United States presidential election, 1904

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United States presidential election, 1904
United States
1900 ←
November 8, 1904
→ 1908

All 476 electoral votes of the Electoral College
239 electoral votes needed to win
  President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg AltonBParker.png
Nominee Theodore Roosevelt Alton B. Parker
Party Republican Democratic
Home state New York New York
Running mate Charles W. Fairbanks Henry G. Davis
Electoral vote 336 140
States carried 32 13
Popular vote 7,630,457 5,083,880
Percentage 56.4% 37.6%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Parker/Davis, Red denotes those won by Roosevelt/Fairbanks. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican

Elected President

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1904 was the 30th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1904. Incumbent President and Republican candidate Theodore Roosevelt was elected to a full term. Roosevelt had succeeded to the presidency upon the assassination of William McKinley. During the election campaign, Republicans emphasized Roosevelt's success in foreign affairs and his record of firmness against monopolies. The nominee of the Democratic Party was Alton B. Parker, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. The Democrats argued the Roosevelt Presidency was "arbitrary" and "erratic." [1]

Roosevelt easily defeated Parker, carrying every region in the nation except the South. In doing so he became the first incumbent President to win election to a term in his own right after having ascended to the Presidency (from the Vice-Presidency) upon the death of his predecessor. Since then, Presidents Coolidge (1924), Truman (1948), and Johnson (1964) have done so as well.

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

Roosevelt/Fairbanks campaign poster

As Republicans convened in Chicago on June 21–23, 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt's nomination was assured. He had effectively maneuvered throughout 1902 and 1903 to gain control of the party to ensure it. A dump-Roosevelt movement had centered on the candidacy of conservative Senator Mark Hanna of Ohio, but Hanna's death in February 1904 had removed this obstacle. Roosevelt's nomination speech was delivered by former governor Frank S. Black of New York and seconded by Senator Albert J. Beveridge of Indiana. Roosevelt was nominated unanimously on the first ballot with 994 votes.

Since conservatives in the Republican Party denounced Theodore Roosevelt as a radical, they were allowed to choose the vice-presidential candidate. Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana was the obvious choice, since conservatives thought highly of him, yet he managed not to offend the party's more progressive elements. Roosevelt was far from pleased with the idea of Fairbanks for vice-president. He would have preferred Representative Robert R. Hitt of Illinois, but he did not consider the vice-presidential nomination worth a fight. With solid support from New York, Pennsylvania, and Indiana, Fairbanks was easily placed on the 1904 Republican ticket in order to appease the Old Guard.

The Republican platform insisted on maintenance of the protective tariff, called for increased foreign trade, pledged to uphold the gold standard, favored expansion of the merchant marine, promoted a strong navy, and praised in detail Roosevelt's foreign and domestic policy.

Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st
Theodore Roosevelt 994

Source: US President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (September 9, 2009).

Vice Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st
Charles W. Fairbanks 994

Source: US Vice President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (September 9, 2009).

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidates:

In 1904, both William Jennings Bryan and former President Grover Cleveland declined to run for president. Since the two Democratic nominees of the past 20 years did not seek the presidential nomination, Alton B. Parker, a Bourbon Democrat from New York, emerged as the frontrunner.

Parker was the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals and was respected by both Democrats and Republicans in his state. On several occasions, the Republicans paid Parker the honor of running no one against him when he ran for various political positions. Parker refused to work actively for the nomination, but did nothing to restrain his conservative supporters, among them the sachems of Tammany Hall. Former President Grover Cleveland endorsed Parker.

The Democratic Convention that met in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 6–9, 1904, has been called "one of the most exciting and sensational in the history of the Democratic Party." The struggle inside the Democratic Party over the nomination was to prove as contentious as the election itself. Though Parker, out of active politics for twenty years, had neither enemies nor errors to make him unavailable, a bitter battle was waged against Parker by the more liberal wing of the party in the months before the convention.

Despite the fact that Parker had supported Bryan in 1896 and 1900, Bryan hated him for being a Gold Democrat. Bryan wanted the weakest man nominated, one who could not take the control of the party away from him. He denounced Judge Parker as a tool of Wall Street before he was nominated and declared that no self-respecting Democrat could vote for him.

