U.S. Route 31 in Indiana
|Maintained by INDOT|
|Length:||266.02 mi (428.12 km)|
|Existed:||1926 – present|
|South end:||US 31 at Kentucky state line|
|I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road near South Bend|
|North end:||US 31 at Michigan state line|
|Counties:||Clark, Scott, Jackson, Bartholomew, Johnson, Marion, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall, St. Joseph|
U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to the Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the U.S. state of Indiana, it is a State Road that enters the state via the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. The 266.02 miles (428.12 km) of US 31 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway and urbanized four-lane divided expressway. The northernmost community along the highway is South Bend near the Michigan state line.
US 31 was first designated as a US Highway in 1926. A section of the highway originally served as part of the Dixie Highway. US 31 replaced the original State Road 1 (SR 1) designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana State Road system. SR 1 ran from Clarksville through Indianapolis to South Bend and ended at the Michigan state line.
- 1 Route description
- 2 History
- 3 Major intersections
- 4 Supplemental routes
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Only the segment of US 31 that is north of Indianapolis is included as a part of the National Highway System (NHS). The NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy, mobility and defense of the nation. The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) like all other U.S. Routes in the state. The department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that lowest traffic levels were the 3,690 personal vehicles and 160 commercial vehicles that used the highway daily near Memphis. The peak traffic volume was 168,770 personal vehicles and 18,090 commercial vehicles along the section of US 31 concurrent with Interstate 465 (I–465).
Jeffersonville to Columbus
US 31 overlaps I-65 in Jeffersonville, after crossing the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge from Kentucky. It then diverges as the access frontage lanes before splitting off north of Jeffersonville at Clarksville and proceeding to Indianapolis. US 31 was recently[when?] widened to two lanes in both directions for its length through Columbus.
Columbus to Indianapolis
At I-465 on the south side of Indianapolis, US 31 is routed onto I-465 to the east of the city. This is the closest approach the highway makes to downtown Indianapolis. (Previously the route of the highway through Indianapolis was on East Street, Madison Avenue, North Street, and then Meridian Street.)
Indianapolis to Michigan
US 31 exits I-465 (coincidentally at Exit 31) in southern Hamilton County, and continues northward, primarily as a divided highway. US 31 then passes through or near Carmel, Kokomo, Rochester, Plymouth, and Lakeville. As US 31 approaches South Bend, the route converges with US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway and proceeds west and then north, bypassing South Bend and proceeding into Michigan. (See U.S. Route 31 in Michigan.)
US 31 was signed into law by the Governor on March 7 of 1917, as Main Market Highway 1, and signs were installed on June 1 of the that year. The name was changed to Indiana State Road 1 within a year when Indiana began the state road system. By 1924, most of the route was paved, leaving only from Columbus to Franklin and from Peru to Plymouth that was unpaved. In 1926, US 31 signs were installed along what was SR 1 at the time. By 1927 the whole route through Indiana was paved.
Freeway upgrades for northern sections
Three sections of US 31 in Northern Indiana between I-465 and US 20 have been or are being relocated or upgraded, part of the INDOT Major Moves Project designed to convert US 31 to Interstate-grade freeway from South Bend to Indianapolis. Funding has yet to be approved for the 78 miles of US 31 between these three segments except for an interchange at SR 28 in Tipton County, whose construction is expected to begin in 2015.
The New US 31 Hamilton County project is upgrading US 31 to freeway standards from Interstate 465 near the Marion County line and Indianapolis to a point near SR 38 north of Westfield. As of 2014[update] construction is underway and is expected to be completed by 2015.
The Kokomo Corridor Project covered 14 miles (23 km) of new highway primarily in Howard County. The limited-access highway was built east of Kokomo and has five interchanges at SR 26, E. Boulevard (CR 100S), US 35/SR 22 (Markland Avenue), Touby Pike and US 35 north of Kokomo. Groundbreaking for the project occurred in the afternoon of September 17, 2008. This section of highway had been scheduled to be completed in December 2013 but it opened ahead of schedule with a ribbon-cutting ceremony on November 26, 2013. The former section of US 31 was redesignated as State Road 931.
