ಉಡುಪಿ / उडुपी
Udupi Krishna Matha temple
|• Council President||Dinakar Shetty|
|• Total||68.23 km2 (26.34 sq mi)|
|Elevation||39 m (128 ft)|
|• Density||286/km2 (740/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|"Udupi - The Temple City"|
Udