UK Singles Chart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the UK singles chart. For the BBC Radio 1 show, see The Official Chart.

The UK Singles Chart, formally known as the Official Singles Chart, is compiled by the Official Charts Company on behalf of the British record industry. The full chart contains the weekly top-selling 200 single recordings in the United Kingdom, based upon combined record sales and download numbers, and since 29 June 2014 also included streaming data.[1] However, some media outlets only list the Top 40 (such as the BBC) or the Top 75 (such as Music Week magazine) of this list. Around 6,500 British retail outlets contribute sales data, as well as most UK online digital-download stores. Unlike charts in the United States, no airplay statistics are used for the official UK Singles Chart. The chart week runs from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday,[2] with most UK digital singles being released on Sundays (followed by CD releases on Monday).[3]

The Top 40 chart is first issued on Sunday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website.[4] Radio 1 broadcasts The Official Chart on Sundays from 16:00 to 19:00. The show had various presenters over the years, including Tommy Vance, Mark Goodier, Tom Browne (broadcaster), Bruno Brookes and Alan Freeman whose Pick of the Pops was the chart show from the 1960s into the early 1970s. From October 2007 to December 2012, Reggie Yates presented the chart show (until September 2009 with Fearne Cotton). Cotton was the first permanent female presenter of the Official Chart Show.[5] Since January 2013, Jameela Jamil has presented the show. A rival chart show, The Big Top 40 Show, is based on downloads and commercial radio airplay and is broadcast on 140 commercial local radio stations.

The UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1969. According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012 1,200 singles have topped the UK singles chart.[6] The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official UK Charts Company. The company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart (only from 1952 to 1960) and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts (none of which official) coexisted side by side. For example the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; many songs announced as having reached number one on BBC Radio and Top of the Pops prior to 1969 are not listed as chart-toppers according to the legacy criteria of the Charts Company.

History[edit]

Early charts[edit]

Before sales of records were compiled a song's popularity was measured by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in America, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express (NME) gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures.[7][8] For the first British chart Dickins telephoned approximately 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs. These results were then aggregated into a Top 12 chart[nb 1] published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position.[7][8] The chart became a successful feature of the periodical; it was expanded into a Top 20 on 1 October 1954, and rival publications began compiling their own charts in 1955.[11] Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; it was based on postal returns from record stores (which were financed by the newspaper). The NME chart was based on a telephone poll.[12] Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956.[11][13] Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart; it telephoned 19 stores to produce a Top 20 for 7 April 1956. It was also the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample.[8]

Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956; from November 1958 onwards it was run by NME.[14][11] In March 1960, Record Retailer began compiling an EP (album) chart and had a Top 50 singles chart.[14] Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was widely followed,[8][15] in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead.[8] Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, and has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960.[11][14] The choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised;[16][8] however, the chart was unique in listing close to 50 positions for the whole decade.[16] With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less widely followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a significantly smaller sample size than some rival charts.[8]

Before February 1969 (when the British Market Research Bureau (BMRB) chart was established), there was no official chart or universally accepted source.[8][15][16] Readers followed the charts in various periodicals and, during this time, the BBC used aggregated results of charts from the NME, Melody Maker, Disc and (later) Record Mirror to compile the Pick of the Pops chart.[12] The Official Charts Company and Guinness' British Hit Singles & Albums, use as sources for the unofficial period, the NME before 10 March 1960 and Record Retailer until 1969.[11] However, until 1969 the Record Retailer chart was only seen by people working in the industry. The most widely circulated chart was the NME one, which was used by Radio Luxembourg's legendary Sunday night Top 20 show, as well as by ABC TV's Thank Your Lucky Stars, which was watched by up to 6 million on ITV.

Official chart[edit]

Before 1969 there was no official singles chart.[8][15][16] Record Retailer and the BBC commissioned the British Market Research Bureau (BMRB) to compile charts, beginning 15 February 1969.[8][11] The BMRB compiled its first chart from postal returns of sales logs from 250 record shops.[11] The sampling cost approximately £52,000; shops were randomly chosen from a pool of approximately 6,000, and submitted figures for sales taken up to the close of trade on Saturday. The sales diaries were translated into punch cards so the data could be interpreted by a computer. A computer then compiled the chart on Monday, and the BBC were informed of the Top 50 on Tuesday in time for it to be announced on Johnnie Walker's afternoon show. The charts were also published in Record Retailer (rebranded Record & Tape Retailer in 1971 and Music Week in 1972)[17] and Record Mirror.[8] However, the BMRB often struggled to have the full sample of sales figures returned by post. The 1971 postal strike meant data had to be collected by telephone, but this was deemed inadequate for a national chart; by 1973, the BMRB was using motorcycle couriers to collect sales figures.[8] In May 1978, the singles chart was expanded from a Top 50 to a Top 75. A World in Action documentary exposé in 1980 revealed corruption within the industry; stores' chart-returns dealers would frequently be offered bribes to falsify sales logs.[18]

