Union, Progress and Democracy

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Union, Progress and Democracy
Unión Progreso y Democracia
Spokesperson Rosa Díez
Founded 26 September 2007 (2007-09-26)
Headquarters C/ Cedaceros, 11, 2º H, 28014, Madrid
Think tank Progress and Democracy Foundation
Membership 6,165 (2013)[1]
Ideology Progressivism[2][3]
Social liberalism[4][5]
Laicism[6][7]
Reformism[8]
Radical centrism[9][10]
Radicalism[11][12]
Centralism[4][5][13][14]
Constitutionalism
European federalism[15][16]
Spanish nationalism[6][17][18][19][20]
Political position Centre[5][10][21][9][22][23]
International affiliation None
European affiliation Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party[24] (Observer)
European Parliament group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colours Magenta
Congress of Deputies
5 / 350
Spanish Senate
0 / 266
Regional Parliaments
10 / 1,268
European Parliament
4 / 54
Local Government (2011)
152 / 68,286
[25]
Website
www.upyd.es
Politics of Spain
Political parties
Elections

Union, Progress and Democracy[26][18][27][28][29][30][31] (Spanish: Unión Progreso y Democracia[32][33][34][note 1] [uˈnjon pɾoˈɣɾeso i ðemoˈkɾaθja], official abbreviation UPyD [upeiˈðe], occasionally referred to as UPD [upeˈðe]) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007.

It is a social liberal party[4] that rejects peripheral nationalism in all its forms including the separatist Basque and Catalan movements.[35] It proposes substituting the current electoral law for a more proportional one.[36] The party also wants a federal system for Europe, without duplicities between the functions of the European government, the national one and the regional one.[37] Mikel Buesa at a party presentation in 2007 and Irene Lozano in a television interview in 2013 have explained the meaning of the 3 concepts which make up party's name: Union because of their defence of "the unity of Spain", Progress because of their belief in "progressivism" as an ideology and Democracy because they declare themselves "radical democrats".[38][39][40][41]

UPyD first stood for election in the 2008 general election, held on 9 March. It received 303,246 votes, or 1.2% of the national total, and one seat in the Congress of Deputies[42] for party co-founder Rosa Díez, becoming the newest party with national representation in Spain.

UPyD's core is in the Basque Autonomous Community, with roots in anti-ETA civic associations, yet it addresses a Spain-wide audience. Prominent members of the party include philosopher Fernando Savater, party founder and former PSOE MEP Rosa Díez, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, and writer Álvaro Pombo.

At its Second Party Congress in November 2013, UPyD reported 6165 registered members, down from an all-time high of 6634 in 2011.[1] In 2009, UPyD founded the think tank "Fundación Progreso y Democracia" (FPyD: Progress and Democracy Foundation) which has since been presided over by the party's spokesperson, Rosa Díez.[43]

In the most recent general elections, held on 20 November 2011, the party won 1,143,225 votes (4.70%), winning five seats in the Congress of Deputies[44] (four in Madrid and one in Valencia) and becoming the fourth largest political force in the country. It was also the party that experienced the greatest increase of votes compared to the previous general election.[45]

Origins

Álvaro Pombo (left) with Fernando Savater at a meeting of Union, Progress and Democracy.

On 19 May 2007, 45 people met in San Sebastián to debate the necessity and possibility of creating a new political party that would oppose both the main parties at national level, the People's Party (PP) and the PSOE. At the meeting, most of those present were Basques, many of whom had long experience in political, union, and civic organizations, in many cases coming from a background of left-wing politics, but also from liberal and civic backgrounds. After that meeting, in order to create a broadly based social and political project, the first step was to create an association, Plataforma Pro, which united those who considered it necessary to form a new political party at national level, whose aim would be to put forward new political proposals of interest to people from across the democratic political spectrum. The initial motives established were:

  • The fight against ETA and any type of politically motivated violence.
  • Regeneration of Spanish democracy.
  • Opposition to nationalism or regionalism.
  • The reform of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to reinforce civil liberties and equality, independent of the regional origins of each citizen.

Among the members or supporters of Plataforma Pro were the philosopher Fernando Savater, the spokesman of ¡Basta Ya!, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán (who was the coordinator of the same group), and the former PSOE MEP Rosa Díez. Díez later resigned from PSOE membership and her position as MEP in August 2007 in order to become involved with the UPyD project.

