United States presidential election, 1932

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United States presidential election, 1932
United States
1928 ←
November 8, 1932
→ 1936

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
  FDR in 1933.jpg HerbertHoover.jpg
Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Herbert Hoover
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York Iowa
Running mate John N. Garner Charles Curtis
Electoral vote 472 59
States carried 42 6
Popular vote 22,821,277 15,761,254
Percentage 57.4% 39.7%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Hoover/Curtis, Blue denotes those won by Roosevelt/Garner. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Herbert Hoover
Republican

Elected President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1932 was the 37th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place among the backdrop of the Great Depression that had ruined the promises of incumbent President and Republican candidate Herbert Hoover to bring about a new era of prosperity. The Democratic nomination went to the well-known governor of the most populous state, New York's Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had been reelected governor in a landslide in 1930. Roosevelt united all wings of his party, avoided divisive cultural issues, and brought in a leading southern conservative as his running mate, House Speaker John Nance Garner of Texas.

Roosevelt repeatedly blamed Hoover for the Depression and worsening economy. With unemployment above 20% in 1932 alone, Hoover was remiss to defend his record,[1] and Roosevelt promised recovery with a New Deal for the American people.[2] Roosevelt won by a landslide in both the electoral and popular vote, receiving the highest percentage of the popular vote for a Democratic nominee. The election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, dominated by Republicans. Subsequent landslides in the 1934 mid-term elections and following presidential election two and four years later respectively, signified the commencement of the Fifth Party System, dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition.[3]

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

As the year 1932 began, the Republican Party believed Hoover's protectionism and aggressive fiscal policies would solve the depression. Whether they were successful or not, President Herbert Hoover controlled the party and had little trouble securing a re-nomination. Little-known former United States Senator Joseph I. France ran against Hoover in the primaries, but Hoover was often unopposed. France's primary wins were tempered by his defeat to Hoover in his home state of Maryland and the fact that few delegates to the national convention were chosen in the primaries.

Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention, which met in Chicago between June 14 and 16, ran a tight ship, not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation. He was nominated on the first ballot with 98% of the delegate vote.

The tally was spectacularly lopsided:

Presidential Ballot, RNC 1932
Herbert Hoover 1126.5
John J. Blaine 13
Calvin Coolidge 4.5
Joseph I. France 4
James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. 1

Both rural Republicans and hard-money Republicans (the latter hoping to nominate former President Calvin Coolidge) balked at the floor managers and voted against the renomination of Vice-President Charles Curtis, who won with just 55% of the delegate votes.

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidates:

The leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932 was New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner and former Governor of New York Al Smith were trailing him. Before the 1932 Democratic National Convention met in Chicago between June 27 and July 2, Roosevelt was believed to have more delegate votes than all of his opponents combined. However, due to the "two-thirds" nominating rule then used by the Democrats, his opponents hoped that he would be unable to obtain the two-thirds majority necessary to win, and that they could gain votes on later ballots.[citation needed]

On the first three ballots Roosevelt had well over a majority of the delegate vote, but still lacked the two-thirds majority. Before the fourth ballot, his managers James Farley and Louis McHenry Howe struck a deal with House Speaker John Nance Garner: Garner would drop out of the race and support Roosevelt, and in return Roosevelt would agree to name Garner as his running mate. With this agreement, Roosevelt won the two-thirds majority and with it the presidential nomination.[citation needed]

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 campaign.

After making an airplane trip to the Democratic convention, Roosevelt accepted the nomination in person. In this history-making[clarification needed] speech, Roosevelt promised to "abolish useless offices" and "eliminate unnecessary functions of Government", stating that "Government—Federal and State and local—costs too much", and even promised to help facilitate the "restoration of the trade of the world".[4] Roosevelt's trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. Large crowds greeted Roosevelt as he traveled around the nation; his campaign song "Happy Days Are Here Again" became one of the most popular in American political history[5]—and, indeed, the unofficial anthem of the Democratic Party.[6]