Electronic-age charts[edit]

From 1983 to 1990, the chart was financed by BPI (50 percent), Music Week (38 percent) and the BBC (12 percent).[19] On 4 January 1983 the chart compilation was assumed by the Gallup Organization, which expanded the chart with a "Next 25" in addition to the Top 75[nb 2] and began the introduction of computerised compilers, automating the data-collection process.[8][11] In July 1987, Gallup signed a new agreement with BPI, increasing the sample size to approximately 500 stores and introducing barcode scanners to read data.[21] The chart was based entirely on sales of vinyl single records from retail outlets and announced on Tuesday until October 1987, when the Top 40 was revealed each Sunday (due to the new, automated process).[22]

The 1980s also saw the introduction of the cassette single (or "cassingle") alongside the 7-inch and 12-inch record formats; in 1987, major record labels developed a common format for the compact disc single.[23] In May 1989, chart regulations kept Kylie Minogue's song "Hand on Your Heart" from number-one status because sales from cassette singles were not included (they were sold for £1.99 – cheaper than allowed at the time). Following this, the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) reduced the minimum price for cassette singles to influence sales figures.[24] In September 1989, W H Smith began to send sales data to Gallup directly through electronic point of sale (EPoS) terminals.[21]

In January 1990, the BPI gave notice to Gallup, BBC and Music Week; on 30 June 1990, it terminated its contract with them because it "could no longer afford the £600,000 a year cost".[25][26] From 1 July 1990, the Chart Information Network (CIN) was formed by Spotlight Publications[nb 3] (publisher of Music Week), in cooperation with the BBC and the British Association of Record Dealers (BARD) – representing retailers, including W H Smith, Woolworths, HMV and Virgin – who agreed to exclusively supply sales data to the CIN.[21][28] A Chart Supervisory Committee (CSC) represented the BBC, CIN and retailers. The BPI were reluctant to join and "consider[ed] the option of launching a rival chart"[26] but in September an agreement was reached, and it joined the CSC.[29] For this period, the chart was produced by Gallup and owned by CIN and Music Week (who would then sell it to the BBC and BPI).[30]

In January 1991 the CIN became a joint venture between Link House Magazines (formerly Spotlight Publications, later Miller Freeman, Inc.)[31] and the BPI; they shared the revenue and costs (reportedly between £750,000 and £1 million).[21][30][32] During this time, other retailers (such as Woolworths and John Menzies) began submitting data using EpOS terminals.[21] In late 1991 the sample consisted of 500 stores scanning barcodes of all record sales into an Epson PX-4 computer, and 650 other stores providing sales data through their own EPoS computerised tills. These computers were to be telephoned six times a week, providing the data to Gallup.[33] In June 1991, the BPI reduced the number of eligible formats from five to four.[34]

In November 1990, the "Next 25" section of the UK singles chart (positions 76–100, with special rules) ceased to be printed in the trade magazine Music Week.[citation needed] In April 1991, Record Mirror ceased publication, along with the "Next 25".[17][35][36] Virgin installed JDA EPoS terminals in September 1993, and began providing sales data to Gallup.[37]

In February 1993 the research contract for the chart was put out to tender, with a new four-year contract beginning 1 February 1994 offered. Millward Brown, Research International and Nielsen Market Research were approached, and Gallup were invited to re-apply.[38] In May, it was announced that Millward Brown had been accepted as the next chart compilers, signing a £1-million-a-year contract.[21] Millward Brown took over compiling the charts on 1 February 1994, increasing the sample size;[11][39] by the end of the month each shop sampled used a barcode scanner linking via an Epson terminal with a modem to a central computer (called "Eric"), which logged data from more than 2,500 stores.[39] Gallup attempted to block Millward Brown's new chart by complaining to the Office of Fair Trading about the contractual clause in which BARD retailers exclusively supplied sales data to the CIN, but the interim order was rejected.[40] In June 1995 the case was dropped, after the clause allowing BARD retailers to supply sales information to other chart compilers was deleted; because CIN retained the copyright, other compilers could not use (or sell) the information.[41]

On 2 April 1995, the number of eligible formats was reduced from four to three.[34] The decision came after nine months of negotiations with BARD, which objected that it would adversely affect the vinyl record industry.[42] Although record labels were not prohibited from releasing singles in more than three formats, they were required to identify the three eligible formats.[34] This resulted in a reduction in the number of singles released in 7-inch format; the most common three formats were 12-inch single, cassette and CD, or a cassette and two CD versions.[43] The ruling resulted in the Oasis single "Some Might Say" charting twice in one week – at number 1 with sales from the three eligible formats, and at number 71 from sales in a fourth (12-inch) format.[44]

