University of Colorado Colorado Springs
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)|
|University of Colorado
|Motto||ΛΑΜΨΑΤΩ ΤΟ ΦΏΣ ΥΜΏΝ (Greek)|
|Motto in English||Let Your Light Shine|
|Endowment||US $1.5 billion (systemwide)|
|President||Bruce D. Benson|
|Location||Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States|
|Campus||Urban, 520 acres (2.1 km²)|
|Colors||Black and Gold|
As of Fall 2014, UCCS has 11,000 undergraduate and 1,700 graduate students, with 26% ethnic minority students.
In 2006, the U.S. News & World Report college and university rankings put the UCCS College of Engineering and Applied Science as ranking the fourth-best among public universities and the 16th best overall among bachelor and master's degree engineering schools. U.S. News ranked UCCS as the 32nd in regional universities in the West for the 2011 rankings. For public universities in the Master's Universities-West category it was ranked 6th. It has been ranked in the top ten on that list each year since 2002. For the 2015 rankings released by U.S. News, UCCS was tied 51st overall in the west for all private and public schools. Among public, private and for-profit universities, the UCCS undergraduate engineering program ranked 14th in the nation.
- 1 History
- 2 Colleges and academic programs
- 3 Institutes
- 4 Campus Buildings
- 5 Master plan and future growth
- 6 Athletics
- 7 Honor Societies
- 8 School publications
- 9 Notable students, alumni, and staff
- 10 International exchange
- 11 References
- 12 External links
||This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (December 2008)|
The campus history begins with the creation of Cragmor Sanatorium, which is now Main Hall. In 1902, William Jackson Palmer donated funds to build a sanatorium (a place for treatment, rehabilitation, and therapy for the chronically ill). The Cragmor Sanatorium opened in 1905 and was nicknamed the "Sun Palace" due to its sun-loving architecture. In the following decades it developed a following among the cultural elite and many of its patients were wealthy. However, they were hit hard by the Great Depression in the 1930s and Cragmor suffered from financial distress into the 1940s. It was briefly reinvigorated in the 1950s when a contract with the Bureau of Indian Affairs established Cragmor as a treatment center for Navajos with tuberculosis. About ten years later, the Navajo patients were transferred elsewhere.
As early as the 1945, CU offered classes in the Colorado Springs area at various locations, mostly Colorado College. By the 1960s, however, a permanent campus was desired.
On February 16, 1961, the Committee for the Expansion of the University of Colorado was formed. Co chairman were Joseph Petta and Ronald B Macintyre. Members included Angelo Christopher, Clint Cole, Albert Hesse, Don King, Don Kopis, Rosemary Macintyre, Dorothy Petta, Harrington Richardson, Joseph Reich, Robin Tibbets, Mike Valliant, Phyllis Warner and John Whigham. (These Co-founders are all honored on a plaque in the lobby of the current campus site.) On March 4, 1961, they submitted a resolution to expand the extension of The University of Colorado to Colorado Springs. Legislators were favorable. After several more years of local and state meetings in June 1964, the next phase of UCCS's development came about when Dr.George Dwire, the Executive Director of the Cragmoor Sanatarium began formal actions necessary to transfer the assests of the Cragmoor Corporation to the University of Colorado. The solution came when George T. Dwire sold the Cragmor Sanatorium property for $1 to the state, which became the property of the University of Colorado in 1964.
In 1965 UCCS moved to its current location on Austin Bluffs Parkway in the Cragmor neighborhood of northern Colorado Springs. The campus is located at one of the highest parts of the city.
Because of its ties to HP, initial university programs focused on engineering and business, and classes were held in the Cragmor Sanatorium building, what is now Main Hall, and Cragmor Hall, a modern expansion of Main Hall. The first building built exclusively for UCCS, Dwire Hall, was not complete until 1972.
A 1997 community referendum merged Beth-El College of Nursing with UCCS. In recent years, programs such as the Network Information and Space Security Center were added to connect the university with the military to improve national security. Other programs, including the CU Institute for Bioenergetics and the Institute for Science and Space Studies, cast an eye toward the future.
In 2001 UCCS purchased an 87,000-square-foot (8,100 m2) building at the corner of Union and Austin Bluffs to house the Beth-El College of Nursing.
Colleges and academic programs
College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences
The College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences is the UCCS college of liberal arts and sciences. It is the largest college at UCCS, offering undergraduate programs in anthropology, art history, biology, chemistry, communication, economics, English, film studies, geography and environmental studies, history, mathematics, philosophy, physics, political science, psychology, sociology, Spanish, and visual and performing arts. It offers graduate programs in biology, chemistry, communication, applied geography, history, applied mathematics, physics, psychology, and sociology.
Beth-El College of Nursing & Health Sciences
The Beth-El College of Nursing & Health Sciences is the UCCS nursing school. It has two departments, Health Science and Nursing. The college is accredited with the Colorado State Board of Nursing and the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. Both departments are primarily located in the upper levels of University Hall about half a mile east from the main campus and in the northwest corner of the Austin Bluff at Union intersection. Degrees granted:
- Undergraduate: Bachelor of Science in forensic science, nutrition, allied health (self-defined), or sports health and wellness (Department of Health Science); Bachelor of Science in Nursing (Department of Nursing)
- Graduate: Master of Science in forensic health, health promotion, or sports medicine (Department of Health Science); Master of Science in Nursing and the Doctor of Nursing Practice (Department of Nursing).
College of Business and Administration
The College of Business and Administration is the UCCS business school. It is located in the newly renovated Dwire Hall. The college established in 1965. It is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Degrees granted:
- Undergraduate: Bachelor of Science in Business Administration; Bachelor of Science in accounting, finance, general business, human resource management, information systems, international business, marketing, marketing/professional golf management; organizational management, services management and sport management.
- Graduate: Masters in Business Administration in accounting, finance, health care administration, information systems, international business, management, marketing, general business, operations management, project management, services management, and innovation management.
College of Education
The College of Education is the UCCS school of education. The College of Education is located in Columbine Hall on the UCCS campus. It is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), the Colorado Department of Education (CDE), the Colorado Commission on Higher Education (CCHE) and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). It is primarily a Colorado state educator licensure program.
In addition to its primary degree and educator licensure programs the COE operates many other auxiliary programs that are integral to the mission and objectives of the College.
- Culturally Responsive Teaching, Leadership, and Counseling: CRTLC is a program designed to help prospective teachers and educators learn to customize curricula and fine-tune classroom interaction in order to maximize teaching effectiveness and increase cultural awareness. Annually the COE holds a symposium at UCCS for local teachers and administrators that discusses various sub-topics and special topics that involve culturally responsive education. Speakers at this symposium are nationally known for their research on CRTLC.
- Quality and Excellence Community Learning Series: The QECLS series are biannual events that highlight various educational topics, everything from emotional literacy to an analysis of civil rights in the classroom and how they have evolved.
- Daegu Gyeongbuk English Village: In 2006 UCCS and Yeungjin College, a prominent national university in South Korea, joined forces to construct a world-class English language learning campus in Daegu. The English Village offers a full immersion curriculum for children to adults, complete with various miniature versions of everything from an airport to a bank to a police station where students can interact and utilize English in real-world situations and scenarios.
- Office of Global Education: The OGE is the newest COE endeavour. It was established in 2009 in order to facilitate the growth of the global educational endeavors of the College of Education by expanding on the Daegu English Village project. The Office oversees the English Village as well as sponsoring Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) and Foreign Language (TEFL) certificates. Also, OGE co-sponsors a Yeungjin Summer College program and is in the process of implementing a new Oaxaca Spanish Language and Culture Tour in Mexico among other Summer Study and Culture Tours.
The COE is also active in a number of special programs, including the following:
- EduStat: EduStat university is an annual conference for teachers and administrators from across the nation designed to facilitate modern education solutions. UCCS last hosted the event in 2008.
- Pikes Peak Educational Research Center: The PPERC was established to allow UCCS to collaborate with local school districts in order to meet accountability challenges. Currently, the associate dean directs two major research projects through the Center. The PPERC is an operating unit in the new campus-wide Education Outreach Center.
