Ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu Desktop 13.10 "Saucy Salamander" with Unity 7.1
|Company / developer||Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community|
|Source model||Free and open source software with proprietary components|
|Initial release||20 October 2004|
|Latest stable release||13.10 Saucy Salamander / 17 October 2013|
|Available language(s)||More than 55 by LoCos|
|Update method||APT (Software Updater, Ubuntu Software Center)|
|Package manager||dpkg, Click packages|
|Supported platforms||IA-32, X86-64, ARM|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||Unity (since Ubuntu 11.04)|
|License||Mainly the GPL and various other free software licenses|
Ubuntu (// uu-BUUN-too) is a Debian-based Linux operating system, with Unity as its default desktop environment. It is based on free software and named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu (literally, "human-ness"), which often is translated as "humanity towards others" or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".
According to some metrics, Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution. See Installed base section.
Development of Ubuntu is led by Canonical Ltd., a company based in the Isle of Man and owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue through the sale of technical support and other services related to Ubuntu. According to Canonical, the Ubuntu project is committed to the principles of open source development; people are encouraged to use free software, study how it works, improve upon it, and distribute it.
- 1 Features
- 2 History and development process
- 3 Package classification and support
- 4 Releases
- 5 Variants
- 6 Development
- 7 Adoption and reception
- 8 Local Communities (LoCos)
- 9 Vendor support
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the majority of which are free software. Free software gives users the freedom to study, adapt/modify, and distribute it. Ubuntu can also run proprietary software.
Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Empathy, Transmission, and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Additional software that is not installed by default (including software that used to be in the default installation such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic) can be downloaded and installed using the Ubuntu Software Center or other apt-based package management tools. Programs in the Software Center are mostly free, but there are also priced products, including applications and magazines. Ubuntu can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VirtualBox or VMware Workstation).
For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, allowing the root account to remain locked, and preventing inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes. PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system through the principle of least privilege.
Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and Buffer overflow protection to harden its software. These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32 bit and 0.01% in 64 bit.
History and development process
Ubuntu is a fork of Debian's codebase, created to be an easy-to-use Linux desktop. Ubuntu's team commited to release predictably - every six months - and that each release would receive free support for nine months (eighteen months prior to 13.04)  with security fixes, other high-impact bug fixes and very conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes. The first release was on October 2004.
It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support (LTS). Long term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure). The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well.  LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date. 
Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch: both distributions use Debian's deb package format and package management tools (APT and Ubuntu Software Center). Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however, and sometimes .deb packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu. Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian, although there has been criticism that this does not happen often enough. In the past, Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, has expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible. Before release, packages are imported from Debian Unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. A month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together.
Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd. announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation as an "emergency fund" (in case Canonical's involvement ends).
Beginning with version 10.10, Ubuntu Netbook Edition used the Unity desktop as its desktop interface. Starting with Ubuntu 11.04, the netbook edition has been merged into the desktop edition and Unity became the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop.
Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that Ubuntu's support for smartphones, tablets, TVs and smart screens is scheduled to be added by Ubuntu 14.04. On 9 January 2012, Canonical announced Ubuntu TV at the Consumer Electronics Show.
The system requirements vary among Ubuntu products. For the main Ubuntu desktop product, the official Ubuntu Documentation recommends a 1 GHz Pentium 4 processor with 1 Gigabyte of RAM  and 5.9 gigabytes of hard drive space, or better. For less powerful computers, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and Xubuntu.
Installation of Ubuntu is generally performed with the Live CD or a Live USB drive. The Ubuntu OS can run directly from the CD (although this is usually slower than running Ubuntu from an HDD), allowing a user to "test-drive" the OS for hardware compatibility and driver support. The CD also contains the Ubiquity installer, which can then guide the user through the permanent installation process. CD images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site. Installing from the CD requires a minimum of 384 MB of RAM [as of ubuntu 12.10].
Users can download a disk image (.iso) of the CD, which can then either be written to a physical medium (CD or DVD), or optionally run directly from a hard drive (via UNetbootin or GRUB). Ubuntu is also available on PowerPC, SPARC, and IA-64 platforms, although none are officially supported.
Canonical offered Ubuntu and Kubuntu Live installation CDs at no cost including paid postage for most destinations around the world via a service called ShipIt. This service closed in April 2011. The Canonical Store offers five CDs for £5.00. Various third-party programs such as remastersys and Reconstructor are available to create customized copies of the Ubuntu Live CDs.