Subsequently, CIN sought to develop new marketing opportunities and sponsorship deals; these included premium-rate fax and telephone services and the chart newsletters Charts+Plus (published from May 1991 to November 1994) and Hit Music (published from September 1992 to May 2001). Beginning in May 1991 Charts+Plus featured singles charts with positions 76–200 (plus artist albums positions 76–150, Top 50 compilations, and several genre and format charts). In September 1992, a second newsletter was created: Hit Music, a sister publication of Music Week featuring (among other charts) the singles Top 75 and a revived "Next 25". In November 1994, Charts+Plus ceased publication; Hit Music expanded its chart coverage to an uncompressed (without special rules) Top 200 Singles, Top 150 Artists Albums and Top 50 Compilations. In November 1996, the Artist Albums chart extended to a Top 200. Hit Music ceased publication in May 2001 with issue number 439.[45]

In February 1997, CIN and BARD agreed to a new 18-month deal for the charts.[46] In 1998 the CSC agreed to new rules reducing the number of tracks on a single from four to three, playing time from 25 minutes to 20 and the compact disc single minimum dealer price to £1.79.[47] On 1 July 1998, BARD and BPI took over management of the chart from the CIN (a Miller Freeman and BPI venture) with new company Music Industry Chart Services (Mics);[48] however, in August they decided to return to compiling the charts under the name CIN.[49]

In 1999, Millward Brown began "re-chipping" some retailers' machines, in anticipation of the millennium bug.[50] However, some independent retailers lost access to the record-label-funded Electronic Record Ordering System (Eros); it was "too costly to make it Year 2000 compliant".[51] Towards the end of the 1990s companies anticipated distributing singles over the Internet, following the example of Beggars Banquet and Liquid Audio (who made 2,000 tracks available for digital download in the US).[52] In November 2001, Chart Information Network (CIN) changed its name to "The Official UK Charts Company".

By September 2001, chart enthusiast Herman Verkade entered a licensing agreement with CIN and created an independent chart publication: ChartsPlus, covering the Top 75 Singles chart (and compressed positions 76–200), Top 200 artist albums chart, Top 50 compilations and other format and genre charts.

Internet era[edit]

In January 2004, MyCokeMusic launched as the "first significant download retailer".[53] Legal downloading was initially small, with MyCokeMusic selling over 100,000 downloads during its first three months. In June the iTunes Store was launched in the UK, and more than 450,000 songs were downloaded during the first week.[54] In early September the UK Official Download Chart was launched, and a new live recording of Westlife's "Flying Without Wings" was the first number-one.[55]

In 2005, Wes Butters presented the final UK Top 40, concluding his tenure at Radio 1. The chart show was then rebranded for the chart week ending 16 April, and the first singles chart combining physical-release sales with legal downloads began. Several test charts (and a download-sales chart) were published in 2004; this combination (within the official singles chart) reflected a changing era in which sales of actual singles fell and download sales rose. On 17 April 2005, hosts JK and Joel commented during their BBC Radio 1 broadcast that the incorporation of download sales resulted in an approximate doubling of singles sales for the week. For the first week's combined chart the impact of this doubling was not readily apparent at the top of the chart, although a few singles in the middle positions benefited.

Initially, the British Association of Record Dealers was concerned that the popularity of downloading would siphon business from the High Street.[citation needed] It also complained that including singles not available physically would confuse customers and create gaps in stores' sale racks. However, it agreed to the new rules provided that digital sales were only included to a single's sales tally if there was a physical equivalent sold in shops at the time. Since there was no rule governing a minimum number of pressings, Gorillaz released only 300 vinyl copies of their single "Feel Good Inc." on 12 April 2005 (a month before its general release). This allowed it to debut in the chart at number 22 (eventually reaching number 2), and remain in the Top 40 for a longer period.

After pressure from elsewhere in the music industry a second compromise was reached in 2006, which now allowed singles to chart on downloads the week before their physical release. The first song to make the Top 40 on downloads alone was "Pump It" by The Black Eyed Peas, which charted at number 16 on 12 March 2006. Three weeks later, "Crazy" by Gnarls Barkley became the first song to top the charts on download sales alone. As part of the revised rules, singles would now be removed from the chart two weeks after the deletion of their physical formats; "Crazy" left the chart 11 weeks later from number 5 and a subsequent chart-topper, Nelly Furtado's "Maneater", disappeared from number 10. This was in addition to the existing rule that to be eligible for the chart, the physical single had to have been released within the last twelve months, supporting the general view that the chart reflects the top-selling "current" releases. Over the coming months digital sales continued to increase whilst physical sales continued to fall; more artists entered the top 40 early, and fewer singles entered the chart directly at number 1. Whilst initially the proportion of digital sales to physical sales in the combined tally was relatively low, a majority of singles as of 2012 see more than 50 percent of their sales coming from online. Sales through mobile phones are also counted.[citation needed]

