United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
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UNFCCC logo
Signed 9 May 1992
Location New York City, US
Effective 21 March 1994
Condition ratification by 50 states
Signatories 165
Ratifiers 196 (all United Nations member states, as well as Niue, Cook Islands and the European Union)[1]
Depositary Secretary-General of the United Nations
Languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty (currently the only international climate policy venue with broad legitimacy, due in part to its virtually universal membership)[2] negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system".[3]

The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called "protocols") that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases.

The UNFCCC was opened for signature on 9 May 1992, after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. It entered into force on 21 March 1994. As of March 2014, UNFCCC has 196 parties.

The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.[4] The 2010 Cancún agreements state that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level.[5] The 20th COP will take place in Peru in 2014.[6]

One of the first tasks set by the UNFCCC was for signatory nations to establish national greenhouse gas inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals, which were used to create the 1990 benchmark levels for accession of Annex I countries to the Kyoto Protocol and for the commitment of those countries to GHG reductions. Updated inventories must be regularly submitted by Annex I countries.

The UNFCCC is also the name of the United Nations Secretariat charged with supporting the operation of the Convention, with offices in Haus Carstanjen, Bonn, Germany. From 2006 to 2010 the head of the secretariat was Yvo de Boer. On 17 May 2010, Christiana Figueres from Costa Rica succeeded de Boer. The Secretariat, augmented through the parallel efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), aims to gain consensus through meetings and the discussion of various strategies.

Treaty[edit]

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (known by its popular title, the Earth Summit). On 12 June 1992, 154 nations signed the UNFCCC, that upon ratification committed signatories' governments to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases with the goal of "preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with Earth's climate system". This commitment would require substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (see the later section, "Stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations")

Article 3(1) of the Convention[7] states that Parties should act to protect the climate system on the basis of "common but differentiated responsibilities", and that developed country Parties should "take the lead" in addressing climate change. Under Article 4, all Parties make general commitments to address climate change through, for example, climate change mitigation and adapting to the eventual impacts of climate change.[8] Article 4(7) states:[9]

The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.

The Framework Convention specifies the aim of developed (Annex I) Parties stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic greenhouse gases not regulated under the Montreal Protocol) at 1990 levels, by the year 2000.[10]

Later negotiations[edit]

Kyoto Protocol[edit]

After the signing of the UNFCCC treaty, Parties to the UNFCCC have met at conferences ("Conferences of the Parties" – COPs) to discuss how to achieve the treaty's aims. At the 1st Conference of the Parties (COP-1), Parties decided that the aim of Annex I Parties stabilizing their emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 was "not adequate",[11] and further discussions at later conferences led to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol sets emissions targets for developed countries which are binding under international law.

The Kyoto Protocol has had two commitment periods, the first of which lasts from 2005-2012, and the second 2012-2020. The US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by all the other Annex I Parties.

All Annex I Parties, excluding the US, have participated in the 1st Kyoto commitment period. 37 Annex I countries and the EU have agreed to second-round Kyoto targets. These countries are Australia, all members of the European Union, Belarus, Croatia, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine.[12] Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets.[13] Japan, New Zealand, and Russia have participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012)[14] and the United States.

As well as the Kyoto Protocol, parties to the Convention have agreed to further commitments. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007),[15] the Copenhagen Accord (2009),[16] the Cancún agreements (2010),[17] and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012).[18]

Bali Action Plan[edit]

As part of the Bali Action Plan, adopted in 2007, all developed country Parties have agreed to "quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives, while ensuring the comparability of efforts among them, taking into account differences in their national circumstances."[19] Developing country Parties agreed to "[nationally] appropriate mitigation actions [NAMAs] context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner."[19] 42 developed countries have submitted mitigation targets to the UNFCCC secretariat,[20] as have 57 developing countries and the African Group (a group of countries within the UN).[21]

Copenhagen and Cancún[edit]

As part of the 2009 Copenhagen negotiations, a number of countries produced the Copenhagen Accord.[16] The Accord states that global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F).[16] This may be strengthened in 2015 with a target to limit warming to below 1.5 °C.[16] The Accord does not specify what the baseline is for these temperature targets (e.g., relative to pre-industrial or 1990 temperatures). According to the UNFCCC, these targets are relative to pre-industrial temperatures.[22]

114 countries have agreed to the Accord.[16] The UNFCCC secretariat notes that "Some Parties [...] stated in their communications to the secretariat specific understandings on the nature of the Accord and related matters, based on which they have agreed to [the Accord]." The Accord was not formally adopted by the Conference of the Parties. Instead, the COP "took note of the Copenhagen Accord."[16]

As part of the Accord, 17 developed country Parties and the EU-27 have submitted mitigation targets,[23] as have 45 developing country Parties.[24] Some developing country Parties have noted the need for international support in their plans.