Inheriting Bryan's support was publisher, now congressman, William Randolph Hearst of New York. Hearst owned eight newspapers, all of them friendly to labor, vigorous in their trust-busting activities, fighting the cause of "the people who worked for a living." Because of this liberalism, Hearst had the Illinois delegation pledged to him and the promise of several other states. Although Hearst's newspaper was the only major publication in the East to support William Jennings Bryan and Bimetallism in 1896, he found that his support for Bryan was not reciprocated. Instead, Bryan seconded the nomination of Francis Cockrell.

At 80, Davis was the oldest major party candidate ever nominated for national office.

The prospect of having Hearst for a candidate frightened conservative Democrats so much that they renewed their efforts to get Parker nominated on the first ballot. Parker received 658 votes on the first roll call, 9 short of the necessary two-thirds. Before the result could be announced, 21 more votes were transferred to Parker. As a result, Parker handily won the nomination on the first ballot with 679 votes to 181 for Hearst and the rest scattered.

After Parker's nomination, Bryan charged that it had been dictated by the trusts and secured by "crooked and indefensible methods." Bryan also said that labor had been betrayed in the convention and could look for nothing from the Democratic Party. Indeed, Parker was one of the judges on the New York Court of Appeals who declared the eight-hour law unconstitutional.[3]

Before a vice-president could be nominated, Parker sprang into action when he learned that the Democratic platform pointedly omitted reference to the monetary issue. To make his position clear, Parker, after his nomination, informed the convention by letter that he supported the gold standard. The letter read, "I regard the gold standard as firmly and irrevocably established and shall act accordingly if the action of the convention today shall be ratified by the people. As the platform is silent on the subject, my view should be made known to the convention, and if it is proved to be unsatisfactory to the majority, I request you to decline the nomination for me at once, so that another may be nominated before adjournment."[4]

It was the first time a candidate had made such a move. It was an act of daring that might have lost him the nomination and make him an outcast from the party he had served and believed in all his life.[5][6]

Parker/Davis campaign poster

Former Senator Henry G. Davis of West Virginia was nominated for vice-president; at 80, he was the oldest major-party candidate ever nominated for national office. Davis had received the nomination because it was believed he could deliver his state for the Democrats. Davis had an honorable career in politics and was also a millionaire mine owner, railroad magnate, and banker.

Parker protested against "the rule of individual caprice," the presidential "usurpation of authority," and the "aggrandizement of personal power." But his more positive proposals were so backward-looking, such as his proposal to let state legislatures and the common law develop a remedy for the trust problem, that the New York World characterized the campaign as a struggle of "conservative and constitutional Democracy against radical and arbitrary Republicanism."[7]

The Democratic platform called for reduction in government expenditures and a congressional investigation of the executive departments "already known to teem with corruption"; condemned monopolies; pledged an end to government contracts with companies violating antitrust laws; opposed imperialism; insisted upon independence for the Philippines; and opposed the protective tariff. It favored strict enforcement of the eight-hour work day; construction of a Panama Canal; the direct election of senators; statehood for the Western territories; the extermination of polygamy; reciprocal trade agreements; cuts in the army; and enforcement of the civil service laws. It condemned the Roosevelt administration in general as "spasmodic, erratic, sensational, spectacular, and arbitrary."[8]

The Balloting
Presidential Ballot 1st (Before Shifts) 1st (After Shifts) Unanimous Vice Presidential Ballot 1st Unanimous
Alton B. Parker 658 679 1,000 Henry G. Davis 654 1,000
William Randolph Hearst 200 181 James R. Williams 165
Francis Cockrell 42 42 George Turner 100
Richard Olney 38 38 William Alexander Harris 58
Edward C. Wall 27 27 Abstaining 23
George Gray 12 12
John Sharp Williams 8 8
Robert E. Pattison 4 4
George Brinton McClellan, Jr. 3 3
Nelson A. Miles 3 3
Charles A. Towne 2 2
Arthur Pue Gorman 2 -
Bird Sim Coler 1 1

Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns. (March 10, 2011).