Other groups that showed their support for the Platform included the association Citizens of Catalonia, most notably Albert Boadella, Arcadi Espada, and Xavier Pericay, as well as the association ¡Basta Ya!, which had been a major influence on the new movement.

Teresa Giménez Barbat, member of Council of UPyD in Catalonia and president of Citizens of Catalonia.

In September 2007, the then-president of the Forum Ermua, Mikel Buesa, announced their intention to participate in the political party arising from the Plataforma Pro (later on, he resigned in 2009 due to disagreements with Rosa Díez).

Finally, at a public meeting on 29 September 2007, in the Auditorium of the Casa de Campo in Madrid, the new party, Union, Progress and Democracy, was formed. Those involved in the formation of the new party included the Catalan dramatist Albert Boadella, the Basque philosopher Fernando Savater, the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, and Rosa Díez. Also present were journalist Arcadi Espada, anthropologists Teresa Giménez Barbat and Felix Perez Romera (three prominent members of Citizens of Catalonia), historian Antonio Elorza, painter Agustín Ibarrola, the ex-leader of the Forum Ermua Mikel Buesa, philosopher Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, the deputies of Citizens Albert Rivera and Antonio Robles, Peruvian writer Fernando Iwasaki, former Secretary General of the UGT Nicolas Redondo, and Basque MP of the People's Party Fernando Maura. Maura subsequently joined the new grouping on 6 November 2007, as a member of its advisory council. Later on, writer Álvaro Pombo also expressed support for UPyD, and went on to run as a candidate for the party.

Ideology

Ideologically, UPyD is not defined by itself as either left or right and in its electoral mass there are collected Socialist Party's disenchanted voters as well as voters with an affinity for the political right.[46]

Rosa Díez in a party meeting.

When UPyD is asked to be placed on the political spectrum, it simply defines itself as a "progressive party" and is simultaneously included in the called "transversalism": it's a party which embraces concepts and ideas of both political axes.[47] According to its spokesperson Rosa Díez, the party is "progressive and cross-sectional", "it's got leftist people and right-wing, liberal people".[48] They assert as additional identity signs "constitutionalism", defining it as the upholding of the Spanish state of law under the Spanish Constitution of 1978; "secularism", as the defence of a neutral State with beliefs, in which any religious confession is privileged over others;[49] "Spanish patriotism", as the defence of common values: justice, freedom and equality;[50] "liberal democracy", as the form of government that best attunes wielding of power to safeguard of individual rights;[51][52] and "postnationalism", as the opposition to peripheral nationalists and pro-independence parties of the Spanish political system. Rosa Díez defines UPyD in opposition to this kind of parties as "an unequivocally national party, with a unique project for Spain".[53] Besides, she has pointed out that UPyD is "a radical party which wants to transform politics by bringing off substantial, in-depth changes from within the institutions".[54] Lastly, Rosa Díez has detailed that there are two ideological trends, which exist side by side in harmony, inside UPyD: "political liberalism" and "social democracy" and that, as the party combines elements of both political trends, the political doctrine that would best define UPyD is "social liberalism".[55] UPyD has been rated by the vast majority of political scientists and media such as the European Social Survey or the British newspapers Financial Times and The Economist as a centre party. UPyD has exceptionally been located on the centre-left (for example, by Navarra confidencial[56]) and on the centre-right (by the Encyclopædia Britannica[26]), though.

Its key proposals, according to its terminology, are:

  1. Reform of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, focusing on three areas:
    • Doing away with the autonomic Spanish model. UPyD believes in a more centralized State, clearly defining which competences are unique of the State and which ones are delegated to the autonomous communities or municipalities. The party wants Spain to adopt a system of symmetric federalism[57] and wants to centralize the competences which concern about citizens' fundamental rights like education, health and justice among others[58] because it considers that the State of Autonomies is "elephantine", "politically unviable" and "economically unsustainable"[59] and, above all, because it creates inequalities across the whole country.[60][61] Concerning the economic charters of Navarra and the Basque Country, the abolition of all historical rights of the foral territories was approved at UPyD's first congress in 2009 by deeming them to be contrary to all Spanish people's equality.[62]
    • Improvement and reinforcement of individual rights and obligations, strictly defining the same for all Spanish citizens, without territorial, linguistic, ideological or religious inequalities. "Spain's unity" would be "the only instrument to ensure the equality of the whole of the Spanish citizenry".[63]
    • Deepening of the separation of powers, widening the autonomy of the judicial power from the executive and legislature ones, thereby consolidating the judiciary unity in the country and trying to ensure the independence of the Constitutional court, the Court of Accounts and regulatory organs with an economic nature from the executive power.
  2. Making Spain into a secular state, it backs a revision of the existing concordats with the Holy See, the self-financing of the Catholic Church and other religious denominations and the total separation between church and state.[64] UPyD only assures of its respect for "those religions which are compatible with the state of law", so the party despises Islam because of "women's stoning".[65] Accordingly, UPyD has supported the banning of Muslim headscarves (burqa and hijab) in all public spaces because it considers that "they're a form of women's subjugation to men within the Islamic religion".[66][67]
  3. Reform of the electoral Act in order to try to achieve each voter's equality regardless of his residence place and, therefore, to increase minority parties' representation, which are underrepresented with today's electoral system compared with those which represent most Spanish citizens (PP and PSOE). In 2008, Rosa Díez submitted a bill related to amend the Organic Act of the General Electoral Régime (LOREG) in the Congress of Deputies, which entailed increasing the MPs number from 350 to 400. From the total of 400 MPs, 1 would be elected per autonomous community and 1 per autonomous city, for a total of 52. Another 146 would be elected by autonomous communities, distributed in proportion to the population thereof. The remaining 200 parliamentary members would be elected in a single national character constituency. Furthermore, it proposed the elimination of the requirement to collect 0.1% of the constituencies electorate that nowadays the extra-parliamentary parties need to run for.[68] Later, UPyD added Hare quota as replacement for D'Hondt method.[69]
  4. Improvements in public education, promoting secularism and scientific investigation as well as eradicating language discrimination and ensuring the language freedom choice of all non-linguistic subjects at the Autonomous Communities which have a co-official language status whereas guaranteeing the bilingualism by being compulsory to learn the Spanish language and regional one through their corresponding subject of "Language and Literature".[70] Apart from in education, they reject the language discrimination dealing with the Administration and in all public services.[71][72]
  5. Changes in the democratic system: the possibility of introducing an open electoral list system, the direct election of those who will hold relevant personal offices (regional presidencies and mayoralties[73]) in a two-round system,[74] setting term limits on elected officeholders, and making the holding of public offices incompatible with private businesses. Moreover, the party suggests measures preventing post-electoral pacts and making more transparent political parties' funding and therefore improving their independence from great economic powers.
  6. Proceedings to tackle terrorism that put the emphasis on defeating ETA or any other terrorist organization, pursuing its funding channels and censoring its political justification. Consequently, UPyD wants to toughen the law of parties to outlaw the political groups Amaiur, Bildu, EH Bildu and Sortu because it considers they're ETA's political arm. It puts forward that they don't condemn ETA's terrorism and even justify it, for example, when they call imprisoned ETA's members "jailed politicians".[75][76]
  7. Economic and social measures promoting the Spanish economy development and correcting inequalities. According to its view, the State should improve workers' education, training and safety, bring about the internal market integration through infrastructures, favour the research and innovation in businesses and guarantee the economic freedom and competition.
  8. Higher immigration control: UPyD argues that the Spanish borders of Ceuta and Melilla have to be protected but dealing with sensitivity and humanity illegal immigrants.[77] The party believes that the Civil Guard should stop illegal immigrants and legally deport them to their origin countries or to the country from which they entered, without violating the human rights of thereof.[78] So, it's against the use of razor wires[79] and shooting rubber bullets as deterrents.[78] It also asks the European Union for a European action protocol to bring illegal immigration to a halt because it affects the whole of Europe.[78] Thus, it wants the European Commission to include Ceuta and Melilla at the European customs area so that the European Union can get definitely involved in the administration of European external borders in both cities.[80] As regards Europe, UPyD would like to strengthen the European Union's territorial integration.
  9. Environmental policy measures that make the technological and economic development compatible with the environment and biodiversity protection. Some examples of these measures are: the use of nuclear energy as an important part of the energy mix, which together with renewable energies, Spain should have,[81] the usage of the hydraulic fracturing,[82] the opposition to the coastline and sensitive natural areas destruction by urbanization or other abusive misuses, the scientific research of climate change and its possible corrective measures and the improvement of the legislature on the natural areas protection.
  10. Regarding abortion, UPyD would bet for a Limits Act, it proposes to decriminalize induced abortion until a fourteen-week provisional period in which any woman can freely abort.[83] The definitive limit would be established by a medical and scientific consensus based on the early detection of possible malformations. Beyond that period, UPyD only defends abortion in mother's death risk cases with the aim of conciliate the mother's right to a consenting maternity with the unborn person's juridical protection.[84] However, from party's point of view, abortion is always "a drama" and, hence, mustn't be considered a positive right. Therefore, it believes that secondary education has to tackle this issue at sex education area since an early age, thereby informing students of all existing contraceptives methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and fostering the notion that abortion should be avoided as much as possible.[85]