Many aspects of the Copenhagen Accord were brought into the formal UNFCCC process as part of the Cancún agreements.[25] The Cancún agreements were adopted by the COP in 2010.[17] The agreement states that global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level.[26] This target may be strengthened "on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge, including in relation to a global average temperature rise of 1.5 °C".[26]

As part of the Cancún agreements, developed and developing countries have submitted mitigation plans to the UNFCCC.[27][28] These plans are compiled with those made as part of the Bali Action Plan.

Durban and Doha[edit]

In 2011, parties adopted the "Durban Platform for Enhanced Action".[29] As part of the Durban Platform, parties have agreed to "develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties".[29] This new treaty is due to be adopted at the 21st COP, and implemented in 2020. The 21st COP is scheduled to held in 2015.[30]

At Durban[31] and Doha,[32] parties noted "with grave concern" that current efforts to hold global warming to below 2 or 1.5 °C relative to the pre-industrial level appear inadequate.

Development[edit]

At Berlin,[33] Cancún,[34] and Durban,[35] the development needs of developing country parties were reiterated. For example, the Durban Platform reaffirms that:[35]

[...] social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing country Parties, and that a low-emission development strategy is central to sustainable development, and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs

Interpreting Article 2[edit]

The ultimate objective of the Framework Convention is to prevent "dangerous" anthropogenic (i.e., human-caused) interference of the climate system.[3] As is stated in Article 2 of the Convention, this requires that GHG concentrations are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion.

Refer to caption.
Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected global greenhouse gas emissions, years 2000 to 2100
Refer to caption.
Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, years 2000 to 2100
Refer to caption.
Climate change mitigation scenarios: projected global mean temperature, years 2000 to 2100

To stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations, global anthropogenic GHG emissions would need to peak then decline (see climate change mitigation).[36] Lower stabilization levels would require emissions to peak and decline earlier compared to higher stabilization levels.[36] The graph above shows projected changes in annual global GHG emissions (measured in CO2-equivalents) for various stabilization scenarios. The other two graphs show the associated changes in atmospheric GHG concentrations (in CO2-equivalents) and global mean temperature for these scenarios. Lower stabilization levels are associated with lower magnitudes of global warming compared to higher stabilization levels.[36]

Refer to caption and image description
Projected global warming in 2100 for a range of emission scenarios

There is uncertainty over how GHG concentrations and global temperatures will change in response to anthropogenic emissions (see climate change feedback and climate sensitivity).[37] The graph opposite shows global temperature changes in the year 2100 for a range of emission scenarios, including uncertainty estimates.

Dangerous anthropogenic interference

There are a range of views over what level of climate change is dangerous.[38] Scientific analysis can provide information on the risks of climate change, but deciding which risks are dangerous requires value judgements.[39]

The global warming that has already occurred poses a risk to some human and natural systems (e.g., coral reefs).[40] Higher magnitudes of global warming will generally increase the risk of negative impacts.[41] According to Field et al. (2014),[41] climate change risks are "considerable" with 1 to 2 °C of global warming, relative to pre-industrial levels. 4 °C warming would lead to significantly increased risks, with potential impacts including widespread loss of biodiversity and reduced global and regional food security.[41]

Climate change policies may lead to costs that are relevant to Article 2.[39] For example, more stringent policies to control GHG emissions may reduce the risk of more severe climate change, but may also be more expensive to implement.[42][43][41]

Projections

There is considerable uncertainty over future changes in anthropogenic GHG emissions, atmospheric GHG concentrations, and associated climate change.[44][45][37] Without mitigation policies, increased energy demand and extensive use of fossil fuels[46] could lead to global warming (in 2100) of 3.7 to 4.8 °C relative to pre-industrial levels (2.5 to 7.8 °C including climate uncertainty).[47]

To have a likely chance of limiting global warming (in 2100) to below 2 °C, GHG concentrations would need to be limited to around 450 ppm CO2-eq.[48] The current trajectory of global emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C.[49]

Precautionary principle[edit]

In decision making, the precautionary principle is considered when possibly dangerous, irreversible, or catastrophic events are identified, but scientific evaluation of the potential damage is not sufficiently certain (Toth et al., 2001, pp. 655–656).[50] The precautionary principle implies an emphasis on the need to prevent such adverse effects.

