USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)

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USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)
US Navy 110129-N-3885H-158 USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) is underway in the Atlantic Ocean.jpg
Career (U.S.)
Name: USS George H.W. Bush
Namesake: George H. W. Bush
Ordered: 26 January 2001
Awarded: 26 January 2001
Builder: Northrop Grumman Newport News[1]
Cost: $6.2 billion[2]
Laid down: 6 September 2003[1]
Sponsored by: Dorothy Bush Koch[1]
Christened: 7 October 2006
Launched: 9 October 2006
Commissioned: 10 January 2009[2]
Homeport: NS Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia
Motto: Freedom at Work
Nickname: Avenger
Status: Active in Commission
Badge: CVN-77 insignia.svg
General characteristics
Class & type: Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
Ronald Reagan subclass
Displacement: 102,000 long tons (114,000 short tons)[3]
Length: Overall: 1,092 feet (332.8 m)
Waterline: 1,040 feet (317.0 m)
Beam: Overall: 252 ft (76.8 m)
Waterline: 134 ft (40.8 m)
Draft: Maximum navigational: 37 ft (11.3 m)
Limit: 41 ft (12.5 m)
Propulsion: 2 × Westinghouse A4W nuclear reactors
4 × steam turbines
4 × shafts
260,000 shp (194 MW)
Speed: 30+ knots (56+ km/h; 35+ mph)
Range: Unlimited distance; 20-25 years
Complement: Ship's company: 3,200
Air wing: 2,480
Sensors and
processing systems:
SPS-48E 3-D air search radar
SPS-49A(V)1 2-D air search radar
SPQ-9B fire control radar
2 × SPN-46 air traffic control radars
SPN-43C air traffic control radar
SPN-41 instrument landing system radar
3 × Mk 91 NSSM guidance systems
3 × Mk 95 radars
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
SLQ-32A(V)4 Countermeasures suite
SLQ-25A Nixie torpedo countermeasures
Armament: 2 × Mk 29 ESSM launcher
2 × RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile
3 (or 4?) x Phalanx CIWS[4]
Armor: 2.5 in (64 mm) Kevlar over vital spaces[5]
Aircraft carried: 90 fixed wing and helicopters

USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is the tenth and final Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy.[1] She is named for the 41st President of the United States and former Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush, who was a naval aviator during World War II. Bush's callsign is Avenger, after the TBM Avenger aircraft flown by then-Lieutenant George Bush in World War II. Construction began in 2003[6] at the Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard's Dry Dock 12, the largest in the western hemisphere.[7] She was completed in 2009 at a cost of $6.2 billion[2] and her home port is Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.

Etymology[edit]

George H. W. Bush became the U.S. Navy's youngest pilot when he received his Naval Aviator wings and naval commission on 9 June 1943, three days before turning 19.[8] He flew torpedo bombers off USS San Jacinto on active duty from August 1942 to September 1945 during World War II. On 2 September 1944, during a mission over the Pacific, Japanese anti-aircraft fire hit his plane. The Navy submarine USS Finback rescued him. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and three Air Medals for courageous service in the Pacific Theater.

USS George H.W. Bush is the second United States aircraft carrier to be named after a naval aviator (Forrestal was the first) and the second, following Ronald Reagan, to be named after a living former president (Reagan was christened in 2001 while President Reagan was still living).

Ship's seal[edit]

Each element of the seal is significant for its relevance to the ship’s namesake, naval aviation, naval service, and the nation. There are six prominent features of the seal, beginning with the 41 white stars, symbolizing the ship’s namesake (the 41st President). The rays of light that appear on the seal’s horizon represent Bush’s concept of a "thousand points of light", wherein he urged Americans to find meaning and reward by serving a purpose higher than themselves. The graphic depiction of the aircraft carrier reflects the carrier as both a symbol and instrument of American strength as a force for freedom. Above the carrier are the overhead profiles of a TBM Avenger torpedo bomber (representing Bush’s days as a Navy pilot), an F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter, and an F-35C Lightning II, superimposed one upon the other in order of the individual aircraft's outline size.[9]

Fouled anchors and shields, centered on naval aviators wings, honor the ship’s namesake’s aviation history. Finally, the motto “Freedom at Work” is adapted from Bush’s inaugural speech, during which he said, “We know what works: Freedom works. We know what’s right: Freedom is right.”[9]

Description[edit]

Section ref: Global[10]

Bush stretches 1,092 feet and displaces over 100,000 tons, making her one of the world’s largest warships (though she is slightly shorter than USS Enterprise). Her top speed exceeds 30 knots; powered with two nuclear reactors, she can operate for more than 20 years without refueling.

Several features differentiate CVN-77 from other ships in the Nimitz class.[11]

Hull[edit]

New features include a bulbous bow design that provides more buoyancy to the forward end of the ship and improves hull efficiency, curved flight deck edges to reduce radar signature, a new underwater hull-coating system, deck covering modernized to reduce ship weight by 100 tons, low Solar Absorptive and Anti-Stain Paint, a less cluttered hangar bay, and a new propeller design.[12]

Island[edit]

Placing the 700-ton island onto the ship’s flight deck in 2006

Bush is the second carrier to have a modernized island, which includes a new radar tower (enclosed to reduce radar signature), navigation system upgrades, communication systems enhancements, and transparent armor windows. The island is smaller and has been repositioned farther aft to improve flight deck access and reduce signature and electronic self-interference.

Air operations[edit]

New air operations design features include an updated aviation-fuel storage and distribution system, semi-automated refueling and servicing with new deck locations to provide faster, more efficient aircraft pit stops, requiring fewer people, modernized aircraft launch and recovery equipment, and redesigned jet blast deflectors.

Environmental[edit]

Environmental upgrades have also been designed into the ship, including a vacuum collection/marine sanitation device (VC/MSD), a new marine sewage system that uses fresh water in lieu of sea water for lower maintenance costs. Many older ships in the U.S. Navy utilize a gravity-driven collection holding and transfer (CHT) system to handle sewage waste. Newer U.S. Navy ships, including now CVN-77, collect sewage waste by vacuum, allowing for greater flexibility in piping installation, smaller pipe sizes overall and reducing water consumption. The collection tanks of Bush were modified to accommodate both the VCHT (Vacuum CHT) equipment and the elements of a marine sanitization device to treat the waste prior to discharge. Bush is the first and only aircraft carrier in the U.S. Navy to combine the two technologies.

This new VC/MSD driven waste management system has, however, not been without problems. Reports began surfacing immediately after delivery in May 2009 of issues with the ship's toilet system. As of November, 2011, the entire system has gone down at least twice, rendering all 423 commodes in the ship's 130 heads inoperable, with many more incidents that have rendered either half of the ship, or sections of the ship, without operating sanitary facilities. In one ship-wide incident, a repair crew spent 35 non-stop hours attempting to return the system to working order. The system is said to suffer breakdowns when inappropriate materials such as feminine hygiene products are flushed down the toilets.[13] During a four-month maintenance period in dock in 2012, anti-clog measures were installed in the ship's toilet disposal systems.[14]

Electronics and communications[edit]

New electronics and communications technology, space rearrangement, operational procedure changes, advanced sensor technologies and maintenance systems have been incorporated to reduce manning costs. A new zonal electrical distribution system will keep problems from affecting other parts of the ship. Automated material movement devices, semi-autonomous, gravity compensated weapons handling devices, damage control automation systems and components have also been installed. Medical and dental equipment have been upgraded, integrated display screens in Damage Control Central have been modernized to improve data integration and display, and equipment in general shops has been modernized to improve productivity.

History[edit]

Pentagon naming ceremony in December 2002.

The contract to build CVN-77 was awarded to Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News on 26 January 2001. A naming ceremony was held on 9 December 2002 at Northrop Grumman Newport News, with Former President George H.W. Bush attending.[6][15] The Honorable Gordon R. England, Secretary of the Navy, presided at a ceremony.

