USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)
|Name:||USS George H.W. Bush|
|Namesake:||George H. W. Bush|
|Ordered:||26 January 2001|
|Awarded:||26 January 2001|
|Builder:||Northrop Grumman Newport News|
|Laid down:||6 September 2003|
|Sponsored by:||Dorothy Bush Koch|
|Christened:||7 October 2006|
|Launched:||9 October 2006|
|Commissioned:||10 January 2009|
|Homeport:||NS Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia|
|Motto:||Freedom at Work|
|Status:||in active service, as of 2013[update]|
|Class & type:||Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
Ronald Reagan subclass
|Displacement:||102,000 long tons (114,000 short tons)|
|Length:||Overall: 1,092 feet (332.8 m)
Waterline: 1,040 feet (317.0 m)
|Beam:||Overall: 252 ft (76.8 m)
Waterline: 134 ft (40.8 m)
|Draft:||Maximum navigational: 37 ft (11.3 m)
Limit: 41 ft (12.5 m)
|Propulsion:||2 × Westinghouse A4W nuclear reactors
4 × steam turbines
4 × shafts
260,000 shp (194 MW)
|Speed:||30+ knots (56+ km/h; 35+ mph)|
|Range:||Unlimited distance; 20-25 years|
|Complement:||Ship's company: 3,200
Air wing: 2,480
|SPS-48E 3-D air search radar
SPS-49A(V)1 2-D air search radar
SPQ-9B fire control radar
2 × SPN-46 air traffic control radars
SPN-43C air traffic control radar
SPN-41 instrument landing system radar
3 × Mk 91 NSSM guidance systems
3 × Mk 95 radars
|SLQ-32A(V)4 Countermeasures suite
SLQ-25A Nixie torpedo countermeasures
|Armament:||2 × Mk 29 ESSM launcher
2 × RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile
3 (or 4?) x Phalanx CIWS
|Armor:||2.5 in (64 mm) Kevlar over vital spaces|
|Aircraft carried:||90 fixed wing and helicopters|
USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is the tenth and final Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy. She is named for the 41st President of the United States and former Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush, who was a naval aviator during World War II. Bush's callsign is Avenger, after the TBM Avenger aircraft flown by then-Lieutenant George Bush in World War II. Construction began in 2003 at the Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard's Dry Dock 12 (the largest in the western hemisphere) and was completed in 2009 at a cost of $6.2 billion. She is homeported at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.
Each element of the seal is significant for its relevance to the ship’s namesake, naval aviation, naval service, and the nation. There are six prominent features of the seal, beginning with the 41 white stars, symbolizing the ship’s namesake (the 41st President). The rays of light that appear on the seal’s horizon represent Bush’s concept of a "thousand points of light", wherein he urged Americans to find meaning and reward by serving a purpose higher than themselves. The graphic depiction of the aircraft carrier reflects the carrier as both a symbol and instrument of American strength as “a force for good.” Above the carrier are the overhead profiles of a TBM Avenger torpedo bomber (representing Bush’s days as a Navy pilot), an F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter, and an F-35C Lightning II, superimposed one upon the other in order of the individual aircraft's outline size.
Fouled anchors and shields, centered on naval aviators wings, honor the ship’s namesake’s aviation history. Finally, the motto “Freedom at Work” is adapted from Bush’s inaugural speech, during which he said, “We know what works: Freedom works. We know what’s right: Freedom is right.”
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2012)|
- Section ref: Global
Bush stretches 1,092 feet and displaces over 100,000 tons, making her one of the world’s largest warships (though she is slightly shorter than USS Enterprise). Her top speed exceeds 30 knots; powered with two nuclear reactors, she can operate for more than 20 years without refueling.
Several features differentiate CVN-77 from other ships in the Nimitz class.
New features include a bulbous bow design that provides more buoyancy to the forward end of the ship and improves hull efficiency, curved flight deck edges to reduce radar signature, a new underwater hull-coating system, deck covering modernized to reduce ship weight by 100 tons, low Solar Absorptive and Anti-Stain Paint, a less cluttered hangar bay, and a new propeller design.