- Reading Clinics: The Graduate Reading Program of the COE biannually offers two programs designed to both provide assistance for teachers in diagnosis and remediation of reading difficulties for children K–12, and also to directly assist children in such a position.
- SuperSaturday: A program designed to cater to gifted children of elementary age. The program's purpose is to challenge students' intellectual and creative abilities in one academically-orientated Saturday.
- Teacher-in-Residence Program: A partnership with the Pikes Peak Board of Cooperative Educational Services, TIRP's purpose is to allow working professionals to make a career transition to education.
- Troops-to-Teachers: A cooperative program of the Department of Education and of Defense which provides referral and placement assistance to military personal interested in becoming a teacher.
- UCCS Teacher/Cadet Alliance: A project designed to encourage outstanding students to enter and complete undergraduate teaching programs offered by the COE.
- Undergraduate: Licensure programs in inclusive early childhood education elementary education, linguistically diverse education (LDE), secondary education, and special education
- Graduate: Master of Arts in counseling and human services, curriculum and instruction, special education, and leadership; Ph.D in educational leadership and research and policy.
Awards & Accomplishments
- President's Award: In 2007 the COE received the President's Diversity Award in the academic unit category from the Regents of the University of Colorado.
- Educator of the Year: The Colorado School Counselor Association awarded Assistant Professor Rhonda Williams the 2008 Educator of the Year award.
- National Board for Certified Counselors: In 2009 Professor Joseph Wehrman was appointed as a board member for the NBCC, an international credentialing body for professional counselors.
School of Public Affairs
The School of Public Affairs offers degrees in criminal justice and public administration. UCCS SPA is located in the new Academic Office Building on the UCCS Campus. UCCS School of Public Affairs offers the only Master of Public Administration NASPAA (Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration) accredited program in the Pikes Peak Region. U.S. News & World Report ranks the School of Public Affairs in the top 14% of schools of public affairs throughout the nation. Degrees granted:
- Undergraduate: Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice (BACJ), offering Alpha Phi Sigma - Honors in Criminal Justice.
- Graduate: Master of Public Administration (MPA) in Public Management, Nonprofit Management, Nonprofit Fund Development, Criminal Justice, Security Intelligence, Homeland Defense; Master of Criminal Justice; and duel MPA/MCJ degree.
College of Engineering and Applied Sciences
The College of Engineering and Applied Sciences is the UCCS engineering college. In the U.S. News & World Report "America’s Best Colleges," the 2008 college rankings edition, "the magazine’s editors ranked the UCCS undergraduate engineering program ninth in the nation among public engineering schools offering bachelor’s or master’s degrees."
UCCS Engineering is rapidly expanding and includes many research institutes and laboratories. It consists of three departments: the Department of Computer Science (computer science); the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (electrical engineering, computer engineering), and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering). The college is accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). In conjunction with the College of Business it offers the unique Bachelor of Innovation(BI) which won the 2008 ASEE new program innovation award
Because of its proximity to U.S. government and military installations and the technology private sector the college has partnerships several institutions, including defense contractors and semiconductor manufacturers (Intel, Boeing, Agilent, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin), national laboratory (Sandia National Laboratories), and the military (United States Northern Command, Air Force Space Command, and the United States Air Force Academy). It provides outreach services to the local community through Project Lead the Way and the FIRST Lego League.
In 2006, the American Society for Engineering Education ranked the college seventh among U.S. public universities and 18th for all U.S. universities in the number of degrees awarded to woman.
The College is located in two buildings:
- The Engineering Building houses the Department of Computer Science, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, dean's office, Advanced Development and UNIX Laboratory, Specialized Software Development Laboratory, Software Development Laboratory, Communications and Signal Processing Laboratory, Control Systems Laboratory, Electronics Laboratory, Electromagnetics Laboratory, Microelectronics Research Laboratories (MRL), and VLSI Circuit Design Laboratory.
A new $56.1-million Science and Engineering Building has been completed at the center of campus to add needed laboratory and lecture space for the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering as well as the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology departments. The building opened for classes in fall 2009. It holds an expanded computer, wind tunnel, fluids, instrumentation, and other mechanical engineering laboratories with an enlarged machine shop and research space, design studios with payload and project areas.