Construction[edit]

The Keel Laying ceremony was on 6 September 2003,[6] with Former President George H. W. Bush serving as the keynote speaker. Former First Lady Barbara Bush also attended with their daughter, Dorothy Bush Koch, the ship's sponsor. The former President authenticated the keel by chalking his initials onto a metal plate. His initials were then welded onto the plate, which was permanently affixed to the ship.

USS George H. W. Bush shortly after being released from dry dock for the first time

The ship was modularly constructed, where large sections are assembled and then lifted into place using a large crane. Major milestones in the construction include the bow placement in March 2005, followed by the island placement on 8 July 2006.[6] The 700-ton island was lifted onto the flight deck in a ceremony called “stepping the mast,” which dates from antiquity and consists of placing coins or other items of significance under the step or bottom of a ship’s mast during construction. Since at least the construction of USS Constitution in the 1790s, this tradition has been passed on as a symbol of good luck for U.S. Navy ships. George H. W. Bush participated in the event, placing his naval aviator wings underneath the island during the ceremony.[citation needed]

George H.W. Bush was christened on 7 October 2006.[1] Former President George H. W. Bush attended the ceremony and became the first president in history to participate in the christening of his namesake ship. President George W. Bush also attended and honored his father during the ceremony as a special guest speaker. Other officials participating in the ceremony included Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of the Navy Donald Winter; Virginia Senators John Warner and George Allen, Virginia Gov. Tim Kaine, and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Michael Mullen.[citation needed]

Other construction milestones included catapult system testing on the ship's flight deck on 25 January 2008. Former President George H. W. Bush signaled the launch of two "dead loads" off the deck of the carrier. Dead loads are large, wheeled, steel vessels weighing up to 80,000 pounds, simulating the weight of actual aircraft.[16]

On 11 August 2008, the Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) crew moved aboard the ship, the first meals were served in the galley, the U.S. flag was raised on the fantail for the first time, and the first watches were set.[17]

Bush left Northrop Grumman Ship Building for the first time on 23 December 2008, proceeding a few miles down river to Norfolk Naval Station.

Part of the ship's steel was manufactured from re-forged steel made from the support columns hauled out of the Twin Towers wreckage.

Commissioning[edit]

Guests and U.S. Navy personnel at the commissioning ceremony on 10 January 2009
George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush depart the ship following the commissioning ceremony

USS George H.W. Bush was commissioned 10 January 2009 at Norfolk Naval Station[18] prior to her official delivery to the Navy. 15,000 people were in attendance including veterans of the USS San Jacinto, the ship George Bush served on during World War II. President George W. Bush delivered the principal address, George H.W. Bush set the first watch, and ship's sponsor Dorothy "Doro" Bush Koch gave the order to "man our ship and bring her to life!" A GM-built Grumman TBM Avenger like the one then-Lieutenant junior grade George Bush flew in World War II performed a fly-over. Northrop Grumman Corporation Builder's sea trials were completed on 16 February 2009, providing an opportunity to test systems, components and compartments at sea for the first time. The trials included high-speed runs and a demonstration of the carrier's other capabilities.[19] Following builder's trials, the ship underwent acceptance trials on 10 April 2009,[20] conducted by representatives of the U.S. Navy Board of Inspection and Survey, to test and evaluate the ship's systems and performance.

Delivery and shakedown[edit]

Bush was officially delivered to the Navy on 11 May 2009.[21]

The first fixed-wing flights were conducted on 19 May 2009 when F/A-18 Super Hornets from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland began flight deck certification, which tests a carrier's ability to conduct air operations.[22][23] On 26 May 2009, Former President George H.W. Bush and his daughter, Dorothy Bush Koch, flew aboard the carrier to observe flight operations during the ship's underway period in the Atlantic Ocean. USS George H.W. Bush successfully completed her first flight deck certification on that day.[24]