Uncertainty is associated with each link of the causal chain of climate change. For example, future GHG emissions are uncertain, as are climate change damages. However, following the precautionary principle, uncertainty is not a reason for inaction, and this is acknowledged in Article 3.3 of the UNFCCC (Toth et al., 2001, p. 656).[50]

Parties[edit]

Parties to the UNFCCC
  Annex I and II parties
  Annex I parties
  Non-annex parties
  Observer states

As of 2014, the UNFCC has 196 parties including all United Nations member states, as well as Niue, Cook Islands and the European Union.[1][51] In addition, the Holy See and Palestine are observer states.[51]

Classification of Parties and their commitments[edit]

Parties to the UNFCCC are classified as:

List of parties[edit]

Annex I countries[edit]

There are 43 Annex I Parties including the European Union.[52] These countries are classified as industrialized countries and economies in transition.[53] Of these, 24 are Annex II Parties, including the European Union,[55] and 14 are Economies in Transition.[54]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Annex II Party
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Economy in Transition

Conferences of the Parties[edit]

The United Nations Climate Change Conference are yearly conferences held in the framework of the UNFCC. They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCC Parties (Conferences of the Parties) (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.[4] From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the Meetings of Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (MOP). Also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. The first conference was held in 1995 in Berlin, while the 2012 conference was held in Doha. On November 11–22, 2013, it was held in Warsaw, Poland.

Subsidiary bodies[edit]

A subsidiary body is a committee that assists the Conference of the parties. Subsidiary bodies includes:[58]

Secretariat[edit]

The work under the UNFCCC is facilitated by a secretariat in Bonn, Germany, which from July 2010 is headed by Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres.

Commentaries and analysis[edit]

Criticisms of the UNFCCC Process[edit]

Christiana Figueres (left) - Executive Secretary UNFCCC, and Noeleen Heyzer - ES of Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) at the Bangkok Climate Change Talks., August 2012[59]

The overall umbrella and processes of the UNFCCC and the adopted Kyoto Protocol have been criticized by some as not having achieved its stated goals of reducing the emission of carbon dioxide (the primary culprit blamed for rising global temperatures of the 21st century).[60] At a speech given at his alma mater, Todd Stern — the US Climate Change envoy — has expressed the challenges with the UNFCCC process as follows, “Climate change is not a conventional environmental issue...It implicates virtually every aspect of a state's economy, so it makes countries nervous about growth and development. This is an economic issue every bit as it is an environmental one.” He went on to explain that, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a multilateral body concerned with climate change and can be an inefficient system for enacting international policy. Because the framework system includes over 190 countries and because negotiations are governed by consensus, small groups of countries can often block progress.[61]

The failure to achieve meaningful progress and reach effective-CO2 reducing-policy treaties among the parties over the past eighteen years have driven some countries like the United States to never ratify the UNFCCC's largest body of work — the Kyoto Protocol, in large part because the treaty didn't cover developing countries who now include the largest CO2 emitters. However, this fails to consider the historical responsibility for climate change since industrialisation, which is a contentious issue in the talks, and the responsibility of emissions from consumption and importation of goods.[62] It has also led Canada to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol out of a desire to not force its citizens to pay penalties that would result in wealth transfers out of Canada. Canada formally withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2011.[63] Both the US and Canada are looking at Voluntary Emissions Reduction schemes that they can implement internally to curb carbon dioxide emissions outside the Kyoto Protocol.[64]

The perceived lack of progress has also led some countries to seek and focus on alternative high-value activities like the creation of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants which seeks to regulate short-lived pollutants such as methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) which together are believed to account for up to 1/3 of current global warming but whose regulation is not as fraught with wide economic impacts and opposition.[65]