El Pomar Institute for Innovation and Commercialization
University of Colorado’s El Pomar Institute for Innovation and Commercialization (EPIIC) is located on the campus of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (UCCS). The thrust of EPIIC is to play a role in the early development of new ideas and products and to aid people in taking their ideas to market. Connecting academia with the business community and with the local, state, and federal government through innovation and commercialization will provide short- and long-term benefits to Colorado Springs and the surrounding area. The original El Pomar grant endowed three prestigious chairs in the Colleges of Business and Engineering at UCCS who work with the community. EPIIC continues to operate as a focal point for an alliance among high-tech companies, entrepreneurs, community leaders, the University of Colorado, and the El Pomar Foundation. EPIIC support economic development by providing technology-centered enterprises with access to technology/business information and resources with an emphasis on sectors recognized as critical to the regional economy; to facilitate research with other organizations which assist companies; to provide services through a web of personal connections and information resources; and to catalyze changes in the business climate to establish Colorado Springs as a center for entrepreneurial high-tech and sports oriented companies. EPIIC serves as a bridge between the intellectual resources of the University, the three El Pomar Chairs, and the high-tech community. In support of the vision of Colorado Springs as a high-tech leader, the strategic plan calls for EPIIC to support the emergence of Colorado Springs as a nationally recognized leader in creating and growing high-tech companies by creating an infrastructure where entrepreneurs have easy access to resources and expertise; promoting collaboration between industry and the University; and promoting the creation of a world-class workforce.
National Institute for Science, Space and Security Centers
The National Institute for Science, Space and Security Centers (NISSSC) is a multi-disciplinary institute established to better focus on developing and implementing sound academic and research deliverables in the science, space and security disciplines, for meeting the nation’s challenges. The NISSSC includes the Center for Homeland Security (CHS); the Center for Space Studies (CSS); the Center for Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics Education (CSTEME); and the Trauma, Health & Hazards Center (THHC).
Center for Space Studies
The Center for Space Studies (CSS) is an educational and research & development organization formed under affiliation with UCCS and the NISSSC. Founded in 2004, the Center’s mission is to promote research, education and outreach in the domain of space technology. The CSS is led by Dr. Scott Trimboli, Associate Dean of the College of Engineering and Applied Science at UCCS. CSS is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, just minutes away from key military space activities including: Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Headquarters Army Space Command, Shriever AFB, and Headquarters US Northern Command.
The vision for CSS is to promote space through education and research in service to our nation and for the betterment of society. The Center functions as a focus of scholars and professionals working together to build and support a center of excellence in space technology and education. Specifically, the Center aims to achieve the following goals:
- Research: Investigate space-related questions relevant to our nation’s future
- Education: Sharpen the skills of our nation’s space professionals
- Outreach: Promote technical learning to sustain the nation’s capacity for technological innovation
The Center for Space Studies solves technical problems facing government and industry in Colorado and across the nation with technical expertise in emergency management, astrodynamics, micro-propulsion, data fusion, and space systems engineering. CSS projects include:
- Satellite Thermal Modeling for FalconSAT (Dr. Andrew Ketsdever)
- Tethered Satellite Orbit Determination (Dr. Steven Tragesser)
- Emergency Response Operations System Integration (Dr. Roger Sambrook)
- Terahertz Technology for Multiphase Flow Applications (Dr. Andrew Ketsdever & Dr. Hoyoung Song)
- Small Satellite Simulator Development (Dr. Scott Trimboli)
The CSS mission is to promote the educational development of the space workforce through graduate programs offered through the UCCS College of Engineering and Applied Science.
- Master of Engineering in Space Operations
CSS, through its NISSSC affiliate Center for Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics Education (CSTEME), collaborates with regional educational partners to develop innovative educational experiences for the K-12 student population. Collaboration involves a workshop for regional high-school students titled the Near Earth Object project (NEO project).
Center for STEM Education
- Main Hall (1914) – Administration building containing admissions, student success center, etc.