On 1 January 2007 the integration of downloaded music into the charts became complete when all downloads – with or without a physical equivalent – became eligible to chart, bringing an end to the UK singles chart by turning it into a "songs" chart. This saw a few singles gain publicity: "Crazy" and "Maneater" (still selling strongly on downloads some time after their physical equivalents had been withdrawn) returned to the chart with several others which had been removed in the preceding months. "Chasing Cars" by Snow Patrol returned at a Top 10 position (number 9, just three places below the peak it had reached the previous September), while "Honey to the Bee" by Billie Piper (following a tongue-in-cheek promotional push by Radio 1 DJ Chris Moyles to test the new chart rules) reappeared at number 17 (nearly eight years after its original appearance on the charts).

The second song to return to the Top 40 several years after its first hit run was "I'll Be Missing You" by Puff Daddy and Faith Evans, which reappeared at number 32 a decade after it originally topped the chart. The impetus this time was Puff Daddy's recent performance of a new version of the track at the Princess Diana Memorial Concert at Wembley. Two months later Luciano Pavarotti's "Nessun Dorma" returned to the chart at number 24 during the week following his death (17 years after it was first a hit), climbing to number 12. A drumming gorilla in a Dairy Milk television advertisement helped "In the Air Tonight" by Phil Collins to climb to number 14, 26 years after it was first a hit and 19 years since its last chart appearance as a remix. None of these songs had been officially re-issued.

"Blag, Steal and Borrow" by Koopa became the first song to chart without being released physically (and the first by an unsigned band to do so). Later they would do it again twice, with "One Off Song for the Summer" and "The Crash" reaching No. 21 and No. 16 respectively (while the band remained unsigned until the following year).

Following the cancellation of its physical release, "Say It Right" by Nelly Furtado was the first Top 10 hit to pass through its chart career without a single copy appearing in a shop. "Lord Don't Slow Me Down" by Oasis became the second, "Violet Hill" by Coldplay the third, and "Disturbia" by Rihanna the fourth; "Candyman" by Christina Aguilera had a chart run that took it into the Top 20 (number 17) entirely on downloads.

It was only a matter of time before there was a number-one hit never released physically. This honour went to Run by Leona Lewis, the 11th song in total to reach number one on downloads alone. Unlike the previous 10, it did not receive a physical release in subsequent weeks (although it was released physically overseas, notably in Germany).

The second occurrence was on 20 December 2009, when "Killing in the Name" by Rage Against the Machine got the Christmas No. 1 single; this was the result of a Facebook campaign urging people to download the song in a bid to prevent The X Factor winning song from becoming the Christmas No. 1 single again after four consecutive years. It is also the first time that a song has reached No. 1 on downloads alone, without being a new release; the song was originally released in 1992 as a No. 25 hit, but reached the No. 1 spot 17 years later.

New rules were added to the chart on 16 September 2007 to include one-track CD singles (with a limit of 15 minutes) and to retail at a minimum of 40p per one-track CD single.

A notable effect of the new chart rules is to demonstrate the enduring appeal of many downloads, especially if a physical copy is no longer (or never has been) available. Despite a seven-week gap in its chart run in late 2006 while ineligible under the old rules, Snow Patrol's "Chasing Cars" clocked 108 weeks on the chart, a record bettered by only one single in chart history ("My Way" by Frank Sinatra with 124 weeks). Numerous other hits are on for more than 40 weeks.

Jeff Buckley's 1994 cover of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah" charted at number 2 on 21 December 2008 on downloads alone, following the formation of a 110,000-strong protest group on Facebook to get it above (winner of The X Factor 2008) Alexandra Burke's version for the Christmas number one.

Another consequence of the chart rules (that was expected but has not materialised) is that in the event of a new album release by a well-known artist, all (or most) of its tracks could appear on the singles chart due to buyers downloading individual songs rather than the complete album. There was no significant example of this until early October 2007, with the cast of High School Musical 2 placing six of its songs in the Top 75 (although these were credited to their individual performers) and a further four just outside. A month later, Leona Lewis placed five tracks from her album Spirit simultaneously on the singles chart. Another example was anticipated with the arrival of The Beatles' catalogue online, with forecasters predicting the entire top 10 being taken up by Beatles songs.[56][57] This chart domination never occurred; only four Beatles songs re-entered the Top 75, the highest-placed being "Let It Be" at number 38.

Yet another effect of the new rules was the reappearance in the chart of a number of seasonal favourites during Christmas 2007. A total of 19 achieved this without being officially re-issued (on downloads alone). Two of these (by Mariah Carey and The Pogues), reached the Top 5. Eleven Christmas hits returned to the Top 75 for Christmas 2008, nine in 2009, eight in 2010 and twelve in 2011, with the Mariah Carey and Pogues songs faring best each year.