Plymouth to South Bend
The US 31 Plymouth to South Bend project relocated US 31 on primarily new alignment from US 30 near Plymouth to US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway south of South Bend. Groundbreaking for the project occurred on September 17, 2008, only hours before the groundbreaking for the Kokomo stretch, and initial construction was in northern Marshall County. This section of highway opened on August 21, 2014, and a portion was dedicated as the Richard W. Mangus Memorial Highway, in honor of the local state representative who supported the freeway's construction, at the ribbon-cutting ceremony on August 27. As of the time of the freeway opening a designation for the state-maintained portion of the former route had not been decided.
|This section may require copy-editing for adjusted mileages along the Kokomo bypass and US 30-to-US 20 section. (August 2014)|
|Ohio River||0.00||0.00||Clark Memorial Bridge
US 31 south continues into Kentucky
|Clark||Clarksville||1.51||2.43||Old SR 62 – New Albany, Clarksville, Indiana||Former SR 62|
|1.59||2.56||1||I-65 south – Louisville||Southern end of I-65 concurrency|
|3.71||5.97||2||I-65 north – Indianapolis||Northern end of I-65 concurrency|
|Jeffersonville Township||6.16||9.91||SR 60 west – Salem||Eastern end of SR 60|
|Sellersburg||9.28||14.93||Old SR 311||Former SR 311|
|Old SR 403||Former SR 403|
|Henryville||19.58||31.51||SR 160 – Salem, Charlestown|
|Scott||Vienna Township||27.19||43.76||SR 356 east – Lexington||Western end of SR 356|
|Scottsburg||29.76||47.89||SR 56 – Salem, Hanover|
|Austin||34.25||55.12||SR 256 – Madison|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 36 on I-65|
|42.07||67.71||SR 250 – Brownstown|
|Seymour||50.42||81.14||US 50 – Seymour, North Vernon|
|Bartholomew||Columbus||64.86||104.38||SR 7 – Columbus, North Vernon|
|65.28||105.06||SR 46 – Columbus, Greensburg|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 76 on I-65|
|Johnson||Edinburgh||81.39||130.98||SR 252 east – Edinburgh||Southern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Blue River Township||85.11||136.97||SR 252 west – Martinsville||Northern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Franklin||91.24||146.84||SR 44 / SR 144 west – Martinsville, Shelbyville|
|Marion||Indianapolis||107.17||172.47||2|| I-74 / I-465
US 36 / US 40 / US 52
SR 37 / SR 67
|Southern and western end of I-465, I-74, US 36, US 40, US 52, SR 37, SR 67 concurrencies|
|53||I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville|
|49||I-74 east / US 421 south (Southeastern Avenue) - Cincinnati||Northern end of I-74 concurrency; southern end of US 421 concurrency|
|47||US 52 east (Brookville Road) - Cincinnati||Southern end of US 52 concurrency|
|46||US 40 east (Washington Street) - Dayton||Northern end of US 40 concurrency|
|44||I-70 – Indianapolis, Dayton|
|Lawrence||42||US 36 east / SR 67 north (Pendleton Pike) – Pendleton||Northern end of US 36/SR 67 concurrency|
|Indianapolis||37||I-69 north / SR 37 north (Binford Boulevard) – Fort Wayne||Northern end of SR 37 concurrency; southern end of I-69|
|33||Keystone Avenue – Carmel||Former SR 431|
|Hamilton||Carmel||31||I-465 west / US 52 west / US 421 north – Indianapolis||Western and northern end of I-465, US 52, and US 421 concurrency; Interchange Construction|
|106th St||Roundabout Interchange Construction|
|116th St||Roundabout Interchange Construction|
|W Main St||Roundabout Interchange Construction|
|136th St, Old Meridian St||Roundabout Interchange Construction|
|137.60||221.45||129||146th St;– Carmel, Indianapolis||Signed as exits 129A(146th St) and 129B(Keystone Pkwy) Southbound; (Keystone Pkwy) southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|Westfield||131||161st St||Roundabout exit|
|140.65||226.35||SR 32 (Main Street) – Lebanon, Noblesville||Interchange Construction|
|191st St||Interchange Construction|
|144.26||232.16||136||SR 38 (Sheridan Road) – Sheridan, Noblesville|
|Tipton||Jefferson Township||156.72||252.22||SR 28 – Frankfort, Tipton, Elwood||Interchange Construction to begin in Spring 2015|
|Sharpsville||Southern end of Freeway|
|156||SR 931 north||Southern terminus of SR 931; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|Howard||Kokomo||166.58||268.08||158||SR 26 (CR 400S) – Lafayette|
|170.91||275.05||162||US 35 south (Markland Avenue) / SR 22 – Kokomo, Gas City||Southern end of US 35 concurrency|
|175.52||282.47||166||US 35 north – Logansport, La Porte, Michigan City||Northern end of US 35 concurrency; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|167||SR 931 south||Northern terminus of SR 931; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|Northern end of Freeway|
|Miami||Deer Creek Township||178.50||287.27||SR 18 – Galveston, Marion|
|Pipe Creek Township||183.73||295.68||SR 218 east – Bunker Hill||Southern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|184.83||297.46||SR 218 west – Walton||Northern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|US 24 – Logansport, Fort Wayne|
