United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

"Foreign Terrorist Organization" is a designation for non-United States-based organizations deemed by the United States Secretary of State, in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), to be involved in what US authorities define as terrorist activities Most of the organizations as of 2007 on the list are Islamist extremist groups, with the remainder being mainly communist[citation needed], followed by nationalist/separatist groups.

Identification of candidates[edit]

The Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (S/CT) in the U.S. State Department continually monitors the activities of groups active around the world considered[by whom?] potentially terrorist to identify potential targets for designation. When reviewing potential targets, S/CT looks not only at the actual terrorist attacks that a group has carried out, but also at whether the group has engaged in planning and preparations for possible future acts of terrorism or retains the capability and intent to carry out such acts.

Designation process[edit]

Once a target is identified, the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism prepares a detailed "administrative record," which is a compilation of information, typically including both classified and open sources information, demonstrating that the statutory criteria for designation have been satisfied. If the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury, decides to make the designation, United States Congress is notified of the Secretary's intent to designate the organization and given seven days to review the designation, as the INA requires. Upon the expiration of the seven-day waiting period, notice of the designation is published in the Federal Register, at which point the designation takes effect. An organization designated as an FTO may seek judicial review of the designation in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit not later than 30 days after the designation is published in the Federal Register.

Under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the FTO may file a petition for revocation two years after the designation date (or in the case of redesignated FTOs, its most recent redesignation date) or two years after the determination date on its most recent petition for revocation. In order to provide a basis for revocation, the petitioning FTO must provide evidence that the circumstances forming the basis for the designation are sufficiently different as to warrant revocation. If no such review has been conducted during a five-year period with respect to a designation, then the Secretary of State is required to review the designation to determine whether revocation would be appropriate.

The procedural requirements for designating an organization as an FTO also apply to any redesignation of that organization. The Secretary of State may revoke a designation or redesignation at any time upon a finding that the circumstances that were the basis for the designation or redesignation have changed in such a manner as to warrant revocation, or that the national security of the United States warrants a revocation. The same procedural requirements apply to revocations made by the Secretary of State as apply to designations or redesignations. A designation may also be revoked by an Act of Congress, or set aside by a Court order.

Legal criteria for designation[edit]

(Reflecting Amendments to Section 219 of the INA in the 2001 USA PATRIOT Act)

  • It must be a foreign organization.
  • The organization must engage in terrorist activity, as defined in section 212 (a)(3)(B) of the INA (8 U.S.C. § 1182(a) (3)(B)),* or terrorism, as defined in section 140(d)(2) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (22 U.S.C. § 2656f(d) (2)),** or retain the capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism.
  • The organization’s terrorist activity or terrorism must threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security (national defense, foreign relations, or the economic interests) of the United States.

Legal ramifications of designation[edit]

  • It is unlawful for a person in the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to knowingly provide "material support or resources" to a designated FTO. (The term "material support or resources" is defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2339A(b) as "currency or monetary instruments or financial securities, financial services, lodging, training, expert advice or assistance, safehouses, false documentation or identification, communications equipment, facilities, weapons, lethal substances, explosives, personnel, transportation, and other physical assets, except medicine or religious materials.")
  • Representatives and members of a designated FTO, if they are aliens, are inadmissible to and, in certain circumstances, removable from the United States (see 8 U.S.C. §§ 1182 (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)-(V), 1227 (a)(1)(A)).
  • Any U.S. financial institution that becomes aware that it has possession of or control over funds in which a designated FTO or its agent has an interest must retain possession of or control over the funds and report the funds to the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

Other effects of designation[edit]

The U.S. Department of State lists the following items as additional considered beneficial effects of designation:

  • Supports efforts to curb terrorism financing and to encourage other nations to do the same.
  • Stigmatizes and isolates designated terrorist organizations internationally.
  • Deters donations or contributions to and economic transactions with named organizations.
  • Heightens public awareness and knowledge of terrorist organizations.
  • Signals to other governments U.S. concern about named organizations.

Groups designated as Foreign Terrorist Organizations[edit]

List is current as of January 21, 2014,[1] organized by region and country of origin:

Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Date Added Name Region Location of Operations Notes
October 8, 1997 Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Asia Philippines 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Aum Shinrikyo Asia Japan 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Basque Fatherland and Liberty) (ETA) Europe Spain, France 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Gama’a al-Islamiyya Middle East Egypt 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) Asia Pakistan 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Hezbollah (Party of God) Middle East Lebanon 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Kongra-Gel (formerly Kurdistan Workers' Party) (KGK) Middle East Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria Formerly PKK, KADEK. 62 F.R. 52650.
October 8, 1997 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Asia Sri Lanka 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 National Liberation Army (ELN) South America Colombia 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Islamic Jihad Group Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) South America Colombia 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Revolutionary Organization 17 November Europe Greece 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C) Europe Turkey 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) South America Peru 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1999 al-Qa’ida Worldwide Afghanistan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia 64 F.R. 55112
September 25, 2000 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) Asia Uzbekistan, Afghanistan
May 16, 2001 Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) Europe Ireland, United Kingdom Associated with 32 County Sovereignty Movement (32CSM)
September 10, 2001 United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) South America Colombia
December 26, 2001 Jaish-e-Mohammed (Army of Mohammed) (JEM) Asia Pakistan
December 26, 2001 Lashkar-e Tayyiba (Army of the Righteous) (LET) Asia Pakistan
March 27, 2002 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Middle East Palestinian Territories
March 27, 2002 Asbat an-Ansar Middle East Lebanon
March 27, 2002 al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb Middle East, Africa Algeria, Mali, Niger (formerly GSPC)
August 9, 2002 Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA) Asia Philippines
October 23, 2002 Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI) Asia Indonesia Also in Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore
January 30, 2003 Lashkar i Jhangvi Asia Pakistan
March 22, 2004 Al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions Middle East Iraq Formerly Ansar al-Islam
July 13, 2004 Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) Europe Ireland, United Kingdom
March 27, 2002 Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) Middle East, Africa Libya
December 17, 2004 Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (QJBR) Middle East Iraq Formerly Jama'at al-Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, JTJ, al-Zarqawi Network. Al-Nusra Front is considered an alias of Al-Qaeda in Iraq[2]
June 17, 2005 Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) Asia Uzbekistan
March 5, 2008 Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami (HUJI-B) Asia Bangladesh
March 18, 2008 Al-Shabaab Africa Somalia
May 18, 2009 Revolutionary Struggle Europe Greece
July 2, 2009 Kata'ib Hezbollah Middle East Iraq
January 19, 2010 al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) Middle East Saudi Arabia
August 6, 2010 Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami (HUJI) Asia Bangladesh
September 1, 2010 Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) Asia Pakistan
November 4, 2010 Jundallah (People's Resistance Movement of Iran, or PRMI) (Iran)[3] Asia Iran
May 23, 2011 Army of Islam (Palestinian)[4] Middle East Palestinian Territories
September 19, 2011 Indian Mujahideen (IM) (India)[5] Asia India
September 19, 2011 Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid (JAT) Asia Indonesia
May 30, 2012 Abdullah Azzam Brigades Middle East Iraq
September 19, 2012 Haqqani network[6] Asia Afghanistan
March 22, 2013 Ansar Dine[7] Africa Mali
November 14, 2013 Boko Haram[8] Africa Nigeria
November 14, 2013 Ansaru[9] Africa Nigeria
December 19, 2013 al-Mulathamun Brigade[9] Africa Algeria
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari'a in Benghazi[9] Africa Libya
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari'a in Darnah[9] Africa Libya
January 13, 2014 Ansar al-Shari'a in Tunisia[9] Africa Tunisia

Delisted Foreign Terrorist Organizations[edit]

The following groups have been removed from the State Department list, as of Sept. 28, 2012,[1]

Delisted Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Date Added Date Removed Name Region Location of Operations Notes
October 8, 1997 October 8, 1999 DFLP-Hawatmeh Faction (DFLP) Middle East Palestinian Territories 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 8, 1999 Khmer Rouge Asia Cambodia 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 8, 1999 Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front - Dissidents (FPMR-D) South America Chile 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 8, 2001 Japanese Red Army (JRA) Asia Japan 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 8, 2001 Tupac Amaru Revolution Movement (MRTA) South America Peru 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 8, 2001 Revolutionary Nuclei Europe Greece 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 October 15, 2010 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Middle East, Africa Algeria 62 F.R. 52650
October 8, 1997 September 28, 2012 Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK) Middle East Iraq, Iran 62 F.R. 52650
October 11, 2005 May 28, 2013 Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (MICG) Middle East, Africa Morocco

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (September 28, 2012). "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". state.gov. U.S. State Department. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  2. ^ Office of the Spokesperson (December 11, 2012). "State Dept. on Designation of Al-Nusrah Front as Terrorist Group". state.gov. U.S. State Department. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  3. ^ "US Designates Iran's Jundallah as Terrorist Organization – CNN.com." CNN.com. Nov 3, 2010. Web. Nov 3, 2010. <http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/meast/11/03/jundallah.terrorist.designation/index.html
  4. ^ Designation of Army of Islam. State.gov (2011-05-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  5. ^ "US places Indian Mujahideen on terror list". Express Tribune. September 15, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011. 
  6. ^ SCHMITT, ERIC. "U.S. Backs Blacklisting Militant Organization". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  7. ^ "Terrorist Designations of Ansar al-Dine". United States Department of State. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "Terrorist Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru". United States Department of State. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "U.S. State Department list of foreign terrorist organizations". United States Department of State. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 

External links[edit]