Bush returned to Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard on 18 June 2009 for post-delivery maintenance work, also known as the ship's post shakedown availability (PSA). A PSA is a typical availability in the early life of a carrier that allows the Navy and builder to resolve any items that came up during trials and delivery and make any last-minute changes and upgrades. Work includes the installation of a Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) handling system and a new fresh water purification system. Other changes include compartment reconfigurations, combat system and radar equipment upgrades, and minor repairs. The work was scheduled to last through early 2010.[25]

First deployment[edit]

The ship was assigned to Carrier Strike Group Two for her first deployment. Under the command of Rear Admiral Nora Tyson, George H.W. Bush, Carrier Air Wing Eight and the four ships of her group departed on her first deployment on 15 May 2011. They sailed across the Atlantic to Britain to participate in Exercise Saxon Warrior, held in the Western Approaches and culminating in a so-called 'Thursday War'.[26] She then moved towards Portsmouth, England on 27 May, anchoring adjacent to Stokes Bay through 31 May, because she was too large to enter the harbor, and the naval base did not have sufficient nuclear berths for the carrier to moor alongside.[26][27] The carrier arrived at Naples, Italy on 10 June 2011.[28]

On 23 August 2011, she made her 20,000th arrested fixed wing aircraft recovery (landing) while operating in the Arabian Sea during Operation Enduring Freedom flight operations. This milestone was accomplished by LCDR Chris R. Swanson who was flying an E-2C Hawkeye Airborne early warning and control aircraft assigned to VAW-124 (Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 124).[29]

The carrier returned to Norfolk on 10 December 2011, following a seven-month deployment supporting operations with the U.S. Navy's 5th and 6th fleets.[30]

2012–2013 operations[edit]

First unmanned UCAV drone carrier launch (14 May 2013)

On 25 July 2012, George H.W. Bush began its four-month overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard at Portsmouth, Virginia, included scheduled short-term technical upgrades.[31] On 1 December 2012, the George H.W. Bush completed its PIA maintenance cycle and began sea trials on 3 December 2012. After completing sea trials on 4 December 2012, the George H.W. Bush started its training and qualification cycle in preparation for the group's 2013 deployment.[32][33] During a two-week underway period beginning 14 January 2012, the Bush tested the MV-22 tilt-rotor aircraft from squadron VMX-22 as a potential carrier on-board delivery aircraft as well as operating mine-sweeping MH-53E helicopters from squadron HM-14.[33][34]

During another underway period, the George H.W. Bush conducted at-sea tests for X-47B unmanned drone in the Atlantic Ocean, including the first time that an unmanned drone has been catapulted off an aircraft carrier on the morning of 14 May 2013 (pictured).[35] On 17 May 2013, another first was achieved when the X-47B performed touch-and-go landings and take-offs on the flight deck of the Bush while underway in the Atlantic Ocean.[36] Also during this two-week underway period, the Bush tested a new torpedo self-defense system, as well as completed more than 115 launches and landings in assessing a new precision landing system, before returning to Norfolk on 24 May 2013.[37]

On 10 July 2013, an unmanned X-47B drone completed an arrested landing on the flight deck of the George H.W. Bush. The landing marks the first time any unmanned aircraft had completed an arrested landing on board an aircraft carrier operating at sea.[38] The drone subsequently completed a second successful arrested landing on the Bush, but it was diverted to the Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia after an issue was detected, requiring that a planned third landing to be aborted.[39] One of the drone's three navigational sub-systems failed, which was identified by the other two sub-systems. The anomaly was indicated to the mission operator, who followed test plan procedures to abort the landing. The Navy stated that the aircraft's detection of a problem demonstrated its reliability and ability to operate autonomously.[40] On 15 July 2013, in a fourth attempt, a X-47B drone failed to make a successful flight deck landing on board the George H.W. Bush due to "technical issues."[41]

2014[edit]

In late February 2014, the George H.W. Bush transited the Strait of Gibraltar on the way to a scheduled port stop in Piraeus, Greece, for a scheduled port visit.[42] On March 9, 2014, the carrier entered port in Antalya, in southern Turkey.[43] Some news sources had speculated that the ship's stay in the Mediterranean Sea would be extended as a result of the 2014 Crimean crisis, but this proved to not be the case with Carrier Strike Group 2 proceeding through the Suez Canal[44] On March 5, 2014, the USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) landed in southern Turkey, which is under 500 miles away from Crimea, amid developing tensions over Ukraine with Russia.[45]

On March 18, 2014, the USS George H.W. Bush was transiting the Suez Canal.