Ubuntu and Kubuntu can be booted and run from a USB Flash drive (as long as the BIOS supports booting from USB), with the option of saving settings to the flashdrive. This allows a portable installation that can be run on any PC which is capable of booting from a USB drive. In newer versions of Ubuntu, the USB creator program is available to install Ubuntu on a USB drive (with or without a LiveCD disc).
The desktop edition can be also installed using the Netboot image which uses the debian-installer and allows certain specialist installations of Ubuntu: setting up automated deployments, upgrading from older installations without network access, LVM and/or RAID partitioning, installs on systems with less than about 256 MB of RAM (although low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably).
Package classification and support
Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available. Some unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd.
|Free software||Non-free software|
Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Exceptions, however, include firmware and fonts, in the Main category, because although they are not allowed to be modified, their distribution is otherwise unencumbered.
Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for important non-free software. Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers. The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code. It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment. Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories.
In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained.
The -updates repository provides stable release updates (SRU) of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Each release is given its own -updates repository (e.g. intrepid-updates). The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse. All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public. Updates are scheduled to be available until the end of life for the release.
In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression. Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community.
Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software. The software in the partner repository is officially supported with security and other important updates by its respective vendors. Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu and provides guidance to vendors. The partner repository is disabled by default and can be enabled by the user. Some popular products distributed via the partner repository as of 28 April 2013[update] are Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Skype.
Availability of third-party software
Ubuntu has a certification system for third party software. Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun's Java runtime environment, Adobe's Flash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the RAR file format.
Additionally, third party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software Center, including many high-quality games such as Braid and Oil Rush, software for DVD playback and media codecs.
|Version||Code name||Release date||Supported until|
|4.10||Warty Warthog||2004-10-20||Old version, no longer supported: 2006-04-30|
|5.04||Hoary Hedgehog||2005-04-08||Old version, no longer supported: 2006-10-31|
|5.10||Breezy Badger||2005-10-13||Old version, no longer supported: 2007-04-13|
|6.06 LTS||Dapper Drake||2006-06-01||Old version, no longer supported: 2009-07-14||Old version, no longer supported: 2011-06-01|
|6.10||Edgy Eft||2006-10-26||Old version, no longer supported: 2008-04-25|
|7.04||Feisty Fawn||2007-04-19||Old version, no longer supported: 2008-10-19|
|7.10||Gutsy Gibbon||2007-10-18||Old version, no longer supported: 2009-04-18|
|8.04 LTS||Hardy Heron||2008-04-24||Old version, no longer supported: 2011-05-12||Old version, no longer supported: 2013-05-09|
|8.10||Intrepid Ibex||2008-10-30||Old version, no longer supported: 2010-04-30|
|9.04||Jaunty Jackalope||2009-04-23||Old version, no longer supported: 2010-10-23|
|9.10||Karmic Koala||2009-10-29||Old version, no longer supported: 2011-04-30|
|10.04 LTS||Lucid Lynx||2010-04-29||Old version, no longer supported: 2013-05-09||Older version, yet still supported: 2015-04|
|10.10||Maverick Meerkat||2010-10-10||Old version, no longer supported: 2012-04-10|
|11.04||Natty Narwhal||2011-04-28||Old version, no longer supported: 2012-10-28|
|11.10||Oneiric Ocelot||2011-10-13||Old version, no longer supported: 2013-05-09|
|12.04 LTS||Precise Pangolin||2012-04-26||Older version, yet still supported: 2017-04|
|12.10||Quantal Quetzal||2012-10-18||Older version, yet still supported: 2014-04|
|13.04||Raring Ringtail||2013-04-25||Older version, yet still supported: 2014-01|
|13.10||Saucy Salamander||2013-10-17||Current stable version: 2014-07|
|14.04 LTS||Trusty Tahr||2014-04-17||Future release: 2019-04|
Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release. For example, the first release was Ubuntu 4.10 as it was released on 20 October 2004. Version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed the version number changes accordingly.
Ubuntu releases are also given alliterative code names, using an adjective and an animal (e.g., "Dapper Drake" and "Intrepid Ibex"). With the exception of the first three releases, code names are in consecutive alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. "We might skip a few letters, and we'll have to wrap eventually." says Mark Shuttleworth while describing the naming scheme. Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name; for example, the 12.04 LTS release is commonly known as "Precise".
Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases (which in turn are about one month after releases of X.org). As a result, every Ubuntu release was introduced with an updated version of both GNOME and X.
Upgrades between releases have to be done from one release to the next release (e.g. Ubuntu 10.04 to Ubuntu 10.10) or from one LTS release to the next LTS release (e.g. Ubuntu 8.04 LTS to Ubuntu 10.04 LTS).
Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat), was released on 10 October 2010 (10-10-10). This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10", and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary, 101010 equals decimal 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series.
Ubuntu 11.04, code-named "Natty Narwhal", was released on 28 April 2011. The desktop interface of this release significantly differs from the previous releases with the introduction of Unity as the default GUI. Users can readily switch into "classic" GUI (GNOME Panel). The new GUI has received strong criticism from some users as too different from and less capable than the previous Gnome Panel, while other users have found they prefer the new approach and the minimalism compared to the older desktop paradigm. However, those positive about Unity also believed there was much room for improvement.
With the release of Ubuntu 12.10, the desktop disc image no longer fits on a standard (700MB) CD, requiring a DVD or bootable flash drive of 1GB or more. An unofficial recompressed version does fit on a CD, but does not boot in some circumstances.
12.10 becomes unsupported in 2014-04 while 13.04 becomes unsupported in 2014-01. This is because the support duration for non-LTS versions was reduced from 18 months to 9 months beginning in 13.04.
- Ubuntu Desktop (formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu), designed for desktop and laptop PCs using Unity Desktop interface.
- Ubuntu Business Desktop Remix, a release meant for business users that comes with special enterprise software including Adobe Flash, Canonical Landscape, OpenJDK 6 and VMware View, while removing social networking and file sharing applications, games and development/sysadmin tools. The goal of the Business Desktop Remix is not to copy other enterprise-oriented distributions, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but to make it, according to Mark Shuttleworth's blog, "easier for institutional users to evaluate Ubuntu Desktop for their specific needs."
- Ubuntu Server, made for use in servers. The server install CD allows the user to install Ubuntu permanently on a computer for use as a server. It does not install a graphical user interface.
- Ubuntu TV, labeled "TV for human beings" by Canonical, was introduced at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show by Canonical's marketing executive John D. Bernard. Created for SmartTVs, Ubuntu TV provides access to popular Internet services and stream content to mobile devices running Android, iOS and Ubuntu.
- Ubuntu Touch is a variant of Ubuntu for smartphones and tablets which was announced in January 2013 and is expected to be released in Q4 2013 or Q1 2014. The first version available to consumers will only be able to run on the Galaxy Nexus. Higher-end Ubuntu smartphones will be able to run a full Ubuntu desktop when connected to a monitor and keyboard, a feature pioneered in Ubuntu for Android. A concept for one phone with Ubuntu for Phones was published on Ubuntu's official channel on YouTube: the Welcome Screen is shown to have the standard Ubuntu background image, with digital clock on top, and small-to-big circles in the centre, circulating Unread/Notifications/Talk Time. Each of these parts appear and fade each after the other, while changing the colour of the circles in the background and the placement of the little ones. From the Welcome screen, the user could swipe to any of the four directions: up for notifications, left for the app menu, swipe from the right to launch the previous app, and swipe from the bottom to display the operations menu. Also, the user would be able to launch Voice Control by touching the bottom-right corner outside the interface, where the soft buttons would be on other smartphones. Demos will be released and shown at the CES in January 2013. Developers will be able to create one app with two interfaces: a smartphone UI, and, when docked, a desktop UI. Ubuntu for Tablets was previewed at 19 February 2013. The Ubuntu Touch Preview is listed by the Ubuntu Wiki as "running fine" on the Nexus 10 and Nexus 7 tablets. According to the keynote video, an Ubuntu Phone will be able to connect to a tablet, which will then utilize a tablet interface; plugging a keyboard and mouse into the tablet will transform the phone into a desktop; and plugging a television monitor into the phone will bring up the Ubuntu TV interface.
- Ubuntu for Android, variant of Ubuntu designed to run on Android phones. Which provides a windowing application environment and desktop environment of the Ubuntu when the phone is docked to Lapdock. It is expected to come pre-loaded on several phones. Ubuntu for Android was revealed at Mobile World Congress 2012 by John D. Bernard and Mark Shuttleworth.
There are many Ubuntu variants (or derivatives) based on the official Ubuntu editions. These Ubuntu variants install a default set of packages that differ from the official Ubuntu distributions.
The variants recognized by Canonical as contributing significantly towards the Ubuntu project are the following:
- Edubuntu, a subproject and add-on for Ubuntu, designed for school environments and home users.
- Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using the KDE Plasma Workspaces desktop environment.
- Lubuntu, a lightweight distribution using the LXDE desktop environment.
- Mythbuntu, designed for creating a home theater PC with MythTV and uses the Xfce desktop environment.
