Physalis peruviana

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Physalis peruviana
Cape gooseberry flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Physalis
Species: P. peruviana
Binomial name
Physalis peruviana
L.

Physalis peruviana (physalis = bladder) is the plant and its fruit, also known as Cape gooseberry (South Africa), Inca berry, Aztec berry, golden berry, giant ground cherry, Peruvian groundcherry, Peruvian cherry, pok pok (Madagascar), poha (Hawaii), ras bhari (India), aguaymanto (Peru), uvilla (Ecuador), uchuva (Colombia), harankash (Egypt), and sometimes simply Physalis (United Kingdom).[1] It is indigenous to South America, but has been cultivated in England since the late 18th century and in South Africa in the region of the Cape of Good Hope since at least the start of the 19th century.

Characteristics[edit]

In green calyx

Physalis peruviana is closely related to the tomatillo, also a member of the genus Physalis. As a member of the plant family Solanaceae, it is more distantly related to a large number of edible plants, including tomato, eggplant, potato and other members of the nightshades. Despite its name, it is not closely related to any of the cherry, Ribes gooseberry, Indian gooseberry, or Chinese gooseberry.

The fruit is a smooth berry, resembling a miniature, spherical, yellow tomato. Removed from its bladder-like calyx, it is about the size of a marble, about 1–2 cm in diameter. Like a tomato, it contains numerous small seeds. It is bright yellow to orange in color, and it is sweet when ripe, with a characteristic, mildly tart flavor, making it ideal for snacks, pies, or jams. It is relished in salads and fruit salads, sometimes combined with avocado. Also, because of the fruit's decorative appearance, it is popular in restaurants as an exotic garnish for desserts.

A prominent feature is the inflated, papery calyx enclosing each berry. The calyx is accrescent until the fruit is fully grown; at first it is of normal size, but after the petals fall it continues to grow until it forms a protective cover around the growing fruit. If the fruit is left inside the intact calyx husks, its shelf life at room temperature is about 30–45 days.

Geographic and cultivation origins[edit]

Native to high-altitude, tropical Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador, where the fruits grow wild, physalis is casually eaten and occasionally sold in markets. Only recently has the plant become an important crop; it has been widely introduced into cultivation in other tropical, subtropical and even temperate areas.

Cross section

The plant was grown by early settlers of the Cape of Good Hope before 1807. It is not clear whether it was grown there before its introduction to England, but sources since the mid-19th century attribute the common name, "Cape gooseberry" to this fact.[2][3] A popular suggestion is that the name properly refers to the calyx surrounding the fruit like a cape. This seems however, to be an example of folk etymology or false etymology, because it does not appear in publications earlier than the mid 20th century.

Not long after its introduction to South Africa, Physalis peruviana was introduced into Australia, New Zealand, and various Pacific islands.[4]

In South Africa, it is commercially cultivated; canned fruits and jam are staple commodities, often exported. It is also cultivated and naturalized on a small scale in Gabon and other parts of Central Africa.

Soon after its adoption in the Cape of Good Hope, it was carried to Australia, where it was one of the few fresh fruits of the early settlers in New South Wales. It is also favored in New Zealand, where it is said "the housewife is sometimes embarrassed by the quantity of berries in the garden",[5] and government agencies promote increased culinary use. It is grown in India where it is called ras bhari.

The Cape gooseberry is also grown in northeastern China, namely Heilongjiang Province, as a seasonal fruit harvested in late August through September. In Chinese pinyin, the fruit is informally referred to as gu niao, its Turkish name is altın çilek, and in Chinese pinyin mao suan jiang.

It is grown in Thailand, particularly on Doi Inthanon and in Egypt where it is known locally as harankash or as is-sitt il-mistahiya(the shy woman), a reference to the papery sheath.

Nutrition, preliminary research and folk medicine[edit]

Calyx open, exposing the ripe fruit
Groundcherries, raw
Physalis spp.
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 222 kJ (53 kcal)
Carbohydrates 11.2 g
Fat 0.7 g
Protein 1.9 g
Vitamin A equiv. 36 μg (5%)
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.11 mg (10%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.04 mg (3%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 2.8 mg (19%)
Vitamin C 11 mg (13%)
Calcium 9 mg (1%)
Iron 1 mg (8%)
Phosphorus 40 mg (6%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Basic research on the cape gooseberry has provided preliminary evidence that its constituents, possibly polyphenols and/or carotenoids, may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.[6][7][8]

The crude extract of the fruit-bearing plant has in vitro evidence for activity against markers of inflammation and lung cancer.[9][10][11] It has also shown possible properties in vitro against diabetes and hypertension mechanisms.[12] Some withanolides isolated from the plant may have anticancer activity.[13]

Antihepatotoxic effects (in rats) against carbon tetrachloride toxicity were found in one laboratory study.[14] Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been found in the plant. Evidence, mainly from animal models, suggests melatonin administration may lower risk of diseases associated with oxidative stress, including neurodegenerative diseases.[15]

In folk medicine, Physalis peruviana is thought to be a medicinal herb to treat diseases,[citation needed] none of which has been confirmed in human clinical trials as treatable by cape gooseberry or its extracts.