|Denver||197.88||318.46||SR 16 (CR 700 North) – Denver|
|SR 25 (Main Street) – Rochester, Logansport|
|213.18||343.08||SR 14 (West 18th Street) – Rochester, Winamac||No access due to grade separation|
|Richland Township||221.37||356.26||SR 110 – Mentone||Fulton–Marshall county line|
|Marshall||Argos||226.08||363.84||SR 10 (Indiana Avenue) – Culver, Argos|
|Plymouth||Lincoln Highway (Old US 30)|
|Southern end of Freeway|
|US 30 – Valparaiso, Warsaw, Fort Wayne|
|La Paz||241.27||388.29||225||US 6 – Walkerton, Bremen|
|St. Joseph||Lakeville||247.66||398.57||231||SR 4 west (Pierce Road) – La Porte||Eastern end of the western section SR 4|
|South Bend||245||Kern Rd|
|262.27||422.08||246||US 20 east – Mishawaka, Elkhart||Southern end of US 20 concurrency; Signed as Exits 246A(US 20 East to Elkhart) and 246B(US 31 North to Niles/US 20 West to Michigan City) Northbound; Signed as Exit 79 Southbound|
|76||SR 23 – North Liberty, South Bend|
|73||SR 2 west (Western Avenue) – La Porte, South Bend||Eastern end of SR 2|
|262.24||422.03||71||US 20 west (Lincolnway West) – Michigan City, South Bend||Northern end of US 20 concurrency|
|264||I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road – Elkhart, Chicago, Toledo||Exit 72 on the Indiana Toll Road|
|266.02||428.12||US 31 north – Niles, Benton Harbor||Michigan state line; St. Joseph Valley Parkway continues into Michigan|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
- Federal Highway Administration (December 2003) (PDF). National Highway System: Indiana (Map). http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/nhs/maps/in/in_Indiana.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "National Highway System". Federal Highway Administration. August 26, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "INDOT Traffic Zones". Indiana Department of Transportation. 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1917). 1917 Indiana State Highway Map and State Highway Commission (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1917) (jpg). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1917.jpg. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1918). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1924) (pdf). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1924.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1925). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1926). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1927) (pdf). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1927.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "U.S. 31 bypass around Kokomo is running 2 years early". The Elkhart Truth. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- "New U.S. 31 Interchange Planned at S.R. 28" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. May 14, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Smith, Scott (April 10, 2012). "Coalition Planners Look to Remaining U.S. 31 Areas". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Platt, Sarah (September 17, 2008). "Governor Daniels breaks ground on new U.S. 31 in Lakeville". WNDU-TV. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Smith, Scott (September 17, 2008). "Ceremony for new U.S. 31 corridor draws crowd". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
- Smith, Scott (January 12, 2010). "U.S. 31 bypass work moving along". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
- Smith, Scott (August 6, 2013). "Bypass or Boulevard?". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- McFeely, Dan (November 26, 2013). "Kokomo U.S. 31 bypass should cut commutes". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Smith, Scott (November 27, 2013). "On Cruise Control". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Jackson, Adam (September 18, 2008). "Ground Breaks on U.S. 31 Work". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Grove, Dustin (September 17, 2008). "New U.S. 31 Project Underway". WSBT-TV. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- Sulok, Nancy J. (January 27, 2008). "Bridges to signal start of new U.S. 31 freeway". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- "And we have liftoff!". Indiana Department of Transportation [INDOTNorthwest on Twitter]. August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Gray, Amanda (August 22, 2014). "Driving the New U.S. 31 Is Smooth Sailing". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "Governor Pence Officially Opens New U.S. 31 Plymouth to South Bend" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Meenan, Jim (August 28, 2014). "Pence Officially Opens new U.S. 31". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- New US 31 Already Impacting Business (Video). WSBT-TV. August 21, 2014. Event occurs at 3:02. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- "INDOT Roadway Referencing System" (PDF). staff.
|U.S. Route 31|