- UbuntuKylin (formerly "Ubuntu Chinese Edition"), a Chinese specific version of Ubuntu Desktop.
- Ubuntu GNOME, a desktop distribution using the GNOME desktop environment.
- Ubuntu Studio, a distribution made for professional video and audio editing, comes with higher-end free editing software.
- Xubuntu, a distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment, designed to run more efficiently on low-specification computers.
Edubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Mythbuntu, UbuntuKylin, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu Studio, and Xubuntu are not commercially supported by Canonical.
Other variants are created and maintained by individuals and organizations outside of Canonical, and they are self-governed projects that work more or less closely with the Ubuntu community.
Ubuntu has a Server edition that uses the same apt repositories as the Ubuntu Desktop Edition. The differences between them are the absence of a X window environment in a default installation of the server edition (although one can easily be installed including Unity, GNOME, KDE or XFCE) and the installation process.  The server edition uses a screen mode character-based interface for the installation, instead of a graphical installation process.
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Server supports three major architectures: IA-32, X86-64 and ARM.
Ubuntu 10.04 Server Edition[dated info] can also run on VMware ESX Server, Oracle's VirtualBox and VM, Citrix Systems XenServer hypervisors, Microsoft Hyper-V, QEMU, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, or any other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer. Ubuntu 10.04 turns on AppArmor (security module for the Linux kernel) by default on key software packages, and the firewall is extended to common services used by the operating system. The home and Private directories can also be encrypted. It includes MySQL 5.1, Tomcat 6, OpenJDK 6, Samba 3.4, Nagios 3, PHP 5.3, Python 2.6. Many of its services only take 30 minutes to configure.
|This article is outdated. (October 2013)|
Ubuntu Server offers technology and resources to make a private or public cloud called Ubuntu Cloud (formerly Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud and formally Ubuntu Cloud Infrastructure), which provides virtualization capability, applications and flexibility to help deploy a cloud within an organization. It consists of the open core Eucalyptus, libvirt, KVM or Xen virtualization technology.
Ubuntu 11.04 added support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools to be released by Canonical in Ubuntu Server 11.10. Ubuntu 11.10 is expected to focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu's preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also expected to be supported. Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server.
The Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS) is a gathering of software developers which occurs prior to the release of a new public version of Ubuntu.
At the beginning of a new development cycle, Ubuntu developers from around the world gather to help shape and scope the next release of Ubuntu. The summit is open to the public, but it is not a conference, exhibition or other audience-oriented event. Rather, it is an opportunity for Ubuntu developers, who usually collaborate online, to work together in person on specific tasks. From 2013 February, Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS) is organized online through Google+ Hangouts, any number of participants and viewers can participate. Online UDS is held on two different days instead of two consecutive days. The Online UDS video is archived and is available on the website.
Adoption and reception
Chris Kenyon, vice president for OEM at Canonical Ltd., said that because of a lack of registration, any number provided for Ubuntu usage is a "guesstimate". In fall 2011 Canonical estimated that Ubuntu had more than 20 million users worldwide.
W3Techs estimated in October 2013 that:
- Ubuntu is used by 26.1% of all Linux websites, behind only Debian (on which Ubuntu is based), which is used by 32.7% of all Linux websites.
- Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution among the top 1000 sites and gains around 500 of the top 10 million websites per day.
- Ubuntu is used by 8.2% of all websites analyzed, growing from less than 7% in October 2012.
According to thecloudmarket.com, Ubuntu is on at least 54% of the images it scanned on Amazon EC2.
As of 2012, Ubuntu's page on DistroWatch is the second most accessed among Linux distribution pages there, behind the page of Linux Mint. But see DistroWatch#Accuracy of the hit counters.
Publicized large-scale deployments
The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu. As of January 2009, the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations; the Spanish school system has 195,000 Ubuntu desktops. The French police, having already started using open source software in 2005 by replacing Microsoft Office with OpenOffice.org, decided to transition to Ubuntu from Windows XP after the release of Windows Vista in 2006. By March 2009, the Gendarmerie Nationale had already switched 5000 workstations to Ubuntu. Based on the success of that transition, it planned to switch 15,000 more over by the end of 2009 and to have switched all 90,000 workstations over by 2015 (GendBuntu project). Lt. Colonel Guimard announced that the move was very easy and allowed for a 70% saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities.
In 2011, Ubuntu 10.04 was adopted by the Indian Justice system.
In March 2012, the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software. Already several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu. The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open source software avoids vendor lock-in. A 12-month project has launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to open-source, and help ease the migration for others.
Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London, received favorable reviews in online and print publications, and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS. In early 2008 PC World named Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today", though it criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager. Chris DiBona, the program manager for open-source software at Google, said “I think Ubuntu has captured people’s imaginations around the Linux desktop,” and “If there is a hope for the Linux desktop, it would be them”. As of January 2009, almost half of Google’s 20,000 employees used a slightly modified version of Ubuntu.
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS had also been criticized for its poor battery life on laptops and netbooks, even as OEM on devices such as Asus's eeePC, when compared to Microsoft Windows 7, with Ubuntu having been shown to use between 14% and 56% more power. Ubuntu's developers have acknowledged and sought to solve the issues of power consumption in the 12.04 LTS release.
In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series Mythbusters, advocated Linux (giving the example of Ubuntu) as a solution to software bloat. Other celebrity users of Ubuntu include:
One of the new features of Unity in Ubuntu 12.10 was the shopping lens. As of October 2012, it sent (through a secure HTTPS connection) the user's queries from the home lens to productsearch.ubuntu.com, which then polled Amazon.com to find relevant products; Amazon then sent product images directly to the user's computer through HTTP (this changed in September 2013). If the user clicked in one of these results and then bought something, Canonical got a small fraction of the sale.
In 2012 many reviewers criticized it: as the home lens is the natural means to search for content on the local machine, reviewers were concerned about the disclosure of queries that were intended to be local, creating a privacy problem. As the feature is active by default  (instead of opt-in), many users could be unaware of it. See Unity privacy controversy.
In March 2013, Canonical announced that it had decided to develop Mir, reversing an earlier plan to move to Wayland as the primary Ubuntu display server and causing widespread objection from the open source desktop community. X.Org contributor Daniel Stone opined: "I'm just irritated that this means more work for us, more work for upstream developers, more work for toolkits, more work for hardware vendors...."
In 2013, Canonical reached an agreement with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China to make Ubuntu the new basis of the Kylin operating system starting with Raring Ringtail (version 13.04). The first version of UbuntuKylin was released on 25 April 2013.
Local Communities (LoCos)
In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities, better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world. Originally, each country had one LoCo Team. However, in some areas, most notably the United States, each state or province may establish a team. A LoCo Council approves teams based upon their efforts to aid in either the development or the promotion of Ubuntu.
A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell, Gliese IT, Hasee, Lotus Computers, Ohava Computers, Sharp Corporation, System76, WeWi and Tesco. System76 PCs are sold exclusively with Ubuntu. Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical. Dell computers (running Ubuntu 10.04) include extra support for ATI Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI, Bluetooth, DVD playback (using LinDVD), and MP3/WMA/WMV. Asus is also selling some Asus Eee PCs with Ubuntu pre-installed and announced that "many more" Eee PC models running Ubuntu for 2011. Vodafone has made available a notebook for the South-African market called "Webbook".
Dell sells computers (initially Inspiron 14R and 15R laptops) pre-loaded with Ubuntu in India and China, with 850 and 350 retail outlets respectively. Starting in 2013 Alienware began offering its X51 model gaming desktop pre-installed with Ubuntu at a lower price than if it were pre-installed with Windows.
- "Release Notes". Ubuntu. Canonical. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Supported Hardware". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Ubuntu 11.10 will support ARM processors to take on Red Hat". The Inquirer. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Paul, Ryan (26 April 2012). "Precise Pangolin rolls out: Ubuntu 12.04 released, introduces Unity HUD". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Larabel, Michael (23 January 2012). "Ubuntu's Already Making Plans For ARM In 2014, 2015". Phoronix. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (22 August 2011). "Ubuntu Linux bets on the ARM server". ZDNet. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Nelson Mandela (11 January 2006). The Ubuntu Experience (Nelson Mandela Interview) (Motion picture).
