Federal Protective Service (United States)

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Federal Protective Service
Common name Federal Protective Service
Abbreviation FPS
Patch of the Federal Protective Service.png
Patch of the Federal Protective Service.
Flag of the United States Department of Homeland Security.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Motto "Secure Facilities, Safe Occupants"
Agency overview
Formed 1971
Employees 2,100
Annual budget $615 million (est.) (2008)
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
United States
Legal jurisdiction Throughout the United States, 11 Regions Nationwide, U.S. Government Law Enforcement Interests
Governing body United States Government
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters Washington, DC
Sworn members 1,200 enforcement personnel
Agency executive Director, L. Eric Patterson, Director
Parent agency National Protection and Programs Directorate
Regional Office, various District Offices within each states 164 field offices nationwide
Website
http://www.dhs.gov/fps

The Federal Protective Service (FPS) is the security police division of the National Protection and Programs Directorate of the United States Department of Homeland Security.[citation needed] FPS is responsible for law enforcement and facility security for nearly 9,000 federally owned and leased buildings, courthouses, properties, and other federal assets and the personnel associated with those assets.[citation needed]

The FPS is a federal law enforcement agency[citation needed], and employs approximately 900 law enforcement officers.[citation needed] FPS provides integrated law enforcement and security services to U.S. Federal buildings, courthouses, and other properties administered by the General Services Administration (GSA) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).[citation needed] To support that mission, FPS contracts with private security firms to provide 15,000 contract security guards providing access control and security response within federal facilities throughout the nation.[citation needed] FPS also protects other properties as authorized and carries out various other activities for the promotion of homeland security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may prescribe, to include providing a uniformed police response to National Security Special Events, and national disasters.

The FPS (Federal Protective Service) was formerly a part of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement until October 2009, when it was transferred to the National Protection and Programs Directorate.[citation needed]

About the Federal Protective Service[edit]

The Federal Protective Service is a branch of the National Protection and Programs Directorate and a headquarters component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).[citation needed] As the police force of the Secretary of Homeland Security, FPS is responsible for policing, securing and ensuring a safe environment in which federal agencies can conduct their business.[citation needed] FPS does this by investigating threats posed against over 9,000 federal facilities nationwide.[citation needed]

FPS's work focuses directly on the interior security of the nation and the reduction of crimes and potential threats to federal facilities throughout the nation.[citation needed] Uniformed FPS officers/inspectors and special agents respond to calls for assistance, conduct investigations and provide crime prevention tips, as well as assist in occupant emergency planning.[citation needed]

All federal facilities under FPS control receive a thorough building security assessment on a recurring schedule.[citation needed] During this assessment representatives of all agencies in the facility are interviewed to gather information on the specific mission they perform within the facility, and intelligence and crime statistics for the area are reviewed, as are existing security countermeasures.[citation needed] Based on the findings and working with the agencies housed in the facility, security countermeasures are added or adjusted. This allows for tailored security for each individual facility versus a one-size-fits-all approach.[citation needed]

Services provided[edit]

FPS services include:

Training[edit]

Newly hired sworn FPS law enforcement personnel undergo initial entry training at the FPS Academy on the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia.[citation needed] Furthermore, following graduation, new FPS law enforcement officers undergo additional post academy training, as well as career-continuous training, and are assigned to an FPS office in one of eleven regions throughout the country.[citation needed] FPS law enforcement officers also undergo additional training, depending on their assignment to special units within the service.[citation needed]

Recent[edit]

A FPS SUV seen in 2010, an ICE shield is included in this vehicle's livery.

On October 28, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama, signed legislation which effectively transferred the Federal Protective Service from the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement to the National Protection and Programs Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security.[citation needed]

In 2009, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the Inspector General for the Department of Homeland Security issued reports that were highly critical of the Federal Protective Service for relying on low-wage contract personnel to provide security at federal buildings. See GAO-09-0859T and OIG-09-51. Both documented that the contractors lacked the necessary skills or training to handle their duties, which threatened the security of all federal employees and visitors. The GAO report made national headlines in July 2009 as it cited frequent lapses, including failure to prevent investigators from carrying weapons into several key federal installations. It also displayed a photograph of a contract security guard asleep at his guard post.