Although Roosevelt was not as widely known as Smith had been in 1928, his utterances made him appealing to some of the same elements of the population that had supported Smith four years before. Moreover, the Democrats were united as they had not been in 1928, as Roosevelt's Protestantism was by no means detrimental as Smith's Roman Catholicism had been four years prior. The Democrats were also united closely more so than they had been at any time in the Fourth Party System.[7] Cultural issues that had dominated previous elections, like Catholicism in 1928 and the Ku Klux Klan in 1924, were nearly dormant. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, as few Republicans tried to defend it. There was a mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer, liquor, and the resulting tax revenues.[8]

Roosevelt (seated, center) at Greenway Ranch in Williams, Arizona on September 26, 1932. He is accompanied by U.S. Senator from Arizona Carl Hayden standing far right, along with—among others—three Democrats from the U.S. Senate (seated): Pittman, Walsh, and Cohen.

In contrast, Hoover was not supported by many of the more prominent Republicans and violently opposed by others, in particular by a number of senators who had fought him throughout his administration and whose national reputation made their opposition of considerable importance. Many prominent Republicans even went so far as to espouse the cause of the Democratic candidate openly.[9]

Making matters worse for Hoover was the fact that many Americans blamed him for the Great Depression. For more than two years, President Hoover had been restricting trade and increasing taxes on the wealthy with legislation such as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and the Revenue Act of 1932. Roosevelt lashed out at Hoover: "I accuse the present Administration of being the greatest spending Administration in peacetime in all our history."[10] Garner accused Hoover of "leading the country down the path of socialism."[11] The outrage caused by the deaths of veterans in the Bonus Army incident in the summer of 1932, combined with the catastrophic economic effects of Hoover's domestic policies, reduced his chances of a second term from slim to none. His attempts to campaign in public were a disaster, as he often had objects thrown at him or his vehicle as he rode through city streets. In his addresses, Hoover attacked Roosevelt as a capitalist president who would only make the Depression worse by decreasing taxes, reducing government intervention in the economy, promoting "trade [with] the world", and cutting "Government—Federal and State and local".[4] However, with unemployment at 23.6%,[12][13] Hoover's criticisms of Roosevelt's campaign promises did nothing more than further lower his popularity with the public. Roosevelt himself did not have a clear idea of the New Deal at this point, so he promised no specific programs.[14] It was said that "Even a vaguely talented dog-catcher could have been elected president against the Republicans." [15] Hoover even received a letter from an Illinois man that advised, "Vote for Roosevelt and make it unanimous."

Hoover called Roosevelt a "chameleon in plaid" and Roosevelt called President Hoover a "fat, timid capon".[16] In the last days of campaigning, Hoover criticized Roosevelt's "nonsense ... tirades ... glittering generalizations ... ignorance" and "defamation".[16]

The election was held on November 8, 1932. Maine held separate state elections in September.

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic) and shades of red are for Hoover (Republican).[citation needed]

This was the first election since 1876 in which the Democratic candidate won a majority of the popular vote, and the first since 1852 in which a Democrat secured a majority both in the popular vote and the Electoral College.

Although the "other" vote of 1932 was three times that of 1928, it was considerably less than what had been recorded in 1920 (the time of the greatest "other" vote with the exception of the unusual conditions prevailing in 1912 and 1924).

The Democratic candidate won the support of 22,817,883 voters (57.41%), the greatest vote ever cast for a candidate for the Presidency up until that time, and 1,425,000 greater than that cast for Hoover in 1928. It is to be noted that Hoover won a greater percentage of the vote in 1928, as did Harding in 1920. But the national swing of 35.17% impressed all who considered the distribution of the vote, and indicated that more than one-third of the electorate has switched from supporting Republican Party to the Democratic Party. Only once in this period had there been a comparable shift; in 1920 there was a 29.29% swing towards the Republicans.[9] The swing from Smith in 1928 to Roosevelt in 1932 remains the greatest national swing of the electorate between presidential elections in the history of the United States.