On March 23, 2014, the USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) officially turned over the watch to USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility conducting maritime security operations and supporting theater security cooperation efforts.

On June 14, 2014, the USS George H.W. Bush was ordered to the Persian Gulf to protect US interests in Iraq in light of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant takeover of several major cities in that country.

On August 8, 2014, two F/A-18F Super Hornets launched from the USS George H.W. Bush conducted an airstrike on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant artillery shelling the Kurdish city of Erbil.[46] The mission was launched in accordance with President Obama's announcement on the evening of August 7 that the US would begin airstrikes to protect US personnel and the Yazidis in the region from ISIS attacks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Future USS George H.W. Bush to Transit". Naval Sea Systems Command Public Affairs. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c "Aircraft Carrier Named the USS George H.W. Bush Commissioned". Fox News. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2009. 
  3. ^ Polmar, Norman (2004). The Naval Institute guide to the ships and aircraft of the U.S. fleet. Naval Institute Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-59114-685-8. 
  4. ^ "USS George HW Bush Project". USS George HW Bush (CVN 77) Aircraft Carrier, United States of America. Net Resources International/SPG Media LTD. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  5. ^ Fontenoy, Paul E. (2006). Aircraft carriers: an illustrated history of their impact. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-85109-573-5. 
  6. ^ a b c d Peña, Fabio. "USS GEORGE H.W. BUSH (CVN-77)". NavSource Naval History. NavSource Online: Aircraft Carrier Photo Archive. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  7. ^ "USS George HW Bush Project (Construction Photos)". USS George HW Bush (CVN 77) Aircraft Carrier, United States of America. Net Resources International/SPG Media LTD. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  8. ^ Ryder, Robert Randall "My War Chuck Downey Youngest Naval Aviator in WWII." Sea Classics, August 2013. "Off he went for training in Memphis, Tenn., before heading to Pensacola, Fla., for flight school, where he was commissioned as an Ensign in the U.S. Navy on July 16, 1943. Downey was the tender age of 18 years, 11 months and 14 days when he earned his wings."
  9. ^ a b "The Ship's Seal". USS George H. W. Bush (CVN77). United States Navy. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  10. ^ Pike, John. "CVN-77 – George H.W. Bush". Global Security. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "Design Enhancements". Retrieved 3 July 2009. 
  12. ^ "Northrop Grumman Delivers Final Nimitz-Class Aircraft Carrier to the U.S. Navy". Globe Newswire. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Carrier Bush suffers widespread toilet outages – Navy News | News from Afghanistan & Iraq". Navy Times. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  14. ^ Shapiro, Michael Welles, "Naval Shipyard Tackles Toilet Clogs On The Bush While Ship Is In For Repairs", Newport News Daily Press, 29 September 2012
  15. ^ Maritime Quest, USS George H. W. Bush CVN-77
  16. ^ "Carrier's Namesake Tests Catapult". News.navy.mil. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  17. ^ Bailey, Nathan A. (13 August 2008). "PCU Bush Celebrates In-Service Day, Moves Aboard". News.navy.mil. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  18. ^ Jones, Matthew (10 January 2009). "Carrier awaits a call to come to life in ceremony today". The Virginian Pilot (Landmark Communications). Retrieved 10 January 2009. 
  19. ^ "Northrop Grumman Completes Builder's Sea Trials for USS George H. W. Bush (CVN 77)". Globe Newswire. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  20. ^ "Navy's Newest Carrier Successfully Completes Acceptance Sea Trials". United States Navy. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009. 
  21. ^ "Navy Takes Delivery of Aircraft Carrier George H.W. Bush". Navy.mil. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Navy's Newest Aircraft Carrier Lands First Aircraft". Navy.mil. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "USS George H.W. Bush CVN 77". Uscarriers.net. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  24. ^ "Bush Certified for Flight Ops". News.navy.mil. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Northrop Grumman Awarded PSA Contract for USS George H. W. Bush". Globe Newswire. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  26. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  27. ^ McMichael, William H., "Carrier Bush set for first overseas deployment", Military Times, 10 May 2011.