Funding

Shortly before the party's creation, on 13 December 2007 UPyD held a press conference headed by Rosa Díez, Mikel Buesa, and Fernando Savater in which it denounced "evidently unequal" treatment it received on the part of Spanish banks, which had denied the UPyD loans and recalled the debts of the other political parties with the banks, in addition to the great pardons made to these groups in the last few years. In this context, they explained, UPyD's activity was currently being funded thanks to membership fees and small donations, but they recognized that the party "could not continue this way" nor contest an election with such resources. For that reason, the leadership decided to start a funding system of personal loans, in the hope that citizens would commit themselves. This system consisted of selling personal loans to the value of 200, 500, and 1000 euros to fund the party's electoral campaign for the 2008 general elections after the refusal of financial institutions to bankroll the party. These bonds, which were to be issued to the total of somewhere between three to five million euros, could be purchased in the party offices, via the Internet, and via a free phone number. In addition, the party stated they would report the amount of the loans obtained and the state of its accounts. The party intends to return the money to citizens after the elections, thanks to the institutional funding received by parties with parliamentary representation.

Elections

Shortly after the party's foundation, the party's national spokesperson, Rosa Díez, won a seat in the general election of 2008. She was elected in Madrid Province with 3.74% of the vote. Other prominent candidates were the writer Álvaro Pombo for the Senate and Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, both of whom failed to win seats.

In 2009, the party gained representation in two other elections, the European Parliamentary election, and the Basque Regional Elections. Their MEP, Francisco Sosa Wagner, sat in the non-aligned group in the European parliament. In the Basque elections, Gorka Maneiro was elected to represent Álava.

In 2011, Luis de Velasco Rami and 7 other UPyD members were elected to the Madrid Assembly, with UPyD becoming the fourth largest party. In the 2011 local elections, the party won seats in cities such as Madrid, Burgos, Ávila, Granada, Alicante and Murcia.

In the 2011 general election, UPyD received the fourth largest number of votes, polling 1,143,225 (4.70%). Of the five seats the party won, four of them were in Madrid, won by Rosa Díez, Carlos Martínez Gorriarán, Álvaro Anchuelo and Irene Lozano. Another candidate was elected in Valencia Province, the actor Toni Cantó.

In the 2014 European Parliament Elections Francisco Sosa Wagner was reelected and UPyD won three extra seats for Maite Pagazaurtundua, Fernando Maura and Beatriz Becerra, consolidating their support in all Spain. The party's MEPs are set to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group.[86]

Criticism

In July 2009, party co-founder Mikel Buesa announced his resignation from UPyD denouncing the "authoritarian control" he claimed a group of persons in the party had attempted to impose.[87] Following the First Party Congress in November 2009, one hundred UPyD critics (among whom were four founders) left the party. They felt "tired and disappointed" with the "authoritarian" Rosa Díez and "lack of internal democracy".[88] By early 2010 the party had lost 40% of its membership in Catalonia,[89] considering the political party to be a fraud.[90]

Popular support and electoral results

Congress of Deputies

Election Congress of Deputies Government
# of
party votes
 % of
party vote
# of
seats won
+/–
2008 306,079 1.2 (#6)
1 / 350
New in opposition
2011 1,143,225 4.7 (#4)
5 / 350
Increase 4 in opposition

European Parliament

Election European Parliament
# of
party votes
 % of
party vote
# of
seats won
+/–
2009 451,866 2.9 (#5)
1 / 54
New
2014 1,022,232 6.5 (#5)
4 / 54
Increase 3

Local councils

Election Local councils
# of
party votes
 % of
party vote
# of
seats won
+/–
2011 464,824 2.1 (#5)
152 / 68,230
New

See also

Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (C's)

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ The official name in Spanish doesn't include a comma between "Unión" and "Progreso".

