U.S. Route 31 in Indiana
|Maintained by INDOT|
|Length:||266.02 mi (428.12 km)|
|Existed:||1926 – present|
|South end:||US 31 at Kentucky state line|
|I-80 / I-90 / Ind. Toll Rd. near South Bend|
|North end:||US 31 at Michigan state line|
|Counties:||Clark, Scott, Jackson, Bartholomew, Johnson, Marion, Hamilton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall, St. Joseph|
U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to the Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the U.S. state of Indiana, it is a State Road that enters the state via the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. The 266.02 miles (428.12 km) of US 31 that lie within Indiana serve as a major conduit. Some of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway and urbanized four-lane divided expressway. The northernmost community along the highway is South Bend near the Michigan state line.
US 31 was first designated as a US Highway in 1926. A section of the highway originally served as part of the Dixie Highway. US 31 replaced the original State Road 1 (SR 1) designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Indiana State Road system. SR 1 ran from Clarksville through Indianapolis to South Bend and ended at the Michigan state line.
- 1 Route description
- 2 History
- 3 Future
- 4 Major intersections
- 5 Supplemental routes
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Only the segment of US 31 that is north of Indianapolis is included as a part of the National Highway System (NHS). The NHS is a network of highways that are identified as being most important for the economy, mobility and defense of the nation. The highway is maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) like all other U.S. Routes in the state. The department tracks the traffic volumes along all state highways as a part of its maintenance responsibilities using a metric called average annual daily traffic (AADT). This measurement is a calculation of the traffic level along a segment of roadway for any average day of the year. In 2010, INDOT figured that lowest traffic levels were the 3,690 vehicles and 160 commercial vehicles used the highway daily near Memphis. The peak traffic volumes were 168,770 vehicles and 18,090 commercial vehicles AADT along the section of US 31 concurrent with Interstate 465 (I–465).
Jeffersonville to Columbus
US 31 overlaps I-65 in Jeffersonville, after crossing the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge from Kentucky. It then diverges as the access frontage lanes before splitting off north of Jeffersonville at Clarksville and proceeding to Indianapolis. US 31 was recently widened to two lanes in both directions for its length through Columbus.
Columbus to Indianapolis
At I-465 on the south side of Indianapolis, US 31 is routed onto I-465 to the east of the city. This is the closest approach the highway makes to downtown Indianapolis. (Previously the route of the highway through Indianapolis was on East Street, Madison Avenue, North Street, and then Meridian Street.)
Indianapolis to Michigan
US 31 exits I-465 (coincidentally at Exit 31) in southern Hamilton County, and continues northward, primarily as a divided highway. US 31 then passes through or near Carmel, Kokomo, Rochester, Plymouth, and Lakeville. As US 31 approaches southern South Bend, the route becomes a full interstate-grade freeway as it converges with US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway and proceeds west then north, bypassing South Bend and proceeding into Michigan. (See U.S. Route 31 in Michigan.)
US 31 was signed by the Governor on March 7 of 1917, as Main Market Highway 1, signs were installed on June 1 of the that year.  The name was changed to Indiana State Road 1, within a year, when Indiana began the state road system. By 1924, most of the route was paved, leaving only from Columbus to Franklin and from Peru to Plymouth that was unpaved. In 1926, US 31 signs were installed along what was SR 1 at the time. By 1927 the whole route through Indiana was paved.
The Kokomo Corridor Project, part of the Indiana Department of Transportation Major Moves Project designed to convert US 31 to Interstate-grade freeway from South Bend to Indianapolis, covered 14 miles (23 km) of new highway primarily in Howard County. The new limited-access highway was built east of Kokomo and has four interchanges at SR 26, E. Boulevard (CR 100S), US 35/SR 22 (Markland Avenue), Touby Pike and US 35 north of Kokomo. Groundbreaking for the project occurred in the afternoon of September 17, 2008, only hours after the groundbreaking for the South Bend-to-Plymouth stretch. This section of highway was scheduled to be completed in December 2013. The bypass opened ahead of schedule with a ribbon-cutting ceremony on November 26, 2013. The former section of US 31 was redesignated as Indiana State Road 931.