In 2010, Japan stated that it will not sign up to a second Kyoto term, because it would impose restrictions on it not faced by its main economic competitors, China, India and Indonesia.[66] A similar indication was given by the Prime Minister of New Zealand in November 2012.[67] At the 2012 conference, last minute objections at the conference by Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan were ignored by the governing officials, and they have indicated that they will likely withdraw or not ratify the treaty.[68] These defections place additional pressures on the UNFCCC process that is seen by some as cumbersome and expensive: in the UK alone the climate change department has taken over 3,000 flights in two years at a cost of over ₤1,300,000 (British Pounds).[69]

Benchmarking[edit]

Benchmarking is the setting of a policy target based on some frame of reference.[70] An example of benchmarking is the UNFCCC's original target of Annex I Parties limiting their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Goldemberg et al. (1996)[71] commented on the economic implications of this target. Although the target applies equally to all Annex I Parties, the economic costs of meeting the target would likely vary between Parties. For example, countries with initially high levels of energy efficiency might find it more costly to meet the target than countries with lower levels of energy efficiency. From this perspective, the UNFCCC target could be viewed as inequitable, i.e., unfair.

Benchmarking has also been discussed in relation to the first-round emissions targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol (see views on the Kyoto Protocol and Kyoto Protocol and government action).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Status of Ratification of the Convention". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  2. ^ http://report.mitigation2014.org/drafts/final-draft-postplenary/ipcc_wg3_ar5_final-draft_postplenary_chapter13.pdf
  3. ^ a b "Article 2". The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 15 November 2005. 
  4. ^ a b "What is the UNFCCC & the COP". Climate Leaders. Lead India. 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  5. ^ King, D., et al. (July 2011), "Copenhagen and Cancun", International climate change negotiations: Key lessons and next steps, Oxford, UK: Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, p. 12, doi:10.4210/ssee.pbs.2011.0003  PDF version is also available
  6. ^ FEATURE: Peru will look for global progress on climate change in 2014 Climate & Development Knowledge Network Downloaded 31 July 2013
  7. ^ UNFCCC Article 3: Principles , in United Nations 1992
  8. ^ UNFCCC Article 4: Commitments , in United Nations 1992
  9. ^ UNFCCC Article 4: Commitments, paragraph 7 , in United Nations 1992
  10. ^ UNFCCC Article 4: Commitments: 2a, b , in United Nations 1992
  11. ^ Depledge, J. (25 November 2000), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Technical paper: Tracing the Origins of the Kyoto Protocol: An Article-by-Article Textual History, UNFCCC, p. 6 
  12. ^ Figueres 2012
  13. ^ Allan & Kruppa 2012
  14. ^ Status of Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol: (withdrawal of Canada), UNFCCC, 18 January 2012 
  15. ^ COP 2008
  16. ^ a b c d e f COP 2010, p. 5
  17. ^ a b COP 2011
  18. ^ COP 2012
  19. ^ a b Decision 1/CP.13, in COP 2008, p. 3
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ UNFCCC 2012a (16 May)
  23. ^ UNFCCC 2011a (25 February)
  24. ^ UNFCCC 2012b (21 May)
  25. ^ Chapter 3: Copenhagen and Cancun, in King & others 2010
  26. ^ a b COP 2011, p. 3
  27. ^ UNFCCC 2011c (7 June)
  28. ^ UNFCCC 2011b (18 March)
  29. ^ Paragraph 4, in COP 2013, p. 19
  30. ^ COP 2012, p. 2
  31. ^ COP 2013, p. 19
  32. ^ COP 1995, pp. 4–5
  33. ^ COP 2011, p. 2
  34. ^ a b COP 2012, p. 9
  35. ^ a b c Section 5.4 Emission trajectories for stabilisation, in: Synthesis Report, in: IPCC AR4 SYR 2007
  36. ^ a b Chapters 2 and 3, in: US NRC 2011
  37. ^ van Vuuren & others 2009, pp. 29-33
  38. ^ a b Edenhofer, O., et al., TS.1 Introduction and framing (pp.3-6 of final draft), in: Technical summary (archived 29 June 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  39. ^ Cramer, W., et al., Executive summary, in: Chapter 18: Detection and attribution of observed impacts (archived 18 October 2014), pp.982-984, in IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014
  40. ^ a b c d Field, C.B., et al., Section B: FUTURE RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADAPTATION, in: Technical summary (archived 18 October 2014), pp.59-84, in IPCC AR5 WG2 A 2014
  41. ^ Rogner, H-.H., et al., Section 1.2.1: Article 2 of the Convention (archived 23 September 2014), in: Chapter 1: Introduction, p.99, in IPCC AR4 WG3 2007