References

  1. ^ a b "UPyD alcanzó su cuota máxima de afiliación en 2011 con más de 6.600 miembros (spanish)". Europa Press. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Buck, Tobias (25 February 2014), "Spain's Popular party challenged by newcomers", Financial Times, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  3. ^ Could a pair of minority groups spell the end of Spain's two-party system? - El País
  4. ^ a b c "Parties and Elections in Europe, "Spain", The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck". Parties & Elections. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c UPyD. Ideology: centralism, social liberalism. Political Position: Centre- European Social Survey
  6. ^ a b Dorange 2013, p. 100«Partido españolista republicano, nacional y laico»
  7. ^ "Savater: "La educación es la única vía posible para salir de la crisis actual"". Laicismo.org. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  8. ^ Vidal & Jiménez Losantos 2012«cualquier acuerdo con UPyD, la única fuerza reformista española»
  9. ^ a b "How much is enough?". The Economist. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2011. «Mr Savater and Rosa Díez, a former Basque Socialist leader, have set up a new party of the radical centre called Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), in an effort to combine social liberalism with a defence of the idea of Spain» 
  10. ^ a b Azagra Ros & Romero González 2012, p. 120«más el radical-centrismo de UPyD»
  11. ^ (Spanish)«La abigarrada diversidad de nuestro ALDE nos revela no sólo la convivencia de nacionalistas de distinto signo, sino también de formaciones de ascendencia radical, como UPyD» - Simón Alegre (political scientist)
  12. ^ (Spanish)"Somos un partido radical y profundamente institucional, hay que transformar la política a fondo y de fondo desde las instituciones" - UPyD
  13. ^ «and a centralist and centrist party had emerged: UPyD» - Spanish Journal of Sociological Research
  14. ^ It’s two years ago today when Mariano Rajoy led the Partido Popular to an overall majority - Typically Spanish
  15. ^ The party is the most pro-European in Spain, and supports a federal Europe, which it sees as an important guarantor of individual rights - Demsoc Europe
  16. ^ "UPyD apuesta por "una unión política federal para Europa"". elcomercio.es. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  17. ^ Montero & Lago 2010, p. 361«Los resultados de este capítulo han mostrado que la movilización del nacionalismo español fue un mecanismo efectivo de competición con el PSOE, dado que consiguió movilizar el voto de nuevos votantes y antiguos abstencionistas. La estrategia caló de tal forma que UPyD, un nuevo partido creado pocos meses antes de la convocatoria electoral, consiguió entrar en el Congreso de los Diputados abanderando posiciones claras sobre la política antiterrorista y enfatizando la identidad nacional española»
  18. ^ a b Cabestan & Pavković 2013, p. 116«It condemns ETA violence and maintains a strong pro-Spanish nationalist orientation»
  19. ^ "UPyD is a (Spanish) nationalist party with a very critical stand with the way the process of devolution to the regions has evolved in Spain"- European Consortium for Political Research
  20. ^ Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio (October 23, 2007). "UPD, partido nuevo, viejos tópicos". El País. Retrieved October 23, 2014. «Esta tesis sobre "el derecho a permanecer unidos e iguales" es el pretexto para combatir el nacionalismo vasco y catalán no con argumentos, sino con una buena dosis de nacionalismo español. De ahí el silencio elocuente de los ideólogos de este partido sobre el renacido nacionalismo español de la derecha» 
  21. ^ Mallet, Victor (16 April 2011). "Centrist politician woos disenchanted Spaniards". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  22. ^ Cantalou, Julie (17 June 2013), The Spanish slump – political crisis and the need for institutional reform, Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  23. ^ Diez Challenging Spanish Politics, Voice of America, 27 May 2013, retrieved 28 May 2014 
  24. ^ http://www.upyd.es/contenidos/noticias/318/120170-Rosa_Diez_se_reune_hoy_con_el_presidente_del_Partido_de_Liberales_y_Democratas_por_Europa_Graham_Watson
  25. ^ Resultados provisionales- Eleccions Municiaples 2011, Ministry of the Interior, retrieved 29 May 2011