- "About Ubuntu. The Ubuntu Story". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "About the Name". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Canonical and Ubuntu". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Overview". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Morgan, Timothy Prickett (20 April 2010). "Ubuntu Server primed for the bigtime". The Register. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Ubuntu Project". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "The Free Software Definition". What is free software?. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Features". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "GNOME 2.22 Release Notes – Internationalization". GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- "RootSudo". Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "Gufw". Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Ubuntu Wiki CompilerFlags". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "Debian Secure by Default". Debian: Secure by Default Project. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "HoaryGoals". Ubuntu Wiki. Canonical. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (20 March 2013). "Ubuntu To Halve Support Window for 'Regular' Releases". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Time Based Releases". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Ubuntu 12.04 to feature extended support period for desktop users". Canonical.com. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Paul, Ryan (28 May 2012). "Precision and purpose: Ubuntu 12.04 and the Unity HUD reviewed". Ars Technica. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "TimeBasedReleases". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Art of Release". markshuttleworth.com. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Mark Shuttleworth: What about binary compatibility between distributions?". Ubuntu Team Wiki. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Website does not reference Debian visibly". Ubuntu in Launchpad. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "Ubuntu vs. Debian, reprise". 20 April 2005. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- Hill, Benjamin Mako (8 July 2005). "Announcing Launch of ($10 m) Ubuntu Foundation". Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "RightScale Adds Full Support for Ubuntu Server to its Cloud Management Platform". Canonical Ltd. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Canonical Ltd (August 2011). "Publishing history of "unity" package in Ubuntu". Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- Canonical Ltd (December 2010). "Natty Narwhal Alpha 1". Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Noyes, Katherine (May 2011). "Natty Narwhal: the First Linux for Newbies?". PC World. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Noyes, Katherine (26 October 2010). "Is Unity the Right Interface for Desktop Ubuntu?". PC World. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (31 October 2011). "Ubuntu on phones, tablets, TV's and smart screens everywhere".
- "Canonical outs Ubuntu TV: Brave or stupid?". Extremetech.com. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Schofield, Jack (9 January 2012). "CES 2012: free Ubuntu TV has service and revenue fees". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Canonical Demonstrates Ubuntu TV". Pcworld.com. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "CES: Canonical shows off Ubuntu TV". Pcadvisor.co.uk. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Canonical’s Ubuntu TV Surfaces at CES 2012". Itproportal.com. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Release notes for Saucy Salamander a (Ubuntu Desktop)". Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Larabel, Michael (14 March 2012). "Ubuntu Plans To Drop Non-SMP PowerPC Support". Phoronix. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Technical Board Decision". February 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2008.
- "Installing Ubuntu from the Live CD". Integrity Enterprises. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu Releases". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx)". cdimage.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- "Requesting an Ubuntu CD". Retrieved 17 April 2009. "A CD of the latest version (9.10 (Karmic Koala)) with no extra cost, but delivery may take up to ten weeks."
- "Requesting CDs from ShipIt". Archived from the original on 2007-07-06. Retrieved 17 April 2009. "Pre-order CDs of Kubuntu 9.10 (Jaunty Jackalope)."
- "Ubuntu 8.10 Persistent Flash Drive Installation". Pendrivelinux. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- "Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal). Alternate install CD". Ubuntu Releases. Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- "About Ubuntu. Licensing". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "UbuntuBackports". Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "StableReleaseUpdates". Canonical. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "SRU Verification". Canonical. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "Application packaging". Canonical. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- Thomason, Brian. "Partner Repository Forum FAQ". Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "Desktop support features". Canonical. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "RepositoriesUbuntu". Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Certification. Application packaging". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Ubuntu Software Center". Shop.canonical.com. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Planella, David. "Top 10 Ubuntu Software Centre app downloads for November | Ubuntu App Developer". Developer.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Mark Shuttleworth » Blog Archive » Quantal, raring, saucy…. (2013-10-18). Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
- "CommonQuestions. Ubuntu Releases and Version Numbers.". Ubuntu Community Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
- "DevelopmentCodeNames". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- "UpgradeNotes. General Upgrade Information". Ubuntu Community Documentation. Canonical. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- "Shooting for the Perfect 10.10 with Maverick Meerkat". Mark Shuttleworth. 2 April 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (11 May 2010). "ubuntu-marketing: 10.10.10". lists.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (17 August 2010). "N-imal?". Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Ubuntu 11.04 Change From Unity To Classic Gnome". Scottlinux.com.
- Scott Gilbertson (2011) Natty Narwhal with Unity: Worst Ubuntu beta ever. Nightmare KDE 4 scenario replayed. The Register.
- Lynch, Jim (May 2011). "Ubuntu 11.04". Desktop Linux Reviews. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Unity – I love it, so far". Ubuntuforums.org.
