List of Presidents of the United States

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The White House, the president's official residence and center of the administration

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected President more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. The President must be at least 35 years of age, has to live in the United States for 14 years, and has to be a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been 43 people sworn into office, and 44 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy) and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9]

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest with over twelve years, but died shortly into his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. A constitutional amendment, affecting presidents after Harry Truman, was passed to limit the number of times an individual can be elected president. Andrew Jackson, the seventh president, was the first to be elected by men of all classes in 1828 after most laws barring non-land-owners from voting were repealed. Warren Harding was the first elected after women gained voting rights in 1920. Four presidents – John Q. Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison and George W. Bush – lost the popular vote but assumed office. John F. Kennedy has been the only president of Roman Catholic faith, and the current president, Barack Obama, is the first president of recent African descent.[10]

The listing below is complete for the current government of the USA. For this country, however, there were prior governments (including that under the Articles of Confederation). Prior to George Washington as first president under the current constitution, there were twelve people in leadership over the government of the United States of America who held the title of "President". Also during the Civil War, there was the position of "President of the Confederate States of America" in an entity separate from the USA, and this position was held by one person.

List of presidents

Parties

      No party       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican

President Took office Left office Party Term
[n 1]
Previous office Vice President
1

George-Washington.jpg

George Washington
(1732–1799)
[11][12][13]
April 30, 1789
[n 2]
March 4, 1797 Independent[14] 1
(1789)
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
(1775–1783)
  John Adams
2
(1792)
2

US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg

John Adams
(1735–1826)
[15][16][17]
March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801
[n 3]
Federalist 3
(1796)
Vice President Thomas Jefferson
3

Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg

Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[18][19][20]
March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
Vice President Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton[n 4]
March 4, 1805April 20, 1812
4

James Madison.jpg

James Madison
(1751–1836)
[21][22][23]
March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
6
(1808)
Secretary of State
(1801–1809)
 
Vacant[n 5]
April 20, 1812March 4, 1813
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry[n 4]
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
Vacant[n 5]
November 23, 1814March 4, 1817
5

James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif

James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[24][25][26]
March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
Secretary of State
(1811–1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6

John Quincy Adams.jpg

John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[27][28][29]
March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829
[n 3]
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
Secretary of State
(1817–1825)
John C. Calhoun[n 6]
March 4, 1825December 28, 1832
7

Andrew Jackson.jpg

Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
[30][31][32]
March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic 11
(1828)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1823–1825)
 
Vacant[n 5]
December 28, 1832March 4, 1833
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8

MartinVanBuren.png

Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[33][34][35]
March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841
[n 3]
Democratic 13
(1836)
Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson
9

William Henry Harrison.jpg

William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
[36][37][38]
March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841
[n 4]
Whig 14
(1840)
Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
John Tyler
10

WHOportTyler.jpg

John Tyler
(1790–1862)
[39][40][41]
April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Vice President
[n 7]
Vacant[n 5]
Independent[n 8]
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
11

JamesKPolk.png

James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
[42][43][44]
March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic 15
(1844)
Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841)
George M. Dallas
12

Zachary Taylor-circa1850.jpg

Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
[45][46][47]
March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850
[n 4]
Whig 16
(1848)
U.S. Army Major general from the 1st Infantry Regiment
(1846–1849)
Millard Fillmore
13

Fillmore.jpg

Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[48][49][50]
July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853
[n 9]
Whig Vice President Vacant[n 5]
14

Franklin Pierce.jpg

Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
[51][52][53]
March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic 17
(1852)
U.S. Army Brigadier general from the 9th Infantry Regiment
(1847-1848)
William R. King[n 4]
March 4, 1853April 18, 1853
Vacant[n 5]
April 18, 1853March 4, 1857
15

James Buchanan.jpg

James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[54][55][56]
March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic 18
(1856)
Minister to the United Kingdom
(1853–1856)
John C. Breckinridge
16

Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg

Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[57][58][59]
March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865
[n 10]
Republican 19
(1860)
U.S. Representative from Illinois
(1847–1849)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
Republican
National Union[n 11]
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4, 1865April 15, 1865
17

President Andrew Johnson.jpg

Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[60][61][62]
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union[n 11]
Independent[n 12]
Vice President Vacant
[n 5]
18

UlyssesGrant.png

Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
[63][64][65]
March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican 21
(1868)
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson[n 4]
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1875March 4, 1877
19

President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg

Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[66][67][68]
March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican 23
(1876)
Governor of Ohio
(1868–1872, 1876–1877)
William A. Wheeler
20

James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg

James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
[69][70][71]
March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881
[n 10]
Republican 24
(1880)
U.S. Representative from Ohio
(1863–1881)
Chester A. Arthur
21