Freeway upgrades for northern sections
Two sections of US 31 in Northern Indiana are being relocated or upgraded. As with the Kokomo bypass, both are part of the INDOT Major Moves Project designed to convert US 31 to Interstate-grade freeway from South Bend to Indianapolis. The conversion of these over-capacity segments is expected to be completed in 2015. Funding has yet to be approved for the 78 miles of US 31 not along the Kokomo bypass located between these two segments.
South Bend to Plymouth
The New US 31 Plymouth to South Bend project will relocate US 31 on primarily new alignment from US 30 near Plymouth to US 20/St. Joseph Valley Parkway south of South Bend. Groundbreaking for the project occurred on September 17, 2008, and the first portions to be completed will be overpasses at two locations, Lilac Road and Plymouth-Goshen Trail in northern Marshall County. This section of highway is scheduled to open by the end of 2014.
The New US 31 Hamilton County project will upgrade US 31 to freeway standards from near SR 38 north of Westfield to Interstate 465 near the Marion County line and Indianapolis. Construction is expected to be completed by 2015.
|This section may require copy-editing for adjusted mileages along the Kokomo bypass. (November 2013)|
||0.00||0.00||Clark Memorial Bridge|
||Clarksville||1.51||2.43||Old SR 62 – New Albany, Clarksville, Indiana||Former SR 62|
|1.59||2.56||1||I-65 south – Louisville||Southern end of I-65 concurrency|
|3.71||5.97||2||I-65 north – Indianapolis||Northern end of I-65 concurrency|
|Jeffersonville Township||6.16||9.91||SR 60 west – Salem||Eastern end of SR 60|
|Sellersburg||9.28||14.93||Old SR 311||Former SR 311|
|Old SR 403||Former SR 403|
|Henryville||19.58||31.51||SR 160 – Salem, Charlestown|
||Vienna Township||27.19||43.76||SR 356 east – Lexington||Western end of SR 356|
|Scottsburg||29.76||47.89||SR 56 – Salem, Hanover|
|Austin||34.25||55.12||SR 256 – Madison|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 36 on I-65|
|42.07||67.71||SR 250 – Brownstown|
|Seymour||50.42||81.14||US 50 – Seymour, North Vernon|
||Columbus||64.86||104.38||SR 7 – Columbus, North Vernon|
|65.28||105.06||SR 46 – Columbus, Greensburg|
|I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville||Exit 76 on I-65|
||Edinburgh||81.39||130.98||SR 252 east – Edinburgh||Southern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Blue River Township||85.11||136.97||SR 252 west – Martinsville||Northern end of SR 252 concurrency|
|Franklin||91.24||146.84||SR 44 / SR 144 west – Martinsville, Shelbyville|
||Greenwood||107.17||172.47||2|| I-74 / I-465
US 36 / US 40 / US 52
SR 37 / SR 67
|Southern and western end of I-465, I-74, US 36, US 40, US 52, SR 37, SR 67 concurrencies|
|Indianapolis||53||I-65 – Indianapolis, Louisville|
|49||I-74 east / US 421 south (Southeastern Avenue) - Cincinnati||Northern end of I-74 concurrency; southern end of US 421 concurrency|
|47||US 52 east (Brookville Road) - Cincinnati||Southern end of US 52 concurrency|
|46||US 40 east (Washington Street) - Dayton||Northern end of US 40 concurrency|
|44||I-70 – Indianapolis, Dayton|
|Lawrence||42||US 36 east / SR 67 north (Pendleton Pike) – Pendleton||Northern end of US 36/SR 67 concurrency|
|Indianapolis||37||I-69 north / SR 37 north (Binford Boulevard) – Fort Wayne||Northern end of SR 37 concurrency; southern end of I-69|
|33||Keystone Avenue – Carmel||Former SR 431|
||Carmel||31||I-465 west / US 52 west / US 421 north – Indianapolis||Western and northern end of I-465, US 52, and US 421 concurrency|
|137.60||221.45||129||Keystone Avenue – Carmel, Indianapolis||Former State Road 431; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|140.65||226.35||SR 32 (Main Street) – Lebanon, Noblesville|
|144.26||232.16||SR 38 (Sheridan Road) – Sheridan, Noblesville|
||Jefferson Township||156.72||252.22||SR 28 – Frankfort, Tipton, Elwood|
|156||SR 931 north||Southern terminus of SR 931; northbound exit and southbound entrance|
||Kokomo||166.58||268.08||SR 26 (CR 400S) – Lafayette|
|170.91||275.05||US 35 south (Markland Avenue) / SR 22 – Kokomo, Gas City||Southern end of US 35 concurrency|
|175.52||282.47||US 35 north – Logansport, La Porte, Michigan City||Northern end of US 35 concurrency|