  42. ^ Edenhofer, O., et al., TS.3.1.3 Costs, investments and burden sharing (p.31 of final draft), in: Technical summary (archived 29 June 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  43. ^ Clarke, L., et al., Section 6.3.1: Baseline scenarios (pp.14-16 of final draft), in: Chapter 6: Assessing Transformation Pathways (archived 20 October 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  44. ^ Clarke, L., et al., Section 6.3.2.6: The link between concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature (pp.31-36 of final draft), in: Chapter 6: Assessing Transformation Pathways (archived 20 October 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  45. ^ Clarke, L., et al., Section 6.3.1.3 Baseline emissions projections from fossil fuels and industry (pp.17-18 of final draft), in: Chapter 6: Assessing Transformation Pathways (archived 20 October 2014), in: IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  46. ^ SPM.3 Trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and their drivers, in: Summary for Policymakers, p.8 (archived 2 July 2014), in IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  47. ^ SPM.4.1 Long‐term mitigation pathways, in: Summary for Policymakers, p.11 (archived 2 July 2014), in IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  48. ^ Victor, D., et al., Executive summary, in: Chapter 1: Introductory Chapter, p.4 (archived 3 July 2014), in IPCC AR5 WG3 2014
  49. ^ a b Toth, F.L. et al. (2001). "10.4.2.2 Precautionary Considerations". In B. Metz et al. Chapter 10. Decision-making Frameworks. Climate Change 2001: Mitigation: Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. 
  50. ^ a b "Parties to the Convention and Observer States". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  51. ^ a b "List of Annex I Parties to the Convention". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  52. ^ a b c d e Parties & Observers, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15 
  53. ^ a b Full text of the convention - Annex I, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15 
  54. ^ a b Full text of the convention - Annex II, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15 
  55. ^ UNFCCC. Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) (8 December 2012), Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. Draft decision proposed by the President (EN). Notes: Agenda item 4: Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. Meeting: Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), Eighth session, 26 November – 7 December 2012, Doha, Qatar. FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.9, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office , pp.6–7. Other languages available.
  56. ^ UNFCCC (25 October 2005), Sixth compilation and synthesis of initial national communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention. Note by the secretariat. Executive summary. Document code FCCC/SBI/2005/18, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office, p. 4 
  57. ^ "Glossary of climate change acronyms". Essential Background. UNCCC.int. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  58. ^ http://unfccc.int/2860.php
  59. ^ "The Kyoto Protocol: Hot air". Nature. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  60. ^ ""Voices" speaker talks climate change". The Dartmouth. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  61. ^ Clark, Duncan (21 April 2011). "Which nations are most responsible for climate change?". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  62. ^ "Canada pulls out of Kyoto Protocol". CBC News. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  63. ^ "U.N. Global Warming Summit: Heading Over the Climate Cliff". Time. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  64. ^ "Secretary Clinton To Announce a Climate and Clean Air Initiative To Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants". US Dept of State. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  65. ^ McCarthy, Michael (2 December 2010). "Japan derails climate talks by refusing to renew Kyoto treaty". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  66. ^ "NZ backs off Kyoto climate change route". The New Zealand Herald. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  67. ^ Andrew Allan and Marton Kruppa (10 December 2012), "Belarus negotiator hints at Kyoto exit, says others could follow", REUTERS (Reuters), retrieved 2012-12-18 
  68. ^ "UK climate change department takes over 3000 flights at a cost of over £1.3m". The Commentator. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  69. ^ Verbruggen, A. (ed.), "Annex I: Glossary:", Benchmark  Missing or empty |title= (help), in IPCC AR4 WG3 2007
  70. ^ Goldemberg, J., et al., "1. Scope of the Assessment: 1.4.1 General issues: Benchmarks",   Missing or empty |title= (help), in IPCC SAR WG3 1996, pp. 32–33 (pp.38–39 of PDF)

References[edit]

External links[edit]