1932 was a realigning election, as Roosevelt and the Democratic ticket won a sweeping victory over Hoover and the Republicans, extending their control over the U.S. House and gaining control of the U.S. Senate. Twelve years of Republican leadership came to an end, and 20 consecutive years of Democratic control of the White House began.[16] Until 1932, the Republicans had controlled the Presidency for 56 of the previous 72 years, dating to Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860. After 1932, the Democrats would control the Presidency for 28 of the next 36 years, until the 1968 election created a new alignment that favored the Republicans, and was cemented in 1980.

Roosevelt led the poll in 2,722 counties, the greatest number ever carried by a candidate for the presidency up until that time. Of these, 282 had never before been Democratic. Only 374 counties remained loyal to the Republican candidate. It is to be noted, however, that 1/2 of the total vote of the nation was cast in just eight states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin), and that in these states Hoover polled 8,592,163 votes. In one section (West South Central) the Republican percentage sank to 16.21%, but in no other section did the party poll less than 30% of the vote cast. But the relative appeal of the two candidates in 1932, and the decline of the appeal of Hoover as compared with 1928, are show in the fact that the Republican vote increased in 1932 in only 87 counties, while the Democratic vote increased in 3,003 counties.

The great vote cast for Hoover, and the fact that in only one section of the nation (West South Central) did he have less than 500,000 votes and in only 3 states outside of the South less than 50,000 votes, make it clear that the nation remained a two-party electorate, and that everywhere, despite the triumph of the Democrats, there was a party membership devoted to neither the new administration nor the proposals of the Socialist candidate who had polled 3/4 of the "other" vote (as well as the highest raw vote total of his campaigns).[17]

The Roosevelt ticket swept every region of the country except New England and carried many reliable Republican states that had not been carried by the Democrats since their electoral landslide of 1912, when the Republican vote was divided. The state of Minnesota was carried by a Democrat for the first time in its history, leaving Vermont as the only remaining state never to be carried by a Democratic candidate (and it would not be until 1964). In contrast to the state’s solid support of Republicans prior to this election, Minnesota has continued supporting Democrats in every presidential election but three since 1932 (The exceptions being 1952, 1956 and 1972).

Roosevelt's victory with 472 electoral votes stood until the 1964 victory of Lyndon B. Johnson, who won 486 electoral votes in 1964, as the most ever won by a first-time contestant in a presidential election. He also bettered the national record 444 electoral votes for any American presidential candidate, set by Hoover only four years earlier (and would shatter his own record when he was re-elected in 1936 with 523 votes).

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic New York 22,821,277 57.41% 472 John Nance Garner Texas 472
Herbert Hoover Republican California 15,761,254 39.65% 59 Charles Curtis Kansas 59
Norman Thomas Socialist New York 884,885 2.23% 0 James H. Maurer Pennsylvania 0
William Z. Foster Communist Illinois 103,307 0.26% 0 James W. Ford Alabama 0
William David Upshaw Prohibition Georgia 81,905 0.21% 0 Frank S. Regan Illinois 0
William Hope Harvey Liberty Arkansas 53,425 0.13% 0 Frank Hemenway Washington 0
Verne L. Reynolds Socialist Labor New York 34,038 0.09% 0 John W. Aiken Massachusetts 0
Jacob Coxey Farmer-Labor Ohio 7,431 0.02% 0 Julius Reiter Minnesota 0
Other 4,376 0.01% Other
Total 39,751,898 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (popular vote): Leip, David. 1932 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 31, 2005).Source (electoral vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Roosevelt
  
57.41%
Hoover
  
39.65%
Thomas
  
2.23%
Foster
  
0.26%
Others
  
0.45%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
  
88.89%
Hoover
  
11.11%

Results by state[edit]

[18]