  26. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica 2014, p. 488«and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPD, 7.7%) on the centre-right»
  27. ^ Ugarriza & Caluwaerts 2014, p. 68.
  28. ^ Bel i Queralt 2012, p. XVII.
  29. ^ Field & Botti 2013, p. 10.
  30. ^ Ross, Richardson & Sangrador-Vegas 2013, p. 77.
  31. ^ Ştefuriuc 2013, p. XII.
  32. ^ Ministerio del Interior de España
  33. ^ Registro Oficial de Partidos Políticos, Ministerio del Interior de España
  34. ^ Ministerio del Interior de España, Elecciones Europeas 2009
  35. ^ Henderson, Karen; Sitter, Nick (2008), "Political Developments in the EU Member States", The JCMS Annual Review of the European Union in 2007 (Wiley): 196 
  36. ^ "browser – TPL_WARP_OUTDATEDBROWSER_PAGE_TITLE". sevillaactualidad.com. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  37. ^ "12 propuestas de UPyD | Europa federal". cadavotovale.es. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  38. ^ (Spanish)Mikel Buesa explicó el significado de la denominación del partido, "Unión porque somos un partido contra la disgregación política de la última legislatura y abogamos por la unión de España sin condiciones, Progreso porque somos un partido progresista de raíz liberal y socialdemócrata y, por otra parte, respetamos la libertad individual y de elección y Democracia porque es el sistema que alberga todas las identidades, podemos ser lo que queramos y lo podemos expresar libremente"Blog Aires de La Parra, across UPyD
  39. ^ (Spanish)La economía hace aguas por todos los lados, se ha aumentado la presión fiscal en un 2 % del PIBUPyD
  40. ^ (Spanish)Entrevista a Irene Lozano en La Noche en 24 horas (from 16 minute)RTVE
  41. ^ (Spanish)"Unión: defendemos la unidad de España. Progreso: somos progresistas y Democracia: somos demócratas radicales"Official UPyD's Twitter
  42. ^ 2008 Cortes Generales Election Results. Ministerio del Interior. 10 March 2008. Last Retrieved 10 April 2008. (Spanish)
  43. ^ Presentación (Spanish), Fundación Progreso y Democracia website, Retrieved 6 April 2014
  44. ^ Gobierno de España (20 November 2011). "Resultados de UPyD en las Elecciones Generales de 2011". Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  45. ^ "El llamativo ascenso de UPyD, región a región". La Voz Libre. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  46. ^ Muñoz Mendoza 2012, p. 65.
  47. ^ (Spanish)"UPyD ofrece entendimiento a través del transversalismo, que bien pueden servir sin necesidad de inclinarse a un lado o a otro, ya que todos tienen algo positivo que aportar y la formación magenta sabe bien sintetizar lo mejor de cada idea, ofreciendo un dulce cóctel al ciudadano" - UPyD
  48. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez abre las puertas del nuevo partido a la "derecha liberal" - Libertad Digital
  49. ^ Fernández-Savater Martín, Fernando (October 1, 2013). "Laicismo y lengua común". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved October 31, 2014. 
  50. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez presenta a UPyD como el partido del voto útil - La Voz de Galicia
  51. ^ (Spanish)«y avanzar hacia una auténtica democracia liberal igualitaria» - Political resolutions of UPyD's second congress
  52. ^ (Spanish)APUNTES SOBRE LIBERALISMO POLÍTICO. - UPyD
  53. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez asegura que hay suficientes ciudadanos descontentos como para conseguir hasta dos diputados nacionales por Burgos - Radio Arlanzón
  54. ^ (Spanish)"Somos un partido radical y profundamente institucional, hay que transformar la política a fondo y de fondo desde las instituciones" - UPyD
  55. ^ El día menos pensado - Rosa Díez: "Si fuera Rajoy hace tiempo que estaría negociando condiciones del rescate" - RTVE
  56. ^ (Spanish)3 perspectivas para analizar los resultados de las elecciones - Navarra Confidencial
  57. ^ (Spanish)«El federalismo de UPyD es simétrico porque todos los españoles somos iguales» - UPyD
  58. ^ (Spanish)"Las competencias de educación, sanidad y justicia deben volver a ser del Estado" - UPyD
  59. ^ (Spanish)Díez: "Tenemos un modelo de Estado elefantiásico, inviable e insostenible" - Libertad Digital
  60. ^ Magone 2009, p. 186.
