USS Lejeune (AP-74)

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USS Lejeune (AP 74).jpg
Career (Germany) Merchant Navy Flag of Nazi Germany
Name: TS Windhuk
Operator: Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie[1]
Port of registry: Bremen
Builder: Blohm & Voss, (Germany)
Christened: TS Windhuk
Completed: 1936[1]
Fate: Interned in Brazil August 1942
Career (USA)
Name: USS Lejeune (AP-74)
Namesake: USMC General John Archer Lejeune
Operator: United States Navy
Acquired: 12 August 1942
Commissioned: 12 May 1944
Decommissioned: 9 February 1948
Struck: July 1957
Fate: Scrapped at Portland, Oregon 16 August 1966
General characteristics
Displacement: 16,662 long tons (18,661 short tons; 16,929 t)[1]
Length: 578 ft (176 m)[2]
Beam: 72 ft 2 in (22.00 m)
Draft: 26 ft (7.9 m)
Installed power: 14,000 SHP[1]
Propulsion: 6 team turbines, twin screw[2] (1936-42)
Speed: 18 knots (33 km/h)[1]
Troops: 4,650
Complement: 501
Armament: 1 x 5"/38 caliber dual purpose gun
4 x 3"/50 caliber dp guns
8 x 40mm guns
13 x 20mm guns

USS Lejeune (AP-74)[3] was a German cargo liner that was converted to a US Navy troop transport during the Second World War. Her original name was TS (Turbine Ship) Windhuk.

Civilian liner[edit]

Windhuk was built at the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg, Germany and completed in 1936. She was one of a pair of sister ships completed that year for Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie: the other being TS Pretoria.

In peacetime Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie operated Windhuk mainly between Hamburg, South-West Africa and South Africa. Reports that she operated as a German raider in the Second World War are said to be false.[4] (Her sister ship, SS Pretoria, later served as a German hospital ship during the closing stages of the War.)

Internment in Brazil[edit]

After the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, Windhuk evaded the Royal Navy for two months and then took refuge in harbour at Santos, São Paulo, Brazil on 7 December 1939.

Windhuk was still in Santos in 22 August 1942 when Brazil broke ties with Germany and interned the ship. When her crew learned that she was to be interned, they sabotaged most of her machinery. They poured concrete into the main turbine engines. They drained the boilers of water and then lit the furnaces, which melted the boilers beyond repair. They cut her main shafts and bearings with high temperature metal cutting torches. They damaged all electric generators, refrigeration equipment, steering gear, small motors, etc. beyond repair. However, they made no attempt to scuttle the ship.[5]

Windhuk remained in Santos until January 1943 when she was towed to Rio de Janeiro for repairs.

In 1942 the US Government bought Windhuk from Brazil and sent two hundred US Navy personnel to Brazil to fit her with a new diesel engine. The work was not completed until March 1943, when she made a thirty-day voyage to Norfolk, Virginia for further work and conversion to a troopship.

When she arrived in Norfolk, she had been stripped of most of her elegant furnishings such as mahogany and teak wood paneling. She was refitted as a troop transport, which took about a year to rectify all the sabotage by the German crew.[5] While at Norfolk she was named USS Lejeune (AP-74), after USMC General John Archer Lejeune.

Transatlantic troop ship[edit]

Lejeune was fully commissioned in April or May 1944. On 11 June 1944, she began her wartime service in her new role as a US Navy troop transport with a voyage from Norfolk to Glasgow, Scotland with 4,460 soldiers aboard. Her troop capacity would later be increased to 4,650. Beginning on 12 July, she then made a trip from New York to Glasgow, with 207 officers and 4,307 Navy personnel. In December, she made an Atlantic crossing with elements of the 69th Infantry Division, which was destined to meet Soviet troops on the banks of the Elbe River deep within Germany five months later, in April 1945.

Lejeune made a total of ten round-trip transatlantic crossings before the end of the war, and a further nine crossings were made to the United Kingdom, France or Africa in the months immediately after, until she returned to Norfolk 9 May 1946 for overhaul.

Postwar troop service[edit]

On 28 September 1946 Lejeune resumed service. From 19 October 1946 to 1 August 1947, she made a total of four trips to the Pacific, from San Francisco to Shanghai and Tsingtao, China, and to Yokosuka, Japan. She then sailed back to New York, reaching her destination 29 August, and from there returned to San Francisco 25 September.

Decommissioning[edit]

USS Lejeune departed San Francisco for Bremerton, Washington on 2 October 1947, where she was decommissioned 9 February 1948 and placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet at Tacoma, Washington. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register in July 1957 and scrapped at Portland, Oregon 16 August 1966. Her ship's bell however was preserved, and in 1971 it was mounted on the flagstaff at Marine Base HQ Camp Lejeune.

During her US Navy career Lejeune transported more than 100,000 troops.

German former crew[edit]

During internment in Brazil, the crew was interned (in stables converted into internment camps) in small towns far inland.[6] They were used as a workforce, and during times off were able to play soccer and perform musical presentations.

Many married Brazilian women and decided to stay in Brazil, which has had a significant German minority since early in the 19th century. After the war, some of the remaining crewmembers, especially older ones, returned to Germany. One group of former crew who stayed in Brazil after the war opened a restaurant in São Paulo named after the ship, serving dishes from her former passenger menus.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Harnack 1938, p. 462
  2. ^ a b Talbot-Booth 1942, p. 420
  3. ^ Some sources spell the name Lejune, but this appears to be an error. The Lejeune homepage uses the latter spelling.
  4. ^ See Lejeune homepage.
  5. ^ a b S. Pickett Edwards, US Navy Yard, Portsmouth, VA. 1942-45, as recounted to his daughter Maureen and recorded at Navsource Online.
  6. ^ "O caso do navio Windhuk" [The case of the ship Windhuk] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Windhuk" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 July 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Harnack, Edwin P (1938) [1903]. All About Ships & Shipping (7th ed.). London: Faber and Faber. p. 462. 
  • Talbot-Booth, E.C. (1942) [1936]. Ships and the Sea (Seventh Edition). London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. p. 420. 

External links[edit]