The first unsigned artist to break the top 5 was Alex Day. He got to number 4 with his single 'Forever Yours' in the Christmas chart, beating Coldplay and Olly Murs.[58] Alex achieved this through social networking sites, most notably, YouTube. He asked his subscribers on YouTube, the 'Nermie Army,' to buy the song in an effort to get it to number 1. He also released many remixes of the song in an effort to push the song higher in the charts as a remix counts as another sale on the chart. All the money for any remixes was given to charity, mostly Alex's charity of choice, World Vision. He was offered record deals after this but turned them down and preceded carving his own path and later achieved another top 20 hit with his cover of 'Lady Godiva' achieving number 15 in the second week of April 2012.[59] In February 2013, unsigned artists Macklemore and Ryan Lewis topped the chart with "Thrift Shop".[60]

The death of Michael Jackson on 25 June 2009 triggered a surge in sales of his recordings; this was the first time in the download era that the effect of a major star's death on the chart could be observed. During the week beginning 28 June, a total of 16 of his solo hits (plus 4 more by The Jackson 5) re-entered the chart. The following week, the momentum continued; 27 Jackson titles charted in the Top 75 (21 solo, one with his sister Janet and five by the Jacksons) with "Man in the Mirror" charting the highest, at number 2. The second chart invasion of the download era resulting from the death of a major artist was been observed in late July 2011 following the death of Amy Winehouse, with seven former singles charting and one other song appearing for the first time.

It was announced in June 2014 that as of Sunday, 29 June, audio streams from services such as Spotify, Deezer, Napster, O2 Tracks, Xbox Music, Sony Unlimited and rara would be counted towards the Official Singles Chart, in order to reflect changing music consumption in the United Kingdom.[61] The final number one on the UK Singles Chart to be based on sales alone was "Gecko (Overdrive)" by Oliver Heldens featuring Becky Hill.[62] On Sunday 6 July 2014 the Official Charts Company announced that Ariana Grande had earned a place in UK chart history when her single "Problem", featuring Iggy Azalea becoming the first Number 1 single based on sales and streaming data.[63]

Comparison of singles charts (1952–1969)[edit]

With no official chart before 1969, a number of periodicals compiled their own charts during the 1950s and 1960s. The five main charts (as used by BBC's Pick of the Pops) were:

  • New Musical Express (NME) (1952–1988): The first singles chart, a major source until March 1960, widely followed throughout the 1960s
  • Record Mirror (1955–1962): The second singles chart; compiled the first album chart, published Record Retailer chart from 1962. The Pick of the Pops average stopped using Record Mirror after 21 May 1960, due to the paper changing its weekly publication day
  • Melody Maker (1956–1988): The third singles chart, major source for album charts from 1958 onwards
  • Disc (1958–1967): The fourth singles chart
  • Record Retailer (1960–1969): The fifth singles chart; a trade paper, regarded as a major source from its inception; jointly formed BMRB chart in 1969. Not included in the Pick of the Pops average until 31 March 1962.

Inclusion criteria[edit]

To qualify for inclusion in the UK singles chart, a single must meet the following criteria:

  • It must be available on one or more eligible formats. Eligible formats are CD, DVD, vinyl, cassette, digital download, MiniDisc and flexi disc.
  • All formats must contain the featured track or a version/remix of it.
  • Only three formats may be included in a single's sales; sales in additional formats are disregarded when calculating a single's chart position.
  • The single must meet the minimum dealer price requirement (as of 2012, 40p for a digital audio track)[64]
  • Each format must have no more than four different tracks, although each song may appear in any number of different versions.
  • Maximum running time for any format is 25 minutes (if more than one different song is featured), or 40 minutes (if one song is featured in multiple versions/mixes).
  • A "mini CD" format is now recognised for chart purposes, with a running time of up to 10 minutes and featuring no more than two tracks. It must be an 8 cm CD, sold in a single jewel case. Its minimum-price requirement is lower than that of a conventional CD single. This less-expensive alternative was first recognised in the UK in October 2003 as part of a drive to make singles more attractive despite music downloading; this size of CD was already used in other countries (such as Japan) for single releases.

The full chart regulations also place limits on how chart singles can be packaged and what free gifts can be offered to purchasers. The regulations may be downloaded from the UK Charts Company website (see "External links", below).

