Office of the United States Trade Representative

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Office of the United States Trade Representative
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg
Seal of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
Flag of the United States Trade Representative.svg
Flag of the U.S. Trade Representative
Agency overview
Formed 1962
Preceding Agency Office of the Special Trade Representative
Headquarters Winder Building 600 17th St. NW Washington, D.C.
Employees 200
Agency executives Michael Froman, U.S. Trade Representative
Miriam Sapiro, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative
Michael Punke, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative (Geneva)
Parent agency Executive Office of the President of the United States
Website www.ustr.gov
  Priority Foreign Country
  Priority Watch List
  Watch List
  Section 306 Monitoring
  Out-of-Cycle Review/Status Pending

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the president of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).

Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Brussels, Belgium. On May 2, 2013, President Obama nominated Michael Froman to succeed Ambassador Ron Kirk as the U.S. Trade Representative.[1] The United States Senate confirmed Froman on June 19, 2013, and he was sworn into office on June 21, 2013.[2][3]

On October 11, 2012, the Washington International Trade Association (WITA) hosted a reception in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Office of the United States Trade Representative. The event was held 50 years to the day that President John F. Kennedy signed the Executive Order creating the Office of the Special Trade Representative on October 11, 1962.

Staff[edit]

The head of the office holds the title of United States Trade Representative (USTR), which is a Cabinet-level position, though not technically within the Cabinet, as is the case with office heads not of US Departments but rather of offices contained within the Executive Office of the President. To fill the post, the President nominates someone for the position, and the appointment is then approved or rejected by a simple majority of the Senate. The United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives (DUSTR) carry the title of Ambassador.

Michael Froman is the current US Trade Representative, with Michael Punke and Miriam Sapiro serving as Deputy US Trade Representatives. Ambassador Punke also concurrently serves as the U.S. Ambassador to the World Trade Organization (WTO).

National Trade Estimate[edit]

Officially called the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE), the report is an annual series that surveys prepared by the USTR, which reports significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. The NTE provides, where feasible, quantitative estimates of the impact of these foreign practices on the value of U.S. exports. Information is also included on actions taken to eliminate barriers.[4]

The Special 301 Report[edit]

The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the USTR under Section 182 as amended of the Trade Act of 1974. The Act states that the USTR must on an annual basis, by April of each year:

"identify those foreign countries that deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, and those foreign countries identified under" this "paragraph that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries". The Act defines "priority foreign countries" as "those foreign countries that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, whose acts, policies, or practices described in" this "paragraph have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the relevant United States products, and that are not entering into good faith negotiations, or making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[5]

The Uruguay Round Agreement Act furthermore states that countries may be identified under Special 301 "taking into account the history of intellectual property laws and practices of the foreign country, including any previous identifications" and "the history of efforts of the United States, and the response of the foreign country, to achieve adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights". It also states that compliance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights does not include a country from being identified as denying "adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[6]

List of United States Trade Representatives[edit]

Image Trade Representative From To Home State Appointed by
ChristianHerterSoS.jpg Christian Herter 1962 1966 Massachusetts John F. Kennedy
William M. Roth 1967 1969 California Lyndon B. Johnson
Carl J. Gilbert 1969 1971 Massachusetts Richard Nixon
William D. Eberle 1971 1975 Idaho Richard Nixon
FrederickBailyDent.jpg Frederick B. Dent 1975 1977 South Carolina Gerald Ford
RobertStrauss.jpg Robert S. Strauss 1977 1979 Texas Jimmy Carter
ReubinAskew.JPG Reubin Askew 1979 1981 Florida Jimmy Carter
Bill brock.jpg Bill Brock 1981 1985 Tennessee Ronald Reagan
Clayton Keith Yeutter, 1990-04-24.jpg Clayton K. Yeutter 1985 1989 Nebraska Ronald Reagan
Carla A. Hills official portrait.jpg Carla A. Hills 1989 1993 California George H. W. Bush
MichaelKantor.jpg Mickey Kantor 1993 1997 Tennessee Bill Clinton
Charlene Barshefsky official portrait.jpg Charlene Barshefsky 1997 2001 District of Columbia Bill Clinton
Zoellick, Robert (official portrait 2008).jpg Robert Zoellick 2001 2005 Virginia George W. Bush
Rob Portman official photo.jpg Rob Portman 2005 2006 Ohio George W. Bush
Susan Schwab, USTR official photo.jpg Susan Schwab 2006 2009 Maryland George W. Bush
Ron Kirk official portrait.jpg Ron Kirk 2009 2013 Texas Barack Obama
DemetriosMarantis.jpg Demetrios Marantis
Acting
2013 2013 New York Barack Obama
Miriam Sapiro official portrait.jpg Miriam Sapiro
Acting
2013 2013 New York Barack Obama
Michael Froman official portrait.jpg Michael Froman 2013 present California Barack Obama

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Obama taps Penny Pritzker, Mike Froman for top economic jobs. CBS News (2013-05-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  2. ^ Senate confirms Michael Froman as trade chief – Politics standard used in IRS cases – Lawmakers urge changes to IRS accounting rule - POLITICO Morning Tax. Politico.Com (2013-06-27). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  3. ^ Statement by United States Trade Representative Michael Froman | Office of the United States Trade Representative. Ustr.gov. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  4. ^ Office of the United States Trade Representative. "Reports and Publications". Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. ISBN 978-1-59031-359-6. 
  6. ^ Masterson, John T. (2004). International trademarks and copyright: enforcement and management. American Bar Association. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-59031-359-6. 

External links[edit]