Bush is the second carrier to have a modernized island, which includes a new radar tower (enclosed to reduce radar signature), navigation system upgrades, communication systems enhancements, and transparent armor windows. The island is smaller and has been repositioned farther aft to improve flight deck access and reduce signature and electronic self-interference.
New air operations design features include an updated aviation-fuel storage and distribution system, semi-automated refueling and servicing with new deck locations to provide faster, more efficient aircraft pit stops, requiring fewer people, modernized aircraft launch and recovery equipment, and redesigned jet blast deflectors.
Environmental upgrades have also been designed into the ship, including a vacuum collection/marine sanitation device (VC/MSD), a new marine sewage system that uses fresh water in lieu of sea water for lower maintenance costs. Many older ships in the U.S. Navy utilize a gravity-driven collection holding and transfer (CHT) system to handle sewage waste. Newer US Navy ships, including now CVN-77, collect sewage waste by vacuum, allowing for greater flexibility in piping installation, smaller pipe sizes overall and reducing water consumption. The collection tanks of Bush were modified to accommodate both the VCHT (Vacuum CHT) equipment and the elements of a marine sanitization device to treat the waste prior to discharge. Bush is the first and only aircraft carrier in the U.S. Navy to combine the two technologies.
This new VC/MSD driven waste management system has, however, not been without problems. Reports began surfacing immediately after delivery in May 2009 of issues with the ship's toilet system. As of November, 2011, the entire system has gone down at least twice, rendering all 423 commodes in the ship's 130 heads inoperable, with many more incidents that have rendered either half of the ship, or sections of the ship, without operating sanitary facilities. In one ship-wide incident, a repair crew spent 35 non-stop hours attempting to return the system to working order. The system is said to suffer breakdowns when inappropriate materials such as feminine hygiene products are flushed down the toilets. During a four-month maintenance period in dock in 2012, anti-clog measures were installed in the ship's toilet disposal systems.
Electronics and communications
New electronics and communications technology, space rearrangement, operational procedure changes, advanced sensor technologies and maintenance systems have been incorporated to reduce manning costs. A new zonal electrical distribution system will keep problems from affecting other parts of the ship. Automated material movement devices, semi-autonomous, gravity compensated weapons handling devices, damage control automation systems and components have also been installed. Medical and dental equipment have been upgraded, integrated display screens in Damage Control Central have been modernized to improve data integration and display, and equipment in general shops has been modernized to improve productivity.
George H. W. Bush became the Navy's youngest pilot when he received his Naval Aviator wings and naval commission on 9 June 1943, three days before turning 19. He flew torpedo bombers off USS San Jacinto on active duty from August 1942 to September 1945 during World War II. On 2 September 1944, during a mission over the Pacific, Japanese anti-aircraft fire hit his plane. The Navy submarine USS Finback rescued him. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and three Air Medals for courageous service in the Pacific Theater.
USS George H.W. Bush is the second United States aircraft carrier to be named after a naval aviator (Forrestal was the first) and the second, following Ronald Reagan, to be named after a living former president (Reagan was christened in 2001 while President Reagan was still living).
The contract to build CVN-77 was awarded to Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News on 26 January 2001. A naming ceremony was held on 9 December 2002 at Northrop Grumman Newport News, with Former President George H.W. Bush attending. The Honorable Gordon R. England, Secretary of the Navy, presided at a ceremony.
The Keel Laying ceremony was on 6 September 2003, with Former President George H. W. Bush serving as the keynote speaker. Former First Lady Barbara Bush also attended with their daughter, Dorothy Bush Koch, the ship's sponsor. The former President authenticated the keel by chalking his initials onto a metal plate. His initials were then welded onto the plate, which was permanently affixed to the ship.
The ship was modularly constructed, where large sections are assembled and then lifted into place using a large crane. Major milestones in the construction include the bow placement in March 2005, followed by the island placement on 8 July 2006. The 700-ton island was lifted onto the flight deck in a ceremony called “stepping the mast,” which dates from antiquity and consists of placing coins or other items of significance under the step or bottom of a ship’s mast during construction.