States won by Roosevelt/Garner
States won by Hoover/Curtis
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Herbert Hoover
Republican
Norman Thomas
Socialist
Other Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 11 207,910 84.74 11 34,675 14.13 - 2,030 0.83 - 739 0.30 - 173,235 70.61 245,354 AL
Arizona 3 79,264 67.03 3 36,104 30.53 - 2,618 2.21 - 265 0.22 - 43,160 36.50 118,251 AZ
Arkansas 9 189,602 85.96 9 28,467 12.91 - 1,269 0.58 - 1,224 0.55 - 161,135 73.06 220,562 AR
California 22 1,324,157 58.39 22 847,902 37.39 - 63,299 2.79 - 32,608 1.44 - 476,255 21.00 2,267,966 CA
Colorado 6 250,877 54.81 6 189,617 41.43 - 13,591 2.97 - 3,611 0.79 - 61,260 13.38 457,696 CO
Connecticut 8 281,632 47.40 - 288,420 48.54 8 20,840 3.45 - 3,651 0.61 - -6,788 -1.14 594,183 CT
Delaware 3 54,319 48.11 - 57,073 50.55 3 1,376 1.22 - 133 0.12 - -2,754 -2.44 112,901 DE
Florida 7 206,307 74.68 7 69,170 25.04 - 775 0.28 - - - - 137,137 49.64 276,252 FL
Georgia 12 234,118 91.60 12 19,863 7.77 - 461 0.18 - 1,148 0.45 - 214,255 83.83 255,590 GA
Idaho 4 109,479 58.66 4 71,417 38.27 - 526 0.28 - 5,203 2.79 - 38,062 20.39 186,625 ID
Illinois 29 1,882,304 55.23 29 1,432,756 42.04 - 67,258 1.97 - 25,608 0.75 - 449,548 13.19 3,407,926 IL
Indiana 14 862,054 54.67 14 677,184 42.94 - 21,388 1.36 - 16,301 1.03 - 184,870 11.72 1,576,927 IN
Iowa 11 598,019 57.69 11 414,433 39.98 - 20,467 1.97 - 3,768 0.36 - 183,586 17.71 1,036,687 IA
Kansas 9 424,204 53.56 9 349,498 44.13 - 18,276 2.31 - - - - 74,706 9.43 791,978 KS
Kentucky 11 580,574 59.06 11 394,716 40.15 - 3,853 0.39 - 3,920 0.40 - 185,858 18.91 983,063 KY
Louisiana 10 249,418 92.79 10 18,853 7.01 - - - - 533 0.20 - 230,565 85.77 268,804 LA
Maine 5 128,907 43.19 - 166,631 55.83 5 2,489 0.83 - 417 0.14 - -37,724 -12.64 298,444 ME
Maryland 8 314,314 61.50 8 184,184 36.04 - 10,489 2.05 - 2,067 0.40 - 130,130 25.46 511,054 MD
Massachusetts 17 800,148 50.64 17 736,959 46.64 - 34,305 2.17 - 8,702 0.55 - 63,189 4.00 1,580,114 MA
Michigan 19 871,700 52.36 19 739,894 44.44 - 39,205 2.35 - 13,966 0.84 - 131,806 7.92 1,664,765 MI
Minnesota 11 600,806 59.91 11 363,959 36.29 - 25,476 2.54 - 12,602 1.26 - 236,847 23.62 1,002,843 MN
Mississippi 9 140,168 95.98 9 5,180 3.55 - 686 0.47 - - - - 134,988 92.44 146,034 MS
Missouri 15 1,025,406 63.69 15 564,713 35.08 - 16,374 1.02 - 3,401 0.21 - 460,693 28.62 1,609,894 MO
Montana 4 127,286 58.80 4 78,078 36.07 - 7,891 3.65 - 3,224 1.49 - 49,208 22.73 216,479 MT
Nebraska 7 359,082 62.98 7 201,177 35.29 - 9,876 1.73 - 2 0.00 - 157,905 27.70 570,137 NE
Nevada 3 28,756 69.41 3 12,674 30.59 - - - - - - - 16,082 38.82 41,430 NV
New Hampshire 4 100,680 48.99 - 103,629 50.42 4 947 0.46 - 264 0.13 - -2,949 -1.43 205,520 NH
New Jersey 16 806,394 49.49 16 775,406 47.59 - 42,988 2.64 - 4,719 0.29 - 30,988 1.90 1,629,507 NJ
New Mexico 3 95,089 62.72 3 54,217 35.76 - 1,776 1.17 - 524 0.35 - 40,872 26.96 151,606 NM
New York 47 2,534,959 54.07 47 1,937,963 41.33 - 177,397 3.78 - 38,295 0.82 - 596,996 12.73 4,688,614 NY
North Carolina 13 497,566 69.93 13 208,344 29.28 - 5,591 0.79 - - - - 289,222 40.65 711,501 NC
North Dakota 4 178,350 69.59 4 71,772 28.00 - 3,521 1.37 - 2,647 1.03 - 106,578 41.58 256,290 ND
Ohio 26 1,301,695 49.88 26 1,227,319 47.03 - 64,094 2.46 - 16,620 0.64 - 74,376 2.85 2,609,728 OH
Oklahoma 11 516,468 73.30 11 188,165 26.70 - - - - - - - 328,303 46.59 704,633 OK
Oregon 5 213,871 57.99 5 136,019 36.88 - 15,450 4.19 - 3,468 0.94 - 77,852 21.11 368,808 OR
Pennsylvania 36 1,295,948 45.33 - 1,453,540 50.84 36 91,223 3.19 - 18,466 0.65 - -157,592 -5.51 2,859,177 PA
Rhode Island 4 146,604 55.08 4 115,266 43.31 - 3,138 1.18 - 1,162 0.44 - 31,338 11.77 266,170 RI
South Carolina 8 102,347 98.03 8 1,978 1.89 - 82 0.08 - - - - 100,369 96.13 104,407 SC
South Dakota 4 183,515 63.62 4 99,212 34.40 - 1,551 0.54 - 4,160 1.44 - 84,303 29.23 288,438 SD
Tennessee 11 259,473 66.49 11 126,752 32.48 - 1,796 0.46 - 2,235 0.57 - 132,721 34.01 390,256 TN
Texas 23 760,348 88.06 23 97,959 11.35 - 4,450 0.52 - 669 0.08 - 662,389 76.72 836,426 TX
Utah 4 116,750 56.52 4 84,795 41.05 - 4,087 1.98 - 946 0.46 - 31,955 15.47 206,578 UT
Vermont 3 56,266 41.08 - 78,984 57.66 3 1,533 1.12 - 197 0.14 - -22,718 -16.58 136,980 VT
Virginia 11 203,979 68.46 11 89,637 30.09 - 2,382 0.80 - 1,944 0.65 - 114,342 38.38 297,942 VA
Washington 8 353,260 57.46 8 208,645 33.94 - 17,080 2.78 - 35,829 5.83 - 144,615 23.52 614,814 WA
West Virginia 8 405,124 54.47 8 330,731 44.47 - 5,133 0.69 - 2,786 0.37 - 74,393 10.00 743,774 WV
Wisconsin 12 707,410 63.46 12 347,741 31.19 - 53,379 4.79 - 6,278 0.56 - 359,669 32.26 1,114,808 WI
Wyoming 3 54,370 56.07 3 39,583 40.82 - 2,829 2.92 - 180 0.19 - 14,787 15.25 96,962 WY
TOTALS: 531 22,821,277 57.41 472 15,761,254 39.65 59 884,885 2.23 - 284,482 0.72 7,060,023 17.76 39,751,898 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (74 electoral votes):

  1. Connecticut, 1.14%
  2. New Hampshire, 1.43%
  3. New Jersey, 1.90%
  4. Delaware, 2.44%
  5. Ohio, 2.85%
  6. Massachusetts, 4.00%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (64 electoral votes):

  1. Pennsylvania, 5.51%
  2. Michigan, 7.92%
  3. Kansas, 9.43%

Geography of results[edit]

Cartographic gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Wilkinson County, Georgia 100.00%
  2. Armstrong County, South Dakota 100.00%
  3. Lancaster County, South Carolina 99.84%
  4. Sharkey County, Mississippi 99.82%
  5. Colleton County, South Carolina 99.69%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Johnson County, Tennessee 84.51%
  2. Jackson County, Kentucky 84.28%
  3. Leslie County, Kentucky 82.96%
  4. Owsley County, Kentucky 79.08%
  5. Sevier County, Tennessee 77.01%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Sheridan County, Montana 32.54%
  2. Thurston County, Washington 23.12%
  3. Clallam County, Washington 22.73%
  4. Berks County, Pennsylvania 22.17%
  5. Lake County, Minnesota 21.75%

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andersen, Kristi. The Creation of a Democratic Majority: 1928-1936 (1979), statistical study of voting patterns
  • James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox (1956)
  • Eden, Robert. "On the Origins of the Regime of Pragmatic Liberalism: John Dewey, Adolf A. Berle, and FDR's Commonwealth Club Address of 1932." Studies in American Political Development (1993) 7#1 pp: 74-150.
  • Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Triumph (1956). the most detailed biography
  • Freidel, Frank. "Election of 1932", in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed., The Coming to Power: Critical Presidential Elections in American History (1981)
  • Gosnell, Harold F., Champion Campaigner: Franklin D. Roosevelt (1952)
  • Gosnell, Harold F., and Norman N. Gill. "An Analysis of the 1932 Presidential Vote in Chicago." American Political Science Review 29.06 (1935): 967-984, statistical online
  • Houck, D.W. "Commonwealth Club Address: Redefining Individualism, Adjudicating Greatness" 7(3) Rhetoric & Public Affairs (2004) 7#3 pp 259+
  • Hoover, Herbert. The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression, 1929-1941 (1952)
  • Nicolaides, Becky M. "Radio Electioneering in the American Presidential Campaigns of 1932 and 1936," Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, June 1988, Vol. 8 Issue 2, pp 115–138
  • Peel, Roy V. and Thomas C. Donnelly, The 1932 Campaign: An Analysis (1935)
  • Ritchie, Donald A. Electing FDR: The New Deal Campaign of 1932 (2007)
  • Robinson, Edgar Eugene. The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932 (Stanford university press, 1940) voting returns for every county
  • Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. The Crisis of the Old Order (1957),

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Unemployment Rate 1920–2010. Infoplease.com (January 26, 2010). Retrieved on July 14, 2013.
  2. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T.. (September 10, 2008) The Most Consequential Elections in History: Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Election of 1932 - US News and World Report. Usnews.com. Retrieved on July 14, 2013.
  3. ^ http://www.u.arizona.edu/~norrande/pol231/hist-06-bw.pdf
  4. ^ a b Roosevelt's Nomination Address, New Deal Network.
  5. ^ Steven Neal, The 1932 Democratic Convention, the Emergence of FDR--and How America Was Changed Forever (2005) p 244
  6. ^ Arnold Shaw, The jazz age: popular music in the 1920s (1989) p. 228
  7. ^ The Election of 1932 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the First New Deal. Boundless.com. Retrieved on July 14, 2013.
  8. ^ William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal 1932-1940 (1963) pp 1-17
  9. ^ a b The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 29
  10. ^ Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt, p 11
  11. ^ F.D.R.'s Disputed Legacy, February 1, 1982 , TIME Magazine.
  12. ^ "Overall Unemployment Rate in the U.S. Civilian Labor Force, 1920–2007 — Infoplease.com". Infoplease.com. Retrieved November 4, 2008. 
  13. ^ "Timeline of the Great Depression". Hyperhistory.com. Retrieved November 4, 2008. 
  14. ^ Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR): 1932 Election. Shmoop.com. Retrieved on July 14, 2013.
  15. ^ Cambell, Jeff (November 19, 2008). "Hoover's Popularity". Lonely Planet. 
  16. ^ a b c Gibbs, Nancy (November 10, 2008). "When New President Meets Old, It's Not Always Pretty". TIME. 
  17. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 30
  18. ^ "1932 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved April 8, 2013. 

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