Chester Alan Arthur.jpg

Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[72][73][74]
September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
22 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[75][76]
March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889
[n 3]
Democratic 25
(1884)
Governor of New York
(1883–1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks[n 4]
March 4, 1885November 25, 1885
Vacant[n 5]
November 25, 1885March 4, 1889
23

Pach Brothers - Benjamin Harrison.jpg

Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
[77][78][79]
March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican 26
(1888)
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Levi P. Morton
24 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[75][76]
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic 27
(1892)
President
(1885–1889)
Adlai Stevenson I
25

William McKinley 1.png

William McKinley
(1843–1901)
[80][81][82]
March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901
[n 10]
Republican 28
(1896)
Governor of Ohio
(1892–1896)
Garret Hobart[n 4]
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
Vacant[n 5]
November 21, 1899March 4, 1901
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4, 1901September 14, 1901
26

President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg

Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[83][84][85]
September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909
[n 9]
Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27

William Howard Taft, Bain bw photo portrait, 1908.jpg

William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
[86][87][88]
March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913
[n 3]
Republican 31
(1908)
Secretary of War
(1904–1908)
James S. Sherman[n 4]
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
Vacant[n 5]
October 30, 1912March 4, 1913
28

President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg

Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
[89][90][91]
March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic 32
(1912)
Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29

Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg

Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
[92][93][94]
March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923
[n 4]
Republican 34
(1920)
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Calvin Coolidge
30

John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg

Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[95][96][97]
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31

HerbertHoover.jpg

Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
[98][99][100]
March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933
[n 3]
Republican 36
(1928)
Secretary of Commerce
(1921–1928)
Charles Curtis
32

Franklin D. Roosevelt - NARA - 196715.jpg

Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
[101][102][103]
March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04) April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[n 4]
Democratic 37
(1932)
[n 13]
Governor of New York
(1929–1932)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20, 1945April 12, 1945
33

Harry S. Truman.jpg

Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[104][105][106]
April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic Vice President Vacant[n 5]
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34

Dwight D. Eisenhower, White House photo portrait, February 1959.jpg

Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
[107][108][109]
January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961
[n 14]
Republican 42
(1952)
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35

Jfk2.jpg

John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
[110][111][112]
January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963
[n 10]
Democratic 44
(1960)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Lyndon B. Johnson
36

Lyndon B. Johnson, photo portrait, leaning on chair, color.jpg

Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[113][114]
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic Vice President Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37

Richard Nixon.jpg

Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[115][116][117]
January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974
[n 6]
Republican 46
(1968)
Vice President
(1953–1961)
Spiro Agnew[n 6]
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
47
(1972)
 
Vacant[n 5]
October 10, 1973December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
38

Gerald Ford.jpg

Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[118][119][120]
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican Vice President Vacant[n 5]
August 9, 1974December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39

JimmyCarterPortrait.jpg

Jimmy Carter
(born 1924)
[121][122][123]
January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981
[n 3]
Democratic 48
(1976)
Governor of Georgia
(1971–1975)
Walter Mondale
40

Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg

Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[124][125][126]
January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican 49
(1980)
Governor of California
(1967–1975)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41

George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg

George H. W. Bush
(born 1924)
[127][128][129]
January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993
[n 3]
Republican 51
(1988)
Vice President Dan Quayle
42 Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
(born 1946)
[130][131][132]
January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic 52
(1992)
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
(born 1946)
[133][134][135]
January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican 54
(2000)
Governor of Texas
(1995–2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44 President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg Barack Obama
(born 1961)
[136][137][138]
January 20, 2009 Incumbent Democratic 56
(2008)
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)

Living former presidents

As of April 2014, there are four living former presidents:

President Term of office Date of birth
Jimmy Carter 1977–1981 (1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 89)
George H. W. Bush 1989–1993 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 89)
Bill Clinton 1993–2001 (1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 67)
George W. Bush 2001–2009 (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 67)

The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (1974–77) on December 26, 2006, aged 93.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, George Washington's first-term inaugural was postponed 57 days (1 month and 27 days) to April 30, 1789, because the U.S. Congress had not yet achieved a quorum.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Unseated (lost re-election).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the Vice Presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  6. ^ a b c Resigned.
  7. ^ Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  8. ^ Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  9. ^ a b Later sought re-election to a non-consecutive term.
  10. ^ a b c d Assassinated.
  11. ^ a b Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  12. ^ Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  13. ^ The twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect in 1933, moving the 1937 inauguration day from March 4 to January 20, and shortening this term by 43 days.
  14. ^ Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Excerpts from "Forgotten Presidents" – The Patriots Handbook, by George Grant". Harrold.org. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  3. ^ Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  4. ^ Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  6. ^ a b Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  7. ^ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  8. ^ "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
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  30. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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