- Cragmor Hall (1959) – Administration building containing bursar's office, orientation rooms, student recruitment, counseling, and financial aid.
- Dwire Hall (1972) – Renovated from 2006 to 2007, it serves as the building for classes in business, economics, languages and cultures, and film studies.
- The El Pomar Center (1975) – Home to the Kraemer Family Library and technical support. Renovated at the beginning of the millennium to expand the library and add the University Center.
- Engineering and Applied Sciences (1985) – Engineering, math, science classes, currently undergoing a massive expansion.
- Campus Services (1996)
- Columbine Hall (1997) – The new home for most LAS classes, also containing writing center, communications lab, and a lecture hall.
- Summit Village (1997) – This is the first of UCCS's student housing, now catering to freshmen only. Divided into Vail, Steamboat, Telluride, Aspen, Keystone, Monarch, and Brekenridge (laundry, computer facilities, and seminar rooms). Summit houses altogether about 800 freshmen.
- University Center (2001) – Addition to El Pomar, this is the center of campus life where activities and seminars are held. The information desk, bookstore, news room, and campus recreation offices are housed in the lower level. A basketball court and gym will soon to be expanded to include larger facilities for games and a multi-use area to help ease strain on the facility until permanent facilities near 4-Diamonds are constructed sometime during the mid twenty-teens.
- University Hall (2001) – Building purchased for Beth-El Nursing and other programs.
- Services/Campus Police/Health Clinic/Parking Garage (2004)
- Alpine Village (2004) – The second village in student housing, Alpine is divided into Shavano, Antero, and Crestone Houses, and caters now to all non-freshmen choosing to live on-campus. Students who live here must access campus via a trail or shuttle.
- Campus Recreation Center (2007) – Recently completed, this new state-of-the-art recreation building for students, replacing the current facilities at the University Center, features a swimming pool, a climbing wall, and a full basketball court, along with the full complement of equipment.
- Osborne Center for Science and Engineering (2009) – Formerly the "Science and Engineering Building", renamed in May 2011, this building was designed by AR7 Architects (now NAC Architecture) and provides a twofold expansion of science and engineering classrooms and facilities, and connects via a bridge to the Engineering and Applied Sciences building.
- Centennial Hall (2010) – The building was completely gutted and rebuilt inside with the exception of new classrooms added in 2006. Formerly called the Science Building, it was built in 1981 and used for science and anthropology classes along with the student art gallery.
- UCCS Events Center (2010) – Money originally allocated to construct a temporary new home for Mountain Lion athletics was instead added to a larger budget to significantly expand the current athletics gym and create a new Events Center, which will, in addition to providing a larger gym for volleyball and basketball, will serve as a venue for conferences and large lectures when completed. The center is projected to open in early 2010.
- South Hall (2011) – Preliminary plans call for a new building to be constructed either where Lot 1 is currently adjacent to Cragmor Hall or on newly purchased property in between Campus Services and University Hall. The smaller facility would house general classrooms and be a new home for the Psychology department and a non-UCCS clinic that specializes in geriatric care.
- Summit Village Expansion (2011?) – Preliminary plans call for the construction of two additional dormitories adjacent to the current Aspen House.
Master plan and future growth
In 2000, the CU Board of Regents designated UCCS as the CU growth campus. In 2003, the Colorado Legislature approved revisions in the university's statutory role and mission to remove geographic and program restrictions. In 2005, the Regents approved a seven-year plan that calls for the university to add to its base of 7,650 students (Fall 2004), 347 FTE faculty and 254 FTE staff.
The 2006–2012 plan calls for growth to 9,100 students with corresponding increases in faculty, staff, programs and campus infrastructure.
In addition to the completion of the recreation center, Dwire Hall renovation, and the third wing of the new science/engineering building, the seven-year plan also calls for the renovation and transition of the old Heller Center on the other side of the bluff that campus sits in front of into a sort of "arts retreat." This project is expected to cost around $4.4 million. Also, by 2014, two new buildings are in the works for Summit, and by that year the Alpine Village should be built out with three additional buildings across from the current ones.