Pests and diseases[edit]

In South Africa, cutworms are the most important of the many insect pests that attack the cape gooseberry in seedbeds; red spiders after plants have been established in the field; and the potato tuber moth if the cape gooseberry is in the vicinity of potato fields. Hares damage young plants, and birds eat the fruits if not repelled. In India, mites may cause defoliation. In Jamaica, the leaves were suddenly riddled by what were apparently flea beetles. In the Bahamas, whitefly attacks on the very young plants and flea beetles on the flowering plants required control.[5]

In South Africa, the most troublesome diseases are powdery mildew and soft brown scale. The plants are prone to root rots and viruses if on poorly drained soil or if carried over to a second year. Therefore, farmers favor biennial plantings. Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas spp.) occurs in Queensland. A strain of tobacco mosaic virus may affect plants in India.[5] In New Zealand, plants can be infected by Candidatus liberibacter subsp. solanacearum.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. pp. 249–50. ISBN 978-0-309-07461-2. 
  2. ^ von Mueller, Ferdinand. Select Extra-Tropical Plants Readily Eligible For Industrial Culture Or Naturalization, With Indications Of Their Native Countries And Some Of Their Uses. Pub:Detroit, Mich., G.S. Davis 1884. Page 229. May be obtained from Amazon or downloaded from:http://www.archive.org/details/selectextratropi00muel
  3. ^ Loudon, Jane Wells. Botany for Ladies Or, a Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants. Pub: J. Murray (1842)
  4. ^ http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/cape-gooseberry.html
  5. ^ a b c Morton, J.F.; Russell, O.S. (1954). "The cape gooseberry and the Mexican husk tomato". Florida State Horticultural Society 67: 261–266. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  6. ^ Wu, SJ; Tsai JY, Chang SP, Lin DL, Wang SS, Huang SN, Ng LT (2006). "Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana". J Ethnopharmacol 108 (3): 407–13. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.027. PMID 16820275. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  7. ^ Franco, LA; Matiz GE, Calle J, Pinzón R, Ospina LF (2007). "Antiinflammatory activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana L. calyces". Biomedica 27 (1): 110–5. PMID 17546228. 
  8. ^ Pardo, JM; Fontanilla MR, Ospina LF, Espinosa L. (2008). "Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 7 (7): 3074–9. doi:10.1167/iovs.07-0633. PMID 18579763. 
  9. ^ Supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Physalis peruviana induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung cancer H661 cells Wu S.-J., Chang S.-P., Lin D.-L., Wang S.-S., Hou F.-F., Ng L.-T. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2009 47:6 (1132-1138)
  10. ^ beta-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M clinical studiesarrest" BMC Cancer 2010;10:46 Authors: Yen CY, Chiu CC, Chang FR, Chen JY, Hwang CC, Hseu YC, Yang HL, Lee AY, Tsai MT, Guo ZL, Cheng YS, Liu YC, Lan YH, Chang YC, Ko YC, Chang HW, Wu YC The crude ex
  11. ^ Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana Wu S.-J., Ng L.-T., Huang Y.-M., Lin D.-L., Wang S.-S., Huang S.-N., Lin C.-C. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2005 28:6 (963-966)
  12. ^ Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models Pinto M.D.S., Ranilla L.G., Apostolidis E., Lajolo F.M., Genovese M.I., Shetty K. Journal of Medicinal Food 2009 12:2 (278-291)
  13. ^ New cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis peruviana Lan Y.-H., Chang F.-R., Pan M.-J., Wu C.-C., Wu S.-J., Chen S.-L., Wang S.-S., Wu M.-J., Wu Y.-C. Food Chemistry 2009 116:2 (462-469)
  14. ^ Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats Arun M., Asha V.V" Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007 111:1 (110-114)
  15. ^ Levels of the antioxidant melatonin in fruits of edible berry species Kolar J., Malbeck J. Planta Medica 2009 75:9
  16. ^ Liefting, L. W.; L. I. Ward, J. B. Shiller, and G. R. G. Clover (2008). "A New ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ Species in Solanum betaceum (Tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (Cape Gooseberry) in New Zealand". Plant Disease 92 (11): 1588. doi:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1588B. Retrieved 2009-01-01.