  28. ^ Ziezulewicz, Geoff, "Navy's newest carrier reaches Naples during first deployment", Stars and Stripes, 11 June 2011.
  29. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class (SW) Timothy Walter, USN (24 August 2011). "USS George H.W. Bush Completes 20,000th Arrested Landing". NNS110824-20. USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) Public Affairs. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  30. ^ "George H.W. Bush Carrier Strike Group Returns from Deployment". NNS111210-06. USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) Public Affairs. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  31. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Samantha Thorpe, USN (26 July 2012). "CVN 77 Begins Planned Incremental Availability". NNS120726-09. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-08-01.  and Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Samantha Thorpe, USN (24 August 2012). "CVN 77 Starts Planned Incremental Availability". NNS120824-02. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-10-01. 
  32. ^ Mass Communication Specialist Margaret Keith, USN (3 December 2012). "CVN 77 Departs Shipyard On Time". NNS121203-03. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-12-05.  and Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Samantha Thorpe, USN (3 December 2012). "CVN 77 Back To Sea For Trials". NNS120726-09. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2012-12-05. 
  33. ^ a b "USS George H.W. Bush CVN-77". 2012-2013 History. USCarrier.net. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  34. ^ Richard Whittle (February 5, 2013). "It's Great Time To Run V-22 Osprey Program; POTUS Duty, Multiyear, Safety". Sea. AOL Defense. Retrieved 2013-02-06. "Ospreys from VMX-22, the Marine Corps test squadron, were operating from the USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) the weekend of Jan. 26-27, carrying cargo and passengers to and from the big deck flattop in a demonstration of the V-22's ability to operate either as part of a carrier's cyclic air operation or, as helicopters do, outside it..." 
  35. ^ "Navy launches unmanned aircraft from deck of aircraft carrier for 1st time". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 May 2013. [dead link]
  36. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Brandon Vinson, USN (May 17, 2013). "X-47B Accomplishes First Ever Carrier Touch and Go aboard CVN 77". NNS130517-15. USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-05-17. "The Navy's X-47B Unmanned Combat Air System Demonstrator (UCAS-D) has begun touch and go landing operations aboard the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) May 17." 
  37. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Derrik Noack, USN (May 24, 2013). "USS George H.W. Bush Completes Historic Underway". NNS130524-11. USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  38. ^ Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Brandon Vinson (July 10, 2013). "X-47B Makes First Arrested Landing at Sea". NNS130710-06. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  39. ^ "Glitch forces Navy drone to abort carrier landing". The Virginian-Pilot. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  40. ^ "Navy: Glitch in X-47B Test Only Proves Unmanned Aircraft’s Reliability". National Defense. 11 July 2013. 
  41. ^ Christopher P. Cavas (July 16, 2013). "X-47B Fails Fourth Landing Attempt". Navy Times. Gannett Company. Retrieved July 16, 2013. "The aircraft developed technical issues while in flight from Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Md., to the ship and officials decided to abort the attempt before the X-47B reached the vicinity of the carrier, steaming off the U.S. east coast." 
  42. ^ "USS George H.W. Bush arrives in Greece". Navy Times (Gannett Company). March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2013. 
  43. ^ Jeffrey Madlangbayan (9 Mar 2014). "USS George H.W. Bush Arrives in Turkey". United States Navy. Retrieved 13 Mar 2014. 
  44. ^ "USS George H.W Bush departs to Mediterranean". www.stripes.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  45. ^ An American Flattop Is Just 500 Miles From Crimea — War is Boring — Medium
  46. ^ "U.S Engages in Air-Strikes". news.yahoo.com. Robert Burns. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 

External links[edit]