in 2012). In line with the other majors, winning the U.S. Open gives a golfer several privileges that make his career much more secure if he is not already one of the elite players of the sport. U.S. Open champions are automatically invited to play in the other three majors (the Masters, the Open Championship (British Open), and the PGA Championship) for the next five years, as well as the Players Championship, and they are exempt from qualifying for the U.S. Open itself for 10 years. They may also receive a five-year exemption on the PGA Tour, which is automatic for regular members. Non-PGA Tour members who win the U.S. Open have the choice of joining the PGA Tour either within 60 days of winning, or prior to the beginning of any one of the next five tour seasons. Finally, U.S. Open winners receive automatic invitations to three of the five senior majors once they turn 50; they receive a five-year invitation to the U.S. Senior Open and a lifetime invitation to the Senior PGA Championship and Senior British Open.
The top 10 finishers at the U.S. Open are fully exempt from qualifying for the following year's Open, and the top eight are automatically invited to the following season's Masters.
Willie Anderson, Bobby Jones, Ben Hogan and Jack Nicklaus hold the record for the most U.S. Open victories, with four victories each. Hale Irwin is the oldest winner of the U.S. Open at 45 years and 15 days in 1990. The youngest winner of the U.S. Open is John McDermott at 19 years, 10 months and 14 days in 1911.
(a) denotes amateur
- Oldest champion: Hale Irwin in 1990 at 45 years, 15 days.
- Youngest champion: John McDermott in 1911 at 19 years, 315 days.
- Oldest player to make the cut: Sam Snead in 1973 at 61 years old. He tied for 29th place.
- Most consecutive victories: 3 by Willie Anderson 1903–05.
- Most consecutive Opens started: 44 by Jack Nicklaus from 1957 to 2000.
- Largest margin of victory: 15 strokes by Tiger Woods, 2000. This is the all-time record for all majors.
- Lowest score for 36 holes: 131 – Rory McIlroy (65–66), rounds 1–2, 2011.
- Lowest score for 54 holes: 199 – Rory McIlroy (65–66–68), rounds 1–3, 2011.
- Lowest score for 72 holes: 268 – Rory McIlroy (65–66–68–69), rounds 1–4, 2011.
- Most strokes under par for 72 holes: 16-under (268) by Rory McIlroy, 2011.
- Most strokes under par at any point in the tournament: 17 by Rory McIlroy, final round, 2011.
- Lowest score for 18 holes: 63 – Johnny Miller, 4th round, 1973; Jack Nicklaus, 1st, 1980; Tom Weiskopf, 1st, 1980; Vijay Singh, 2nd, 2003.
- All four rounds under par (golfers who did not win the tournament in italics):
- All four rounds under 70: Trevino, 1968; Janzen, 1993; McIlroy, 2011.
- Most frequent venues:
- 8 Opens: Oakmont Country Club – 1927, 1935, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1983, 1994 and 2007.
- 7 Opens: Baltusrol Golf Club – 1903, 1915, 1936, 1954, 1967, 1980 and 1993.
- 6 Opens: Oakland Hills Country Club – 1924, 1937, 1951, 1961, 1985 and 1996.
- 5 Opens: Winged Foot Golf Club – 1929, 1959, 1974, 1984, and 2006.
- 5 Opens: Pebble Beach Golf Links – 1972, 1982, 1992, 2000 and 2010.
- 5 Opens: Olympic Club – 1955, 1966, 1987, 1998 and 2012.
- 4 Opens: Myopia Hunt Club – 1898, 1901, 1905 and 1908.
- 4 Opens: Inverness Club – 1920, 1931, 1957 and 1979.
- 4 Opens: Merion Golf Club – 1934, 1950, 1971 and 1981.
- 4 Opens: Shinnecock Hills Golf Club – 1896, 1986, 1995 and 2004.
There is an extensive records section on the official site here.
Future sites 
|2013||113th||Merion Golf Club, East Course||Ardmore, Pennsylvania||June 13–16||1934, 1950, 1971, 1981|
|2014||114th||Pinehurst Resort, Course #2||Pinehurst, North Carolina||June 12–15||1999, 2005|
|2015||115th||Chambers Bay||University Place, Washington||June 18–21||Never|
|2016||116th||Oakmont Country Club||Oakmont, Pennsylvania||June 16–19||1927, 1935, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1983, 1994, 2007|
|2017||117th||Erin Hills||Erin, Wisconsin||June 15–18||Never|
|2018||118th||Shinnecock Hills Golf Club||Shinnecock Hills, New York||June 14–17||1896, 1986, 1995, 2004|
|2019||119th||Pebble Beach Golf Links||Pebble Beach, California||June 13–16||1972, 1982, 1992, 2000, 2010|
|2020||120th||Winged Foot Golf Club||Mamaroneck, New York||June 18–21||1929, 1959, 1974, 1984, 2006|
- Most of the course lies within the hamlet of Old Bethpage, but the clubhouse is in Farmingdale, and the park has a Farmingdale postal address. Both places are within the Town of Oyster Bay.
- La Jolla is a neighborhood within the city of San Diego that has a unique postal identity.
- The course straddles the border between Daly City and San Francisco; the club's postal address is in San Francisco.
- The club has a Rochester postal address, but is located in the adjacent town of Pittsford.
- The club is located in a portion of the Duluth postal area that became part of the newly incorporated city of Johns Creek in 2006. Although the club is still served by the Duluth post office, it now lists its mailing address as Johns Creek.
- The club has a St. Louis postal address, but is located in the Missouri suburb of Town and Country.
- Pacific Palisades is a neighborhood within the city of Los Angeles that has a unique postal identity.
- "112th U.S. Open Championship application form". USGA. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- USGA - Changes Made To Exemptions For 2012 USGA Championships
- "U.S. Open to expand world-ranking use". ESPN.com. Associated Press. February 5, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "USGA Announces Changes To Exemption Categories" (Press release). United States Golf Association. February 5, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- "Champions". U.S. Open. Archived from the original on March 3, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
- "Age". U.S. Open. Archived from the original on March 3, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
- "Rory McIlroy runs away with Open title". ESPN. June 20, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- "US Open 2011 – day four as it happened". guardian.co.uk. June 19, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- This will be the first year in which a single course will host both the men's and women's Opens. The women's Open will be held the week after the men's.
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