- Humphrey, Benjamin (March 2011). "What's wrong with Unity & how we can fix it". OMG Ubuntu. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "ubuntucd – CD compressed versions of Ubuntu – Google Project Hosting". Code.google.com. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "DerivativeTeam/Derivatives". Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "About Ubuntu. Derivatives". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Download Ubuntu Desktop". Ubuntu. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Business Desktop Remix 12.04 LTS". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Remixing Ubuntu for the Enterprise Desktop". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Ubuntu Server Edition". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Ubuntu TV readies for battle with Google and Apple". Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Features and Specs". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Holly, Russell (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu for Phones unveiled, no hardware on the horizon". Geek.com. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (2 January 2013). "Mark Shuttleworth Demos Ubuntu Phone 2013.". Planet Ubuntu, on YouTube. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (2 January 2013). "Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Touch/Devices". Ubuntu Wiki. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "Ubuntu for tablets – Full video". YouTube. 19 Frebruary 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Noyes, Katherine (21 February 2012). "Ubuntu for Android Will Bring the Desktop to Your Phone | PCWorld Business Center". Pcworld.com. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "Canonical to showcase ‘Ubuntu for Android’ at MWC in Barcelona « Canonical Blog". Blog.canonical.com. 26 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Shuttleworth, Mark. "Blog Archive » "Ubuntu in your pocket"". Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "About Edubuntu". Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Preparing to Install". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Cloud". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Canonical switches to OpenStack for Ubuntu Linux cloud". Zdnet.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Prickett, Timothy (10 May 2011). "Ubuntu eats OpenStack for clouds". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Dustin Kirkland of Canonical". YouTube. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "ServerTeam/Orchestra – Ubuntu Wiki". Wiki.ubuntu.com. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Ubuntu Developer Summit". Summit.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Kerner, Sean Michael (7 April 2010). "Ubuntu Claims 12 Million Users as Lucid Linux Desktop Nears". Linux Planet. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- "Canonical launches Ubuntu 11.10 update". Computerworld UK. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Linux for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Debian/Ubuntu extend the dominance in the Linux web server market at the expense of Red Hat/CentOS". W3Techs. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Ubuntu for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Web Technologies Statistics and Trends". W3Techs. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Unix for Websites, October 2013". W3Techs. October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "The Cloud Market: EC2 Statistics". thecloudmarket.com. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Zachte, Eric. "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Operating Systems". Wikimedia Statistics. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Relph-Knight, Terry (10 February 2012). "A tale of two distros: Ubuntu and Linux Mint". ZDNet. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Noyes, Katherine. "Which Linux Distro Is Fairest of Them All? Ubuntu, Survey Says". PCWorld. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- "Five Best Linux Distributions". Lifehacker. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Dunn, John E (26 November 2011). "Ubuntu Shows DistroWatch Decline as Mint Soars". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Bhartiya, Swapnil (10 January 2012). "Linux Mint Touches All Time High On DistroWatch, Will Ubuntu Recover?". Muktware. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Latif, Lawrence (November 24, 2011). "Ubuntu popularity falls as Linux Mint flourishes". The Inquirer. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Vance, Ashlee (10 January 2009). "A Software Populist Who Doesn't Do Windows". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
- "Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-Powered Computer Workstations". Canonical Ltd. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Paul, Ryan (11 March 2009). "French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "India's Justice Sytem(sic) Switches to Ubuntu 10.04 – Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Landeshauptstadt München – Das Projekt LiMux" [City of Munich – The project LiMux (Google translation)] (in German). Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Brown, Mark (23 March 2012). "Icelandic government makes a push for open-source software". Wired UK. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Gallagher, Sean (20 November 2012). "How Team Obama's tech efficiency left Romney IT in dust". Ars Technica. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Masters, John (June 2005). "LinuxWorld Expo UK 2005" (PDF). Linux Magazine. Linux New Media. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Adelstein, Tom (19 April 2005). "Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 6 – Ubuntu". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- McAllister, Neil (January 2008). Gutsy Gibbon: Desktop Linux OS Made Easy 26. PC World. p. 84
- Venenzia, Paul (10 September 2007). "Best of open source in platforms and middleware". InfoWorld. IDG. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Strohmeyer, Robert (2 June 2008). "Desktop Linux Face-Off: Ubuntu 8.04 vs. Fedora 9". PC World. IDG. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- Farrel, Nick. "New Ubuntu eats more power than Windows 7". The Inquirer. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- King, Colin. "Improving Battery Life in Ubuntu Precise 12.04 LTS". Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Hyneman, Jamie (18 February 2008). "MythBusters: 7 Tech Headaches—and How to Fix Them". Popular Mechanics. Hearst. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Thomas, K.; Channelle, A.; Sicam, J. (2009). Beginning Ubuntu Linux. Apress. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-1-4302-1999-6.