Socialist Party nomination[edit]

Debs/Hanford campaign poster

The Election of 1904 was the first election in which the Socialist Party participated.

The Socialist Party of America was a highly factionalized coalition of local parties based in industrial cities and usually was rooted in ethnic communities, especially German and Finnish. It also had some support in old Populist rural and mining areas in the West.

Prominent socialist Eugene V. Debs was nominated for president and Benjamin Hanford was nominated for vice-president.

General Election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Parker campaign button

The campaigning done by both parties was much less vigorous than it had been in 1896 and 1900. The campaign season was pervaded by goodwill, and it went a long way toward mending the damage done by the previous class-war elections. This was due to the fact that Parker and Roosevelt, with the exception of charisma, were so similar in political outlook.

So close were the two candidates that few differences could be detected. Both men were for the gold standard; though the Democrats were more outspokenly against imperialism, both believed in fair treatment for the Filipinos and eventual liberation; and both believed that labor unions had the same rights as individuals before the courts. The radicals in the Democratic Party denounced Parker as a conservative; the conservatives in the Republican Party denounced Theodore Roosevelt as a radical.

During the campaign, there were a couple of instances in which Roosevelt was seen as vulnerable. In the first place, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World carried a full page story about alleged corruption in the Bureau of Corporations. President Roosevelt admitted certain payments had been made, but denied any "blackmail." Secondly, in appointing George B. Cortelyou as his campaign manager, Roosevelt had purposely used his former Secretary of Commerce and Labor. This was of importance because Cortelyou, knowing the secrets of the corporations, could extract large contributions from them. The charge created quite a stir and in later years was proven to be sound. In 1907, it was disclosed that the insurance companies had contributed rather too heavily to the Roosevelt campaign. Only a week before the election, Roosevelt himself called E. H. Harriman, the railroad king, to Washington, D.C., for the purpose of raising funds to carry New York.[5] Roosevelt also begged for money from Henry Clay Frick, the steel magnate, and his friends. Years later, Frick admitted that "He got down on his knees to us. We bought the son of a bitch..."[9]

Insider money, however, was spent on both candidates. Parker received financial support from the Morgan banking interests, just as Bourbon Democrat Cleveland had before him.[9] Thomas W. Lawson, the Boston millionaire, charged that New York state Senator Patrick Henry McCarren, who brought out Judge Parker for the nomination, was on the pay roll of Standard Oil as political master mechanic at twenty thousand dollars a year. He also claimed that Parker was the chosen tool of Standard Oil. Lawson offered Senator McCarren $100,000 if he would disprove the charge.[3] According to one account, "No denial of the charge was ever made by the Senator." One paper even referred to McCarren as "the Standard Oil serpent of Brooklyn politics."[10]

Results[edit]

"The Mysterious Stranger" – A political cartoon showing Missouri having left the Solid South by voting Republican.

Theodore Roosevelt won a landslide victory, taking every Northern and Western state. Roosevelt was the first Republican to carry the state of Missouri since 1868. In voting Republican, Missouri repositioned itself from being associated the Solid South to being seen as a bellwether swing state throughout the 20th century. The vote in Maryland was extremely close. For the first time in that state's history, secret paper ballots, supplied at public expense, and without political symbols of any kind, were issued to each voter. Candidates for Electors were listed under the presidential and vice presidential candidates for each party (there were four parties recognized in the election, Democratic, Republican, Prohibition, and Socialist). Voters were free to mark their ballots for up to eight candidates of any party. while Roosevelt's victory nationally was quickly determined, the election in Maryland remained in doubt for several weeks. On November 30, Roosevelt was declared the state-wide victor by just 51 votes. However, as voters had voted for individual presidential electors, only one Republican elector, Charles Bonaparte, survived the tally. The other seven top vote recipients were Democrats.[11]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Roosevelt (Republican), shades of blue are for Parker (Democratic), and shades of green are for Watson (Populist).

Roosevelt won the election by more than 2½ million popular votes. No earlier president had won by so large a margin. Roosevelt won 56.4% of the popular vote; this percentage, along with his popular vote margin of 18.8%, was the largest recorded between James Monroe's uncontested re-election in 1820 and the election of Warren G. Harding in 1920. Of the 2,754 counties making returns, Roosevelt carried 1,611 (58.50%) and won a majority of votes in 1,538; he and Parker were tied in one county (0.04%).