On 26 December 2007, President George W. Bush signed H.R. 2764 Omnibus spending bill into law which included a provision that FPS maintains, by July 31, 2008, not fewer than 1,200 full-time staff and 900 full-time Police Officers, Inspectors, and Special Agents who, while working, are directly engaged on a daily basis protecting and enforcing laws at Federal buildings.[citation needed] This amendment to H.R. 2674 was introduced by Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton and was successfully included in the bill and signed into law largely due to the efforts of the American Federation of Government Employees Local 918-FPS and the grassroots efforts of its membership.[citation needed]

Prior to H.R. 2764 a series of incidents on federal property across the country—including the theft of a trailer of surveillance equipment from an FBI parking deck—is being blamed on budget cuts at the agency told the chairman Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton on March 14, 2008. The service has seen its budget and staff cut since it became a part of the Department of Homeland Security in March 2003.[1]

History[edit]

Federal Protective Service vehicle.

The origins of FPS date to 1790, with the enactment of legislation authorizing President George Washington to appoint three commissioners to establish a federal territory for a permanent seat of federal government. Prior to the formal establishment of the seat of government, the commissioners hired six night watchmen to protect the designated buildings the government was intended to occupy. FPS traces its origins to the appointment of these six night watchmen.[citation needed]

FPS has resided in a number of different agencies over the years.[citation needed] The act of June 1, 1948, authorized the Federal Administrator to appoint special policemen for duty in connection with the policing of all buildings owned and occupied by the United States.[citation needed] In 1949, Congress enacted the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, which consolidated real property functions within the newly created General Services Administration.[citation needed] The FPS force, known at the time as the United States Special Police, came under the supervision of the Protection Division of the Public Building Service (PBS). In 1971, the Administrator of GSA signed an order formally establishing the Federal Protective Force, later known as FPS, and the Civil Service Commission authorized the special classification title of Federal Protective Officer (FPO).[citation needed]

Initially, the main function of FPS was protection, as an integral part of building operations.[citation needed] For the most part, the force held fixed posts and performed duties that would be considered safety functions today, such as: eliminating fire and safety hazards, patrolling buildings, detecting fires, and providing the first line of defense in fighting fires; and answering visitor questions, assisting citizens, rendering first aid, and directing traffic when necessary[citation needed]. By 1960, the mission of FPS became the first line of defense against bomb threats, bombings, vandalism, mass demonstrations, and violence against Federal buildings.[citation needed]

In 1980, Fidel Castro instigated a wave of emigration from Cuba to the United States using the harbor town of Mariel for debarkation.[citation needed] The thousands of refugees were eventually distributed to military installations in several states (Fort Chaffee, AR, Fort McCoy, WI, Fort Indiantown Gap, PA) and Puerto Rico to await permanent resettlement.[citation needed] The Immigration and Naturalization Service and Border Patrol were understaffed to provide civilian law enforcement officers needed to maintain order within the installations.[citation needed] The Federal Protective Service, then administratively placed under the General Service Administration’s Public Building Service, was among several federal authorities asked to provide additional on-site officers for the duration of the event. Federal Protective Officers from across the country frequently served in the camps, and also during the riot at Fort Chaffee.[citation needed]

More recently, the role of the FPS officer has undergone further changes.[citation needed] The FPS has shifted its emphasis from the fixed guard post concept of security to a mobile police patrol and response. FPS contracts private security companies to guard fixed posts.[citation needed] FPS officers perform all duties attendant to the normal interpretation of a police officer function including maintaining law and order, preventing or deterring disturbances, and investigating both felonies and misdemeanors. The Civil Service Commission developed standards for FPS applicants, which included background investigations, and physical examinations.[citation needed]

Pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, FPS was transferred to the Department of Homeland Security and retained its responsibilities for protecting the buildings, grounds, and property owned, occupied, or secured by the federal government under GSA's jurisdiction.[citation needed] In addition to GSA facilities, the Act also provides FPS with the authority to protect properties held by DHS components that were not under GSA jurisdiction. FPS was moved from GSA, Public Building Services, to DHS, effective March 1, 2003.[citation needed] Within DHS, FPS became a part of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). On October 28, 2009, President Barack Obama signed legislation which transferred FPS from ICE to the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Today, FPS is responsible for policing, securing, and ensuring a safe environment in which federal agencies can conduct business by reducing threats posed against approximately 9,000 Federal government facilities throughout the United States.[2]