Since at least the construction of USS Constitution in the 1790s, this tradition has been passed on as a symbol of good luck for U.S. Navy ships. George H. W. Bush participated in the event, placing his naval aviator wings underneath the island during the ceremony.
George H.W. Bush was christened on 7 October 2006. Former President George H. W. Bush attended the ceremony and became the first president in history to participate in the christening of his namesake ship. President George W. Bush also attended and honored his father during the ceremony as a special guest speaker. Other officials participating in the ceremony included Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of the Navy Donald Winter; Virginia Senators John Warner and George Allen, Virginia Gov. Tim Kaine, and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Michael Mullen.
Other construction milestones included catapult system testing on the ship's flight deck on 25 January 2008. Former President George H. W. Bush signaled the launch of two "dead loads" off the deck of the carrier. Dead loads are large, wheeled, steel vessels weighing up to 80,000 pounds, simulating the weight of actual aircraft.
On 11 August 2008, the Pre-Commissioning Unit (PCU) crew moved aboard the ship, the first meals were served in the galley, the U.S. flag was raised on the fantail for the first time, and the first watches were set.
Bush left Northrop Grumman Ship Building for the first time on 23 December 2008, proceeding a few miles down river to Norfolk Naval Station.
Part of the ship's steel was manufactured from re-forged steel made from the support columns hauled out of the Twin Towers wreckage.
USS George H.W. Bush was commissioned 10 January 2009 at Norfolk Naval Station prior to her official delivery to the Navy. 15,000 people were in attendance including veterans of the USS San Jacinto, the ship George Bush served on during World War II. President George W. Bush delivered the principal address, George H.W. Bush set the first watch, and ship's sponsor Dorothy "Doro" Bush Koch gave the order to "man our ship and bring her to life!" A GM-built Grumman TBM Avenger like the one then-Lieutenant junior grade George Bush flew in World War II performed a fly-over. Northrop Grumman Corporation Builder's sea trials were completed on 16 February 2009, providing an opportunity to test systems, components and compartments at sea for the first time. The trials included high-speed runs and a demonstration of the carrier's other capabilities. Following builder's trials, the ship underwent acceptance trials on 10 April 2009, conducted by representatives of the U.S. Navy Board of Inspection and Survey, to test and evaluate the ship's systems and performance.
Delivery and shakedown
Bush was officially delivered to the Navy on 11 May 2009.
The first fixed-wing flights were conducted on 19 May 2009 when F/A-18 Super Hornets from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland began flight deck certification, which tests a carrier's ability to conduct air operations. On 26 May 2009, Former President George H.W. Bush and his daughter, Dorothy Bush Koch, flew aboard the carrier to observe flight operations during the ship's underway period in the Atlantic Ocean. USS George H.W. Bush successfully completed her first flight deck certification on that day.
Bush returned to Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard on 18 June 2009 for post-delivery maintenance work, also known as the ship's post shakedown availability (PSA). A PSA is a typical availability in the early life of a carrier that allows the Navy and builder to resolve any items that came up during trials and delivery and make any last-minute changes and upgrades. Work includes the installation of a Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) handling system and a new fresh water purification system. Other changes include compartment reconfigurations, combat system and radar equipment upgrades, and minor repairs. The work was scheduled to last through early 2010.
The ship was assigned to Carrier Strike Group Two for her first deployment. Under the command of Rear Admiral Nora Tyson, George H.W. Bush, Carrier Air Wing Eight and the four ships of her group departed on her first deployment on 15 May 2011. They sailed across the Atlantic to Britain to participate in Exercise Saxon Warrior, held in the Western Approaches and culminating in a so-called 'Thursday War'. She then moved towards Portsmouth, England on 27 May, anchoring adjacent to Stokes Bay through 31 May, because she was too large to enter the harbor, and the naval base did not have sufficient nuclear berths for the carrier to moor alongside. The carrier arrived at Naples, Italy on 10 June 2011.