Thomas Watson, the Populist candidate, received 117,183 votes and won 9 counties (0.33%) in his home state of Georgia. Watson had a majority in 5 of those counties. His vote total was double the Populist's showing in 1900, but less than one-eighth of the party's 1892 total.

Parker carried 1,133 counties (41.14%) and won a majority in 1,057. The distribution of the vote by counties reveals him to have been a weaker candidate than William Jennings Bryan, the party's nominee four years earlier, in every section of nation, except for the deep South, where Democratic dominance remained, due in large part to pervasive disfranchisement of blacks, remained strong.[12] In 17 states, the Parker–Davis ticket failed to carry a single county, and outside the South carried only 84.[13]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Theodore Roosevelt Republican New York 7,630,457 56.42% 336 Charles W. Fairbanks Indiana 336
Alton B. Parker Democratic New York 5,083,880 37.59% 140 Henry G. Davis West Virginia 140
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 402,810 2.98% 0 Benjamin Hanford New York 0
Silas C. Swallow Prohibition Pennsylvania 259,102 1.92% 0 George W. Carroll Texas 0
Thomas E. Watson Populist Georgia 114,070 0.84% 0 Thomas Tibbles Nebraska 0
Charles Hunter Corregan Socialist Labor New York 33,454 0.25% 0 William Wesley Cox Illinois 0
Other 1,229 0.01% Other
Total 13,525,002 100% 476 476
Needed to win 239 239

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1904 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 28, 2005).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Roosevelt
  
56.42%
Parker
  
37.59%
Debs
  
2.98%
Swallow
  
1.92%
Watson
  
0.84%
Others
  
0.26%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
  
70.59%
Parker
  
29.41%

Results by state[edit]

[14]