|SR 931 south||Northern terminus of SR 931; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
||Deer Creek Township||178.50||287.27||SR 18 – Galveston, Marion|
|Pipe Creek Township||183.73||295.68||SR 218 east – Bunker Hill||Southern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|184.83||297.46||SR 218 west – Walton||Northern end of SR 218 concurrency|
|US 24 – Logansport, Fort Wayne|
|Denver||197.88||318.46||SR 16 (CR 700 North) – Denver|
|SR 25 (Main Street) – Rochester, Logansport|
|213.18||343.08||SR 14 (West 18th Street) – Rochester, Winamac||No access due to grade separation|
|Richland Township||221.37||356.26||SR 110 – Mentone||Fulton–Marshall county line|
||Argos||226.08||363.84||SR 10 (Indiana Avenue) – Culver, Argos|
|Plymouth||Lincoln Highway (Old US 30)|
|US 30 – Valparaiso, Warsaw, Fort Wayne|
|La Paz||241.27||388.29||US 6 – Walkerton, Bremen|
||Lakeville||247.66||398.57||SR 4 west (Pierce Road) – La Porte||Eastern end of the western section SR 4|
|South Bend||262.27||422.08||79||US 20 east – Mishawaka, Elkhart||Southern end of US 20 concurrency; US 31 joins the St. Joseph Valley Parkway|
|76||SR 23 – North Liberty, South Bend|
|73||SR 2 west (Western Avenue) – La Porte, South Bend||Eastern end of SR 2|
|262.24||422.03||71||US 20 west (Lincolnway West) – Michigan City, South Bend||Northern end of US 20 concurrency|
|264||I-80 / I-90 / Ind. Toll Rd. – Elkhart, Chicago, Toledo||Exit 72 on the Indiana Toll Road|
|266.02||428.12||US 31 north – Niles, Benton Harbor||Michigan state line; St. Joseph Valley Parkway continues into Michigan|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
- Federal Highway Administration (December 2003) (PDF). National Highway System: Indiana (Map). http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/nhs/maps/in/in_Indiana.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "National Highway System". Federal Highway Administration. August 26, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "INDOT Traffic Zones". Indiana Department of Transportation. 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1917). 1917 Indiana State Highway Map and State Highway Commission (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1917) (jpg). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1917.jpg. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1918). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1924) (pdf). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1924.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1925). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1926). Indiana Transportation Map (Map).
- Indiana State Highway Commission (1927) (pdf). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). http://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/gm-web/imdb/inhwy1927.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Platt, Sarah (2008-09-17). "Governor Daniels breaks ground on new U.S. 31 in Lakeville". WNDU-TV. Retrieved 2008-09-18. Includes video.
- Smith, Scott (2008-09-17). "Ceremony for new U.S. 31 corridor draws crowd". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- Smith, Scott (2012-04-10). "Coalition Planners Look to Remaining U.S. 31 Areas". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- Smith, Scott (2010-01-12). "U.S. 31 bypass work moving along". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved 2010-01-13.
- Smith, Scott (2013-08-06). "Bypass or Boulevard?". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
- McFeely, Dan (November 26, 2013). "Kokomo U.S. 31 bypass should cut commutes". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Smith, Scott (November 27, 2013). "On Cruise Control". Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "U.S. 31 bypass around Kokomo is running 2 years early". The Elkhart Truth. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- Jackson, Adam (2008-09-18). "Ground Breaks on U.S. 31 Work". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- Grove, Dustin (2008-09-17). "New U.S. 31 Project Underway". WSBT-TV. Archived from the original on 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- Sulok, Nancy J. (2008-01-27). "Bridges to signal start of new U.S. 31 freeway". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
- "INDOT Roadway Referencing System" (PDF). staff.
|U.S. Route 31|