On 23 August 2011, she made her 20,000th arrested fixed wing aircraft recovery (landing) while operating in the Arabian Sea during Operation Enduring Freedom flight operations. This milestone was accomplished by LCDR Chris R. Swanson who was flying an E-2C Hawkeye Airborne early warning and control aircraft assigned to VAW-124 (Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 124).
The carrier returned to Norfolk on 10 December 2011, following a seven-month deployment supporting operations with the U.S. Navy's 5th and 6th fleets.
On 25 July 2012, George H.W. Bush began its four-month overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard at Portsmouth, Virginia, included scheduled short-term technical upgrades. On 1 December 2012, the George H.W. Bush completed its PIA maintenance cycle and began sea trials on 3 December 2012. After completing sea trials on 4 December 2012, the George H.W. Bush started its training and qualification cycle in preparation for the group's 2013 deployment. During a two-week underway period beginning 14 January 2012, the Bush tested the MV-22 tilt-rotor aircraft from squadron VMX-22 as a potential carrier on-board delivery aircraft as well as operating mine-sweeping MH-53E helicopters from squadron HM-14.
During another underway period, the George H.W. Bush conducted at-sea tests for X-47B unmanned drone in the Atlantic Ocean, including the first time that an unmanned drone has been catapulted off an aircraft carrier on the morning of 14 May 2013 (pictured). On 17 May 2013, another first was achieved when the X-47B performed touch-and-go landings and take-offs on the flight deck of the Bush while underway in the Atlantic Ocean. Also during this two-week underway period, the Bush tested a new torpedo self-defense system, as well as completed more than 115 launches and landings in assessing a new precision landing system, before returning to Norfolk on 24 May 2013.
On 10 July 2013, an unmanned X-47B drone completed an arrested landing on the flight deck of the George H.W. Bush. The landing marks the first time any unmanned aircraft had completed an arrested landing on board an aircraft carrier operating at sea. The drone subsequently completed a second successful arrested landing on the Bush, but it was diverted to the Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia after an issue was detected, requiring that a planned third landing to be aborted. One of the drone's three navigational sub-systems failed, which was identified by the other two sub-systems. The anomaly was indicated to the mission operator, who followed test plan procedures to abort the landing. The Navy stated that the aircraft's detection of a problem demonstrated its reliability and ability to operate autonomously. On 15 July 2013, in a fourth attempt, a X-47B drone failed to make a successful flight deck landing on board the George H.W. Bush due to "technical issues."
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- Richard Whittle (February 5, 2013). "It's Great Time To Run V-22 Osprey Program; POTUS Duty, Multiyear, Safety". Sea. AOL Defense. Retrieved 2013-02-06. "Ospreys from VMX-22, the Marine Corps test squadron, were operating from the USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) the weekend of Jan. 26-27, carrying cargo and passengers to and from the big deck flattop in a demonstration of the V-22's ability to operate either as part of a carrier's cyclic air operation or, as helicopters do, outside it..."
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- Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Derrik Noack, USN (May 24, 2013). "USS George H.W. Bush Completes Historic Underway". NNS130524-11. USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Brandon Vinson (July 10, 2013). "X-47B Makes First Arrested Landing at Sea". NNS130710-06. USS George H.W. Bush Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to USS George H. W. Bush (CVN-77).|
- Official Navy homepage for CVN-77
- U.S. Navy, USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) Story Archive
- USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) News – U.S. Navy
- GlobalSecurity.org, CVN-77 – George H.W. Bush
- Shipyard: CVN 77 section of the Northrop Grumman Newport News site
- Crew: The Navy's Pre-Commissioning Unit for CVN 77
- Global Security's entry for CVN 77
- 1998 Article "Front Loading the CVN 77..." which analyzes how the DoD's changes to initial funding affect long range savings in procurement
- A video on how the CVN-77 was made.
- USS George H.W. Bush history at U.S. Carriers
- CSPAN video of the Ship's Commissioning Ceremony[dead link]