With construction on the new Austin Bluffs/Union interchange, the construction of a new frontage road from campus to University Hall began as well, enabling a closed circuit connecting Cragmor Campus with University Hall, making access to Austin Bluffs unnecessary.
From 2014 a new indoor athletics complex will be constructed along Nevada in the existing 4-Diamonds area. North Nevada is the 2nd phase of campus in the long-term, and extreme long-term build-out calls for dozens of new buildings, academic halls, and another resident village to be built along Nevada.
UCCS competes in NCAA Division II in the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference (RMAC), fielding teams in men's basketball, women's basketball, women's volleyball, men's cross country, women's cross country, men's indoor track and field, women's indoor track and field, men's outdoor track and field, women's outdoor track and field, men's golf, men's soccer, women's soccer, and women's softball.
In addition to its honors programs, UCCS has chapters of the following honor societies on campus:
- Phi Beta Kappa
- Beta Gamma Sigma (business)
- Alpha Lambda Delta (freshman)
- Alpha Kappa Delta (sociology)
- Alpha Phi Sigma (criminal justice)
- Psi Chi (psychology)
- Chi Sigma Iota (counseling)
- Sigma Tau Delta (English)
- Pi Delta Phi (French)
- Delta Phi Alpha (German)
- Omicron Delta Epsilon (economics)
- Pi Alpha Alpha (public affairs)
- Sigma Theta Tau (nursing)
- Eta Kappa Nu (electrical engineering)
The official campus newspaper is The Scribe, since 1976.
The university is home to Writers' Forum, a national literary journal founded in 1974.
The student literary/poetry journal, Riverrun.
URJ-UCCS: Undergraduate Research Journal at UCCS <http://ojs.uccs.edu/index.php/urj>
Notable students, alumni, and staff
- Max Aaron – 2013 U.S. national champion figure skater
- Steve Bach (B.S. in Business) - Incumbent Colorado Springs Mayor, first "Strong Mayor"
- Jason Brown – Olympic medalist figure skater
- Teresa A. H. Djuric (M.A. in Curriculum and Instruction, 1994) – U.S. Air Force Brigadier General
- John Herrington (B.A. in mathematics, 1983) – first Native American to go to space, aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in 2002.
- Yusef Komunyakaa (B.A. 1975) – first African-American to win Pulitzer Prize for poetry.
- Mary Lou Makepeace (M.P.A. 1979) - first female Mayor of Colorado Springs, serving from 1997-2003
- John Morse (B.S. in business, M.P.A. 1996) - Former President of the Colorado Senate
- Apolo Ohno Skater; most decorated American Winter Olympic athlete of all time.
- Raquel Pennington (attending), professional female mixed martial arts fighter, competing in the Women's UFC bantamweight division
- McConnellogue, Ken (November 20, 2013). "University of Colorado surpasses $1.5 billion Creating Futures campaign milestone". CU.edu. University of Colorado. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "Spring 2014 Databook". http://www.uccs.edu/advancement/what-we-do/media-relations/uccs-fast-facts.html. Retrieved 2014-08-21.
- UCCS | Best College | US News[dead link]
- "USNews.com: America's Best Colleges 2009: Top Public Schools: Master's Universities (West)". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "U.S. News: UCCS is a best in the West". pressrelease.uccs.edu. September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
- "UCCS School of Public Affairs". http://www.uccs.edu/spa/about/why.html.
- "UCCS World News Report and Ranking". http://communique.uccs.edu/?p=6332.
- "School of Public Affairs - Criminal Justice". http://www.uccs.edu/spa/programs/bacj.html.
- "UCCS SPA Certificates". http://www.uccs.edu/spa/programs/certificates.html.
- [dead link]
- "UCCS Bachelor of Innovation™ Family of degrees | Bachelor of Innovation". Innovation.uccs.edu. March 30, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Science & Engineering now Osborne Center". Communique. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "Request for Qualifications for Architechural/Engineering/Consulting Services for the UCCS Summit Village Expansion". RFQ. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Raquel Pennington UFC Bio". Retrieved 2014.
- UCCS Official Website
- UCCS Athletics
- The Scribe at www.uccs.edu/scribe
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