Chart broadcasts[edit]

The BBC aired Pick of the Pops on its Light Programme radio station on 4 October 1955.[8] Initially airing popular songs, it developed an aggregated chart in March 1958. Using the NME, Melody Maker, Disc and Record Mirror charts, the BBC averaged them by totalling points gained on the four charts (one point for a number one, two for a number two, etc.) to give a chart average; however, this method was prone to tied positions.[8] Record Retailer was included in the average on 31 March 1962, after Record Mirror ceased compiling its chart.[8] David Jacobs and Alan Freeman both had stints presenting the Pick of the Pops chart.[65] Freeman took Pick of the Pops to its regular Sunday afternoon slot in early 1962.[66] Freeman (along with Pete Murray, David Jacobs and Jimmy Savile) was one of the four original presenters on Top of the Pops, which first aired 1 January 1964 on BBC One (then known as BBC TV).[65][67] Top of the Pops, like Pick of the Pops, used a combination of predominant periodicals until the formation of the BMRB chart in 1969.[8]

From 30 September 1967 BBC Radio 1 was launched along with BBC Radio 2, succeeding the Light Programme,[68] and the Top-20 Pick of the Pops chart was simulcast on both stations.[69] Freeman continued to present the show until 1972, and was succeeded by Tom Browne.[66][70] Simon Bates took over from Browne, and under Bates it became a Top-40 show in 1978.[70][71] Bates was succeeded by Tony Blackburn, who presented the show for two-and-a-half years; Tommy Vance, who presented for two years, Bates returned in January 1984 and presented the show until September that year, then Richard Skinner for eighteen months.[70][72][73] Bruno Brookes took over in 1986[74] and, in October 1987, automated data collection allowed the countdown to be announced on the Sunday chart show (instead of on Tuesdays).[22]

In 1990, Brookes was replaced as presenter by Mark Goodier, but returned 18 months later. Goodier took over from Brookes once more in 1995 and continued presenting the show until 2002.[74] In February 2003 Wes Butters hosted the chart show; two years later his contract was not renewed, and he was replaced by JK and Joel.[70][75] The duo were made redundant by Radio 1 in September 2007; Fearne Cotton and Reggie Yates replaced them at the helm of the chart show.[76] Cotton left in September 2009, and until 2012 the chart show was hosted by Yates.[77] Yates left Radio 1 at the end of 2012, because he wanted to spend more time with his family, as well as focusing more on television. Jameela Jamil took over from him in January 2013, becoming the first woman to individually host the BBC Chart show.[78]

From March 2010 Greg James hosted a half-hour show at 3:30 pm on Wednesdays, announcing a chart update based on midweek sales figures previously only available to the industry. The chairman of The Official Charts Company said it would provide "insight into how the race for number one is shaping up".[79] From Wednesday 4 April 2012 this was broadcast at 4pm to reflect that Greg James had been promoted to the drive time show.

In January 2013, The Official Chart Update returned to its original time slot of 3:30pm with new hosts Scott Mills and Jameela Jamil.

Sponsorship[edit]

In 1999, the BPI offered the BBC an ultimatum; unless they accepted a sponsor, they would take the chart over to ITV. The BBC accepted; the chart was sponsored by worldpop.com with the company receiving name recognition during the programme.[80] However, the deal ended when the website went out of business in late 2001. As part of an agreement with Billboard to publish the UK chart in section of their magazine, Billboard required the chart to have a sponsor. In 2003, it was announced that Coca-Cola had signed a two-year contract with the Official Charts Company beginning 1 January 2004. Although the amount was not publicly disclosed, it was believed to be between £1.5 million and £2 million. Since advertising on the BBC is prohibited under the BBC Charter and the government was attempting to reduce childhood obesity, the decision was widely criticised. Coca-Cola was restricted to two on-air mentions during the chart show, with the BBC justifying the deal by saying it did not negotiate or benefit financially.[81] A few days into the contract, the BBC agreed to drop on-air mentions of the brand.[82]

Records and statistics[edit]

Most number-one singles[edit]

The artists credited as a named artist on the most UK number-one singles are:[83]

Most weeks at number one[edit]

The songs which spent the most weeks at number 1 are:[84]

Note: Songs denoted with an asterisk (*) spent non-consecutive weeks at number one

Best-selling singles[edit]

Year Song[85] Artist Number
sold[86]
1997 "Candle in the Wind 1997" Elton John 4,920,000
1984 "Do They Know it's Christmas" Band Aid 3,750,000
1975
1991
"Bohemian Rhapsody" Queen 2,440,000
1977 "Mull of Kintyre" / "Girls' School" Wings 2,080,000
1978 "You're The One That I Want" Olivia Newton-John & John Travolta 2,050,000
1984 "Relax" Frankie Goes to Hollywood 2,030,000
1978 "Rivers of Babylon" / "Brown Girl in the Ring" Boney M 2,020,000
1963 "She Loves You" The Beatles 1,910,000
1994 "Love Is All Around" Wet Wet Wet 1,860,000
1978 "Mary's Boy Child – Oh My Lord" Boney M 1,860,000