Authority[edit]

FPS law enforcement personnel derive their law enforcement authority from Section 1315 of Title 40 (40 USC 1315) of the United States Code.[citation needed]

40 USC 1315: The Secretary may designate employees of the Department of Homeland Security, including employees transferred to the Department from the Office of the Federal Protective Service of the General Services Administration pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as officers and agents for duty in connection with the protection of property owned or occupied by the Federal Government and persons on the property, including duty in areas outside the property to the extent necessary to protect the property and persons on the property.[citation needed]

Powers. - While engaged in the performance of official duties, an officer or agent designated under this subsection may -

(A) enforce Federal laws and regulations for the protection of persons and property;

(B) carry firearms;

(C) make arrests without a warrant or in plain clothes for any offense against the United States committed in the presence of the officer or agent or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if the officer or agent has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony;

(D) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States;

(E) conduct investigations, on and off the property in question, of offenses that may have been committed against property owned or occupied by the Federal Government or persons on the property; and

(F) carry out such other activities for the promotion of homeland security as the Secretary may prescribe.[citation needed]

Labor organization[edit]

The American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) Local 918 is the exclusive representative of all bargaining unit eligible Federal Protective Service employees which includes non-supervisory Police Officers, Inspectors, Special Agents and support personnel.[citation needed]

Protective Investigations Program[edit]

The Protective Investigations Program was established in early 2004, to ensure the safety of DHS and FPS protectees and facilities. The objective of the program is to prevent an attack on persons and facilities designated as FPS protectees.[citation needed]

The program integrates the following aspects of the FPS mission: the initial patrol response by FPS uniformed police officers; full investigation by FPS special agents; prosecution by the U.S. Attorney's Office or State Prosecutor's Office; physical security enhancements and countermeasures; security briefings and workplace violence seminars administered by FPS law enforcement personnel; suspicious surveillance detection initiatives designed to detect pre-incident indicators of threats to federal employees, facilities and protectees; a monthly Operations Security Bulletin; and protection details for high-ranking officials within DHS. FPS Headquarters developed a Memorandum of Understanding, in collaboration with the U.S. Capitol Police, enabling the two entities to use each other's resources to effectively, efficiently and professionally respond to and investigate threats and inappropriate communications directed at members of Congress, their families and staff when outside the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area.

FPS collaborates with other components within ICE and has established liaisons with agencies having a protective and investigative mission such as the U.S. Secret Service—National Threat Assessment Center, the Social Security Administration (SSA), the U.S. Marshals Service, the FBI, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service and various state and local police agencies throughout the country.[citation needed]

FPS special agents have made arrests and conducted investigations of subjects charged with making inappropriate communications and threats to members of the U.S. Congress (House and Senate) and/or their staff, the director of Federal Emergency Management Agency, FPS Director, members of the military reserve, SSA, the Department of Veteran Affairs and other federal employees.[citation needed] Many of these investigations resulted in convictions for making threats to do physical harm and threats to bomb federal facilities. FPS special agents investigated threats delivered in person, via telephone, e-mail and U.S. Postal Service mail.[citation needed]

FPS special agents also oversee an outreach program designed to educate the community and tenant agencies and provide them with a point of contact to report suspicious behavior and incidents that threaten FPS protectees, facilities, and/or visitors.[citation needed]

Explosive Detection Dog Teams[edit]

The mission of the Explosive Detector Dog (EDD) Teams is the protection of life and property and providing a strong visible and psychological deterrence against criminal and terrorist acts. Prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the FPS had a minimal program of 10 EDD Teams located in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. Since that time, the FPS EDD program has expanded to more than 60 teams nationwide.[citation needed]

The EDD Teams conduct routine explosive searches of office areas, vehicles, materials, packages and persons housed in federally owned or leased facilities. The EDD Teams respond to bomb threats and suspicious packages or items and are used to assist in clearing identified areas.[citation needed]

Deployment[edit]

The FPS EDD Teams are deployed in their area of assignment as well as frequent deployment to National Special Security Events such as the Olympic games, the Republican and Democratic National Conventions, and the G-8 Summit. The EDD Teams provide their vital capabilities to state and local law enforcement authorities under emergency conditions when local EDD Teams are unavailable.[citation needed]

Training[edit]