- Sneddon, Joey. "Stephen Fry: "I Use Ubuntu"". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Lee, Micah (29 October 2012). "Privacy in Ubuntu 12.10: Amazon Ads and Data Leaks". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Gilbertson, Scott (18 October 2012). "Ay caramba, Ubuntu 12.10: Get it right on Amazon!". The Register. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Samson, Ted (25 September 2012). "Canonical wants to shill for Amazon on Ubuntu users' desktops". InfoWorld. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Shuttleworth defends Ubuntu Linux integrating Amazon". ZDnet. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "Canonical reveals plans to launch Mir display server — Update — The H Open: News and Features". H-online.com. 24 February 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Shuttleworth, Mark (4 November 2010). "Unity on Wayland". "The next major transition for Unity will be to deliver it on Wayland...."
- Larabel, Michael (5 March 2013). "A Note To Canonical: "Don't Piss On Wayland"".
- Gräßlin, maintainer of KWin, the KDE window manager, Martin (8 March 2013). "War is Peace". "Will KWin support Mir? No!"
- Edmundson, David (12 March 2013). "KDE, LightDM and the Mir Kerfuffle". "If you know for 6 months that you're not going to do something you said you would it's rude not to tell people."
- Larabel, Michael (13 March 2013). "GNOME Will Move Full-Speed With Wayland Support". "What's GNOME doing about Mir? They're laying out plans right now to move hard and fast with Wayland support!"
- Larabel, Michael (4 March 2013). "Upstream X/Wayland Developers Bash Canonical, Mir".
- Heath, Nick (22 March 2013). "Chinese government builds national OS around Ubuntu.". Zdnet.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Heath, Nick (22 March 2013). "Chinese government builds national OS around Ubuntu". ZDNet. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "UbuntuKylin". DistroWatch.com. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Ubuntu Local Community Teams".
- "Dell and Ubuntu". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Lotus Computers". Lotus Computers. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "Amazing Linux". Ohava Computers. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "Sharp NetWalker PC-Z1: What you get when you shrink a netbook". Liliputing. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
- "System76: About Ubuntu". System76. Retrieved O2 May 2012.
- Vaughan-Nicholes, Steven J. (August 9, 2013). "First solar-powered Linux laptop". ZDNet. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "System76 announces servers with Ubuntu 7.10 and Canonical support services". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Your Blog " Blog Archive " Dell Upgrades Consumer Linux PCs to Ubuntu 8.04". Dell. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
- "Asus will preload ubuntu linux on three eee pcs". The Inquirer. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- Woods, Ben (3 June 2011). "Asus preloads Eee PC models with Ubuntu | ZDNet UK". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Asus Launching Eee PC Netbooks with Ubuntu". Tomshardware.com. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Vodafone brings ARM and Ubuntu together for South African Webbook". Engadget. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "The Ubuntu Powered ‘Vodafone Webbook’ Launched". Omgubuntu.co.uk. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Ubuntu 11.10 Powered Webbook Sells at $190 – Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Dell launch with Ubuntu at retail in India" (Press release). Canonical. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Murphy, Mark (18 June 2012). "Dell Extends Ubuntu Retail into India". Canonical. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "Alienware X51 gaming PC now available with Ubuntu, starts at $600". Engadget. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Koble, Nicole (6 Aug 2013). "Sol: the $300 solar-powered laptop". PC Pro. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Gagne, Marcel (27 August 2006). Moving to Ubuntu Linux (1st ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. p. 496. ISBN 978-0-321-42722-9.
- Grant, Rickford; Bull, Phil (7 July 2010). Ubuntu for Non-Geeks: A Pain-Free, Get-Things-Done Guide (4th ed.). No Starch Press. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59327-257-9.
- Hill, Benjamin Mako; Bacon, Jono; Burger, Corey; Jesse, Jonathan; Krstic, Ivan (21 August 2006). The Official Ubuntu Book (1st ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-13-243594-9.
- Hudson, Andrew; Hudson, Paul; Helmke, Matthew; Troy, Ryan (25 December 2009). Ubuntu Unleashed 2010 Edition: Covering 9.10 and 10.4 (5th ed.). Sams. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-672-33109-1.
- Keir, Thomas (15 March 2006). Beginning Ubuntu Linux: From Novice to Professional. Apress. p. 608. ISBN 978-1-59059-627-2.
- Oxer, Jonathan; Rankin, Kyle; Childers, Bill (14 June 2006). Ubuntu Hacks: Tips & Tools for Exploring, Using, and Tuning Linux (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-596-52720-4.
- von Hagen, William (3 January 2007). Ubuntu Linux Bible (1st ed.). Wiley. p. 936. ISBN 978-0-470-03899-4.
|Find more about Ubuntu at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|