  61. ^ (Spanish)UPyD denuncia el aumento de desigualdad en riqueza por habitante entre CCAA, con Extremadura y Euskadi en los extremos - Europa Press
  62. ^ “Suprimir la disposición adicional primera que consagra los derechos históricos de los territorios forales, por ser contrarios al valor superior de la igualdad que rige la Constitución y por consolidar una situación inaceptable de privilegio de unos españoles sobre otros, además de por pretender la existencia de derechos históricos anteriores a la Constitución, lo que es insostenible”Political resolutions of UPyD's first congress
  63. ^ (Spanish)Discurso de Rosa Díez en la sesión de investidura de José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero - Libertad Digital
  64. ^ (Spanish)UPyD propone y defiende la autofinanciación de la Iglesia Católica y del resto de confesiones religiosas - UPyD of the Basque Country
  65. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez y UPyD respetan "todas las religiones excepto las que lapidan mujeres" - Libertad Digital
  66. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez (UPyD), favorable a prohibir el velo islámico en espacios públicos - El Confidencial
  67. ^ (Spanish)UPyD critica la sentencia que avala el uso del burka en edificios municipales - Las Provincias
  68. ^ Montero & Riera 2010, p. 176.
  69. ^ (Spanish)Ignacio Prendes: "Proponemos la reforma electoral para que más ciudadanos se sientan representados en nuestro sistema político" - UPyD
  70. ^ (Spanish)Gorriarán: "Privar a un niño de una educación en lengua materna es un atentado contra sus derechos" - UPyD
  71. ^ (Spanish)UPyD planteará en el Congreso erradicar por ley la imposición lingüística - Libertad Digital
  72. ^ (Spanish)En defensa de la igualdad lingüística - UPyD
  73. ^ (Spanish)«la elección directa de los alcaldes o presidentes autonómicos, entre otras propuestas» - Europa Press
  74. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez recuerda que UPyD defiende la elección directa del alcalde en segunda vuelta - UPyD
  75. ^ (Spanish)UPyD pide reforzar la Ley de Partidos para que los que apoyan al terrorismo "no destruyan la democracia desde dentro" - UPyD
  76. ^ (Spanish)Maneiro: "Cuando EH Bildu se refiere a los presos de ETA como "presos políticos" está justificando a ETA" - UPyD of the Basque Country
  77. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez dice que Fernández Díaz se "escondió" detrás de la Guardia Civil - Libertad Digital
  78. ^ a b c (Spanish)Inmigración. UPyD reclama un protocolo europeo para contener la inmigración ilegal - Lainformación.com
  79. ^ (Spanish)UPyD critica que el Gobierno recoloque las cuchillas en la valla de Melilla, "crueldad gratuita que atenta contra DDHH" - Europa Press
  80. ^ (Spanish)UPyD exigirá a la UE que Ceuta y Melilla se incluyan en el espacio aduanero europeo - UPyD
  81. ^ (Spanish)Rosa Díez pide una «Garoña II» y el mantenimiento de la actual planta - Diario de Burgos
  82. ^ (Spanish)Gorriarán: "No se puede prohibir el 'fracking' si queremos una política energética racional" - UPyD
  83. ^ (Spanish)Carlos M. Gorriarán UPyD: "Aborto: no se puede imponer por ley una moral particular" - vidqt.com
  84. ^ (Spanish)Ni de izquierdas, ni de derechas - El País
  85. ^ (Spanish)Enmienda a la totalidad de UPyD al Proyecto de Ley Orgánica de salud sexual y reproductiva y de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. ABORTO - UPyD
  86. ^ "UPyD anuncia su integración en ALDE, que respetará la integridad territorial - Sabado". elconfidencial.com. 7 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  87. ^ "Mikel Buesa, fundador de UPyD, deja el partido por su 'autoritarismo'". El Mundo. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  88. ^ "Un centenar de críticos de UPyD abandonan el partidoSe confiensan "cansados y decepcionados" con el "autoritarismo" de Rosa Díez y por la "falta de democracia interna"". Público. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  89. ^ "Problemas para Rosa Díez – Un reguero de bajas deja tocada a UPyD en Cataluña en año electoral". El Semanal Digital. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  90. ^ "Un grupo de militantes catalanes de UPyD abandona el partidoCritican a Rosa Díez por "asfixiarles" y consideran que ha sido un "enorme fraude político"". Público. 21 January 2010. 

Bibliography

External links