The FPS Canine Training Academy is located in Fort McClellan, Alabama, and is conducted in partnership with the Auburn University Canine Detection Training Center. Each handler and respective canine attends the mandatory 10-week EDD Handler Training Course. The handlers and their canine partners graduate from the course as a team.[citation needed]

The EDD Teams are on call 24 hours a day and serve a crucial role as part of a greater network of first responders in a growing national network of federal task force officers.[citation needed]

Hazardous Response Program[edit]

The FPS Hazardous Response Program (HRP) was created to support the mission of FPS in response to credible chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and high yield explosive (CBRNE) threats or incidents.[citation needed]

HRP includes initial investigations of suspicious or threatening CBRNE incidents; completion of CBRNE threat assessments; confirmations of unauthorized presence of CBRNE agents and materials; and the conduction of emergency operations. HRP also provides: evacuation support during CBRNE incidents and some crazy training assistance. The program is compliant with OSHA and NFPA guidance and regulations. The HRP consists of five main elements: Awareness, Prevention, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery.[citation needed]

MegaCenters[edit]

In 2000, FPS transitioned all alarm monitoring and dispatching capabilities from several regional control centers to four MegaCenters. Currently, each MegaCenter monitors multiple types of alarm systems, closed circuit television, and wireless dispatch communications within federal facilities throughout the entire nation. The centers, located in Battle Creek, Michigan, Denver, Colorado, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Suitland, Maryland, are equipped with state-of-the-art communication systems and in operation 24 hours a day, seven days a week.[citation needed]

The centers are fully redundant—if there is a partial or catastrophic failure at one center, all operations can be remotely switched and monitored at a "peer" location without disruption to field service.[citation needed]

Vital communications link[edit]

While the MegaCenters are an alarm monitoring entity, they also serve as a unique and vital communications link between FPS law enforcement personnel on the street and contract Protective Security Officers (PSOs) located throughout the various facilities FPS protects.[citation needed] This vital communications link has been created as a result of the investment of millions of dollars to ensure effective communications and safety of FPS operations. The related alarm monitoring function for GSA and other federally owned and leased facilities provides a dedicated and specialized service to ensure prompt dispatch of law enforcement and emergency first responders to situations at those facilities nationwide. FPS MegaCenters are the 911 dispatch center for DHS.[citation needed]

National network[edit]

Presently, FPS MegaCenters have a national wireless communication network that uses a voice-over-internet protocol system that transmits over a wide-area network.[citation needed] This form of communication reduces recurring long line costs, ensures redundancy and is set up to provide fail over capability in the event of a scheduled or unscheduled outage. Considering the success of the FPS national wireless radio communication system, FPS is working with ICE and DHS to see if opportunities exist for FPS to extend this service to other DHS components.[citation needed]

The future[edit]

FPS is currently working on several projects that range from access control/Smart Card management to rapid deployment capabilities in disaster situations.[citation needed] FPS is continually evaluating cutting edge technology that can enhance its capabilities to protect the nation.[citation needed]

Home and Family Security[edit]

Federal Protective Service (FPS) protects federal buildings and the employees within them through measures such as risk assessment, security and surveillance support, and safety education.[citation needed] In addition, FPS performs several roles that assist the general public. One of these roles is to keep the public safe while in a federal building.[citation needed] This includes training federal building employees on what procedures to follow when a child is reported missing.[citation needed]

On April 30, of the year it was conceived, the Code Adam Act of 2003 became a law. The act is named in the memory of six-year-old Adam Walsh, whose abduction from a Florida shopping mall and murder in 1981 helped to bring child abduction to national attention.[citation needed]

The Code Adam Alert requires that the designated authority for a public building establish procedures for a child missing in a federal facility[citation needed]. On November 1 of 2003, the Department of Homeland Security Federal Protective Service (FPS) implemented a policy nationwide, establishing procedures for locating a missing child in federal facilities.[citation needed] The General Services Administration administers the program in both owned and leased federal facilities. Topics include home and family security, how to avoid rape and sexual assault, theft in the workplace, and travel security.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lawmaker: U.S. security agency faltering - CNN.com. Edition.cnn.com (2008-03-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  2. ^ Cost and duration of FPS transition were underestimated. FierceHomelandSecurity (2011-08-16). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.

External links[edit]

Official:

Others:

Media related to United States Federal Protective Service at Wikimedia Commons