States won by Roosevelt/Fairbanks
States won by Parker/Davis
Theodore Roosevelt
Republican
Alton B. Parker
Democratic
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist
Silas Swallow
Prohibition
Thomas Watson
Populist
Charles Corregan
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 11 22,472 20.66 - 79,797 73.35 11 853 0.78 - 612 0.56 - 5,051 4.64 - - - - -57,325 -52.70 108,785 AL
Arkansas 9 46,860 40.25 - 64,434 55.35 9 1,816 1.56 - 993 0.85 - 2,318 1.99 - - - - -17,574 -15.10 116,421 AR
California 10 205,226 61.84 10 89,404 26.94 - 29,535 8.90 - 7,380 2.22 - 2 0.00 - - - - 115,822 34.90 331,878 CA
Colorado 5 134,661 55.26 5 100,105 41.08 - 4,304 1.77 - 3,438 1.41 - 824 0.34 - 335 0.14 - 34,556 14.18 243,667 CO
Connecticut 7 111,089 58.12 7 72,909 38.15 - 4,543 2.38 - 1,506 0.79 - 495 0.26 - 575 0.30 - 38,180 19.98 191,128 CT
Delaware 3 23,705 54.05 3 19,347 44.11 - 146 0.33 - 607 1.38 - 51 0.12 - - - - 4,358 9.94 43,856 DE
Florida 5 8,314 21.48 - 26,449 68.33 5 2,337 6.04 - - - - 1,605 4.15 - - - - -18,135 -46.85 38,705 FL
Georgia 13 24,004 18.33 - 83,466 63.72 13 196 0.15 - 685 0.52 - 22,635 17.28 - - - - -59,462 -45.40 130,986 GA
Idaho 3 47,783 65.84 3 18,480 25.46 - 4,949 6.82 - 1,013 1.40 - 353 0.49 - - - - 29,303 40.37 72,578 ID
Illinois 27 632,645 58.77 27 327,606 30.43 - 69,225 6.43 - 34,770 3.23 - 6,725 0.62 - 4,698 0.44 - 305,039 28.34 1,076,499 IL
Indiana 15 368,289 53.99 15 274,345 40.22 - 12,013 1.76 - 23,496 3.44 - 2,444 0.36 - 1,598 0.23 - 93,944 13.77 682,185 IN
Iowa 13 308,158 63.39 13 149,276 30.71 - 14,849 3.05 - 11,603 2.39 - 2,207 0.45 - - - - 158,882 32.69 486,093 IA
Kansas 10 212,955 64.81 10 86,174 26.23 - 15,869 4.83 - 7,306 2.22 - 6,257 1.90 - - - - 126,781 38.59 328,561 KS
Kentucky 13 205,457 47.13 - 217,170 49.82 13 3,599 0.83 - 6,603 1.51 - 2,521 0.58 - 596 0.14 - -11,713 -2.69 435,946 KY
Louisiana 9 5,205 9.66 - 47,708 88.50 9 995 1.85 - - - - - - - - - - -42,503 -78.84 53,908 LA
Maine 6 65,432 67.44 6 27,642 28.49 - 2,102 2.17 - 1,510 1.56 - 337 0.35 - - - - 37,790 38.95 97,023 ME
Maryland 8 109,497 48.83 1 109,446 48.81 7 2,247 1.00 - 3,034 1.35 - 1 0.00 - - - - 51 0.02 224,229 MD
Massachusetts 16 257,822 57.92 16 165,746 37.24 - 13,604 3.06 - 4,279 0.96 - 1,294 0.29 - 2,359 0.53 - 92,076 20.69 445,109 MA
Michigan 14 364,957 69.51 14 135,392 25.79 - 9,042 1.72 - 13,441 2.56 - 1,159 0.22 - 1,036 0.20 - 229,565 43.72 525,027 MI
Minnesota 11 216,651 73.98 11 55,187 18.84 - 11,692 3.99 - 6,253 2.14 - 2,103 0.72 - 974 0.33 - 161,464 55.13 292,860 MN
Mississippi 10 3,280 5.59 - 53,480 91.07 10 462 0.79 - - - - 1,499 2.55 - - - - -50,200 -85.49 58,721 MS
Missouri 18 321,449 49.93 18 296,312 46.02 - 13,009 2.02 - 7,191 1.12 - 4,226 0.66 - 1,674 0.26 - 25,137 3.90 643,861 MO
Montana 3 34,932 54.21 3 21,773 33.79 - 5,676 8.81 - 335 0.52 - 1,520 2.36 - 208 0.32 - 13,159 20.42 64,444 MT
Nebraska 8 138,558 61.38 8 52,921 23.44 - 7,412 3.28 - 6,323 2.80 - 20,518 9.09 - - - - 85,637 37.94 225,732 NE
Nevada 3 6,864 56.66 3 3,982 32.87 - 925 7.64 - - - - 344 2.84 - - - - 2,882 23.79 12,115 NV
New Hampshire 4 54,163 60.07 4 34,074 37.79 - 1,090 1.21 - 750 0.83 - 83 0.09 - - - - 20,089 22.28 90,161 NH
New Jersey 12 245,164 56.68 12 164,566 38.05 - 9,587 2.22 - 6,845 1.58 - 3,705 0.86 - 2,680 0.62 - 80,598 18.63 432,547 NJ
New York 39 859,533 53.13 39 683,981 42.28 - 36,883 2.28 - 20,787 1.28 - 7,459 0.46 - 9,127 0.56 - 175,552 10.85 1,617,770 NY
North Carolina 12 82,442 39.67 - 124,091 59.71 12 124 0.06 - 342 0.16 - 819 0.39 - - - - -41,649 -20.04 207,818 NC
North Dakota 4 52,595 75.12 4 14,273 20.39 - 2,009 2.87 - 1,137 1.62 - - - - - - - 38,322 54.73 70,014 ND
Ohio 23 600,095 59.75 23 344,674 34.32 - 36,260 3.61 - 19,339 1.93 - 1,392 0.14 - 2,633 0.26 - 255,421 25.43 1,004,393 OH
Oregon 4 60,455 67.06 4 17,521 19.43 - 7,619 8.45 - 3,806 4.22 - 753 0.84 - - - - 42,934 47.62 90,154 OR
Pennsylvania 34 840,949 68.00 34 337,998 27.33 - 21,863 1.77 - 33,717 2.73 - - - - 2,211 0.18 - 502,951 40.67 1,236,738 PA
Rhode Island 4 41,605 60.60 4 24,839 36.18 - 956 1.39 - 768 1.12 - - - - 488 0.71 - 16,766 24.42 68,656 RI
South Carolina 9 2,554 4.63 - 52,563 95.36 9 - - - - - - 1 0.00 - - - - -50,009 -90.73 55,118 SC
South Dakota 4 72,083 71.09 4 21,969 21.67 - 3,138 3.09 - 2,965 2.92 - 1,240 1.22 - - - - 50,114 49.42 101,395 SD
Tennessee 12 105,363 43.40 - 131,653 54.23 12 1,354 0.56 - 1,889 0.78 - 2,491 1.03 - - - - -26,290 -10.83 242,750 TN
Texas 18 51,242 21.90 - 167,200 71.45 18 2,791 1.19 - 4,292 1.83 - 8,062 3.45 - 421 0.18 - -115,958 -49.55 234,008 TX
Utah 3 62,446 61.42 3 33,413 32.86 - 5,767 5.67 - - - - - - - - - - 29,033 28.56 101,672 UT
Vermont 4 40,459 77.97 4 9,777 18.84 - 859 1.66 - 792 1.53 - - - - - - - 30,682 59.13 51,888 VT
Virginia 12 48,180 36.95 - 80,649 61.84 12 202 0.15 - 1,379 1.06 - - - - - - - -32,469 -24.90 130,410 VA
Washington 5 101,540 69.95 5 28,098 19.36 - 10,023 6.91 - 3,229 2.22 - 669 0.46 - 1,592 1.10 - 73,442 50.60 145,151 WA
West Virginia 7 132,620 55.26 7 100,855 42.03 - 1,573 0.66 - 4,599 1.92 - 339 0.14 - - - - 31,765 13.24 239,986 WV
Wisconsin 13 280,315 63.21 13 124,205 28.01 - 28,240 6.37 - 9,872 2.23 - 560 0.13 - 249 0.06 - 156,110 35.20 443,441 WI
Wyoming 3 20,489 66.72 3 8,930 29.08 - 1,072 3.49 - 217 0.71 - - - - - - - 11,559 37.64 30,708 WY
TOTALS: 476 7,630,557 56.42 336 5,083,880 37.59 140 402,810 2.98 - 259,103 1.92 - 114,062 0.84 - 33,454 0.25 - 2,546,677 18.83 13,525,095 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (39 electoral votes):

  1. Maryland, 0.02%
  2. Kentucky, 2.69%
  3. Missouri, 3.90%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (3 electoral votes):

  1. Delaware, 9.94%

Geography of Results[edit]

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Keweenaw County, Michigan 94.55%
  2. Mercer County, North Dakota 93.68%
  3. Logan County, North Dakota 93.61%
  4. McIntosh County, North Dakota 92.70%
  5. Zapata County, Texas 92.48%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Horry County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Georgetown County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Fairfield County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Madison Parish, Louisiana 100.00%
  5. Potter County, Texas 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Populist)

  1. Glascock County, Georgia 69.38%
  2. McDuffie County, Georgia 58.59%
  3. McIntosh County, Georgia 56.55%
  4. Jackson County, Georgia 55.29%
  5. Johnson County, Georgia 53.05%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Doss, Richard B. "Democrats in the Doldrums: Virginia and the Democratic National Convention of 1904." Journal of Southern History (1954) 20#4 pp: 511-529. in JSTOR
  • Gould, Lewis L. (1991). The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0435-9. 
  • Harbaugh, William Henry (1961). Power and Responsibility: The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy. 
  • Morris, Edmund (2001). Theodore Rex. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-55509-0.  Biography of Roosevelt during the years 1901–1909.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, and Fred L. Israel, eds. History of American presidential elections, 1789-1968. Vol. 3. (1971), history of the campaign by William Harbaugh, with primary documents

Primary sources[edit]

  • Republican Campaign Text-book, 1904 (1904), handbook for Republican speakers and editorialists; full of arguments, speeches and statistics online free

External links[edit]