See also[edit]

Chart magazines
Rival charts
Chart books

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The first Top 12 contained fifteen records due to tied positions at numbers 7, 8 and 11.[9] The method of numbering was replaced with the more familiar method by October 1953 – two records tied at number six and the next listed position was number eight.[10]
  2. ^ The expansion was not a Top 100, per se, as records were excluded from positions 76–100 if their sales had fallen in two consecutive weeks and if their sales had fallen by 20 per cent compared to the previous week.[20]
  3. ^ Spotlight Publications is a subsidiary of United Newspapers[27]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Lane, Daniel (23 June 2014). "Streaming and the Official Singles Chart: Everything you need to know!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  2. ^ "About Us - Who We Are - FAQs". Theofficialcharts.com. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  3. ^ Praxis Media. "Radio1 Rodos Greece ::: UK Forthcoming Singles ::: Charts, DJ Promos, Dance, Lyrics, Free Mp3 Samples Downloads". Radio1.gr. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  4. ^ "Official UK Singles Top 100 - 8th December 2012 | Official UK Top 40 | music charts | Official Singles Chart". Officialcharts.com. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  5. ^ "Celebrity Profiles :: Fearne Cotton". OK!. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 
  6. ^ "Will.I.Am's This Is Love becomes UK's 1200th Number 1". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Williams, Mark (19 February 2002). "Obituary: Percy Dickins". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Smith, Alan. "50s & 60s UK Charts – The Truth!". Dave McAleer's website. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  9. ^ Rees, Lazell & Osborne 1995, p. 5.
  10. ^ Rees, Lazell & Osborne 1995, p. 11.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Key Dates in the History of the Official UK Charts". The Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Smith, Alan. "Every No.1 in the 1960s is listed from all the nine different magazine charts!". Dave McAleer's website. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  13. ^ "July – November 1955". Record Mirror. Retrieved 15 May 2010. 
  14. ^ a b c Warwick, Kutner & Brown 2004, p. viii.
  15. ^ a b c Leigh, Spencer (20 February 1998). "Music: Charting the number ones that somehow got away". The Independent. Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
  16. ^ a b c d Warwick, Kutner & Brown 2004, p. v.
  17. ^ a b "Modern Music Periodicals: Pop and Jazz". British Library. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  18. ^ Hennesey, Mike (30 August 1980). "Inquiry Expected After Claims Of U.K. Chart Hyping". Billboard (London). pp. 1, 78, 83. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  19. ^ Parker 1991, p. 206.
  20. ^ Zywietz, Tobias (27 April 2005). British Chart Books Classified. Neulingen, Germany. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Scott, Ajax (8 May 1993). "Countdown to a new era". Music Week. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  22. ^ a b Roberts 2005, p. 14.
  23. ^ Pareles, Jon (2 September 1987). "Cassette Singles: New 45's". The New York Times. p. 21. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  24. ^ Jones, Alan (6 May 1989). "This Week's Charts Analysed". Record Mirror: 48. 
  25. ^ Clark-Meads, Jeff (6 January 1990). "BPI clears the deck for Nineties chart". Music Week. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  26. ^ a b "New chart on course". Music Week. 30 June 1990. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  27. ^ Monopolies and Mergers Commission (23 June 1994). The supply of recorded music. Cm 2599. London: HMSO. p. 134. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  28. ^ White, Adam (9 April 1994). "Fair Trade Inquiry Shakes Up U.K. Charts". Billboard. pp. 8, 72. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  29. ^ "BPI poised to sign chart deal". Music Week. 29 September 1990. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  30. ^ a b Parker 1991, p. 207.
  31. ^ Horton, Liz; Hovey, Sue (1 April 1991). "Gralla, Miller Freeman merge". Folio. FindArticles. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 
  32. ^ "BPI backs official CIN charts". Music Week. 12 September 1991. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  33. ^ "There is only one chart, isn't there?". Music Week: 13. 12 October 1991. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  34. ^ a b c "Chart formats cut back again". Music Week. 11 February 1995. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  35. ^ "The Gallup Chart: March 31 – April 6, 1991". Record Mirror. 6 April 1991. p. 47. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  36. ^ "Top 75 Singles: The Official Chart". Music Week. 13 April 1991. p. 47. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  37. ^ "Virgin adds Epos muscle to CIN charts". Music Week. 19 September 1992. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  38. ^ "Researchers to bid for CIN chart contract". Music Week. 13 February 1993. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  39. ^ a b Arnot, Chris (20 February 1994). "Hit machine on the road". The Independent. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  40. ^ "OFT rejects Gallup chart block". Music Week. 5 February 1994. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  41. ^ "Industry heads off OFT inverstigation". Music Week. 17 June 1995. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  42. ^ "Fewer formats can make singles pay". Music Week. 18 February 1995. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  43. ^ "Vinyl hit hardest by formats ruling". Music Week. 29 April 1995. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  44. ^ "Stray Oasis entry to set chart trend?". Music Week. 20 May 1995. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  45. ^ "Background". UKChartsPlus. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  46. ^ "News Review of the Year – 97's menu: Spice, Ginger and Elton". Music Week. 20 December 1997. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  47. ^ Ashton, Robert (4 April 1998). "CSC acts to solve "fillers" issue". Music Week. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  48. ^ "MW signs new charts deal". Music Week. 1 August 1998. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  49. ^ "BPI–BARD venture keeps CIN name". Music Week. 8 August 1998. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  50. ^ "Millward Brown launches indie millenium initiative". Music Week. 13 February 1999. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  51. ^ "A lifeline for Epos stores?". Music Week. 13 March 1999. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  52. ^ "Sony blazes internet singles trail". Music Week. 22 June 1999. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  53. ^ "History Of The Official Charts" (Adobe Flash required). The Official Charts Company. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
    Click or hover mouse on the picture of the laptop in January 2004
  54. ^ "Online Music & The UK Record Industry". British Phonographic Industry. May 2006. p. 12. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  55. ^ "Download chart waits for youth: while its beginnings may be modest, the new rundown has an important future ahead". Music Week. 11 September 2004. ISSN 0265-1548. 
  56. ^ PC Pro: News: Beatles albums remastered for download debut[dead link]
  57. ^ "Beatles To Dominate Charts As EMI Lawsuit Settled". TrustedReviews. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  58. ^ "2011-12-31 Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive". Official Charts. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  59. ^ "2012-04-14 Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive". Official Charts. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  60. ^ "http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/thrift-shop-checks-out-at-number-1-1849/". UK Singles Chart. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  61. ^ Kreisler, Lauren (22 June 2014). "UK's Official Singles Chart to include streaming data for first time". OfficialCharts.com. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  62. ^ http://www.officialcharts.com/chart-news/oliver-heldens-and-becky-hill-knock-ella-henderson-off-number-1-3124/
  63. ^ Lane, Daniel (6 July 2014). "Ariana Grande earns a place in Official Chart history with Problem". OfficialCharts.com. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  64. ^ http://www.theofficialcharts.com/docs/Official%20UK%20Singles%20Chart%20Rules%20August%202009.pdf[dead link]
  65. ^ a b Sweeting, Adam (28 November 2006). "Obituary: Alan Freeman". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  66. ^ a b Welch, Chris (29 November 2006). "Obituaries: Alan Freeman". The Independent. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  67. ^ "Top of the Pops". The Official Chart Company. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  68. ^ Green, James (29 September 1967). "Radio 1 will be racy, pacy, free-and-easy". Evening Times. p. 10. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  69. ^ Press release (24 September 2010). "Tony Blackburn joins Radio 2 for Pick Of The Pops". BBC Online. BBC Press Office. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  70. ^ a b c d Hall, Jane (7 February 2003). "Charting the success of DJ Wes". [[The Journal (newspaper)|]]. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  71. ^ Townshend, Tom (16 October 2009). "Why The Charts Don't Matter Any More". MSN. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  72. ^ Press Association (24 September 2010). "Tony Blackburn back on BBC radio". The Independent. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  73. ^ "Obituary: Tommy Vance". BBC News. 7 March 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  74. ^ a b Young, Kevin (28 September 2007). "Chart DJs' battle for the top spot". BBC News. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  75. ^ "Radio 1 chart show host to leave". BBC News. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  76. ^ Kiss, Jemima (6 September 2007). "Kelly Osbourne joins Radio 1". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  77. ^ "Fearne Cotton takes on new weekday show on Radio 1". BBC Press Office. BBC. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  78. ^ "Reggie Yates, Vernon Kay to leave Radio 1, Jameela Jamil for Chart Show - Media News". Digital Spy. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  79. ^ "Official midweek 'chart update' launched". Newsbeat. BBC. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  80. ^ Dann, Trevor (24 June 2003). "Watch out, pop-pickers". The Independent. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  81. ^ Legrand, Emmanuel (13 December 2003). "Coke Deal is Real Thing for U.K. Music Charts". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.) 115 (50): 9, 62. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  82. ^ "BBC to pull chart sponsor credits". Music Week. 2 January 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  83. ^ "Most Number 1s". 
  84. ^ Dadds, Kimberley (19 July 2007). "The UK's longest-running chart toppers". Digital Spy. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  85. ^ Lane, Daniel (27 June 2013). "Daft Punk's Get Lucky becomes one of the UK’s biggest selling singles of all-time!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  86. ^ Lane, Daniel (1 June 2014). "Naughty Boy and Sam Smith reach 1 million sales with La-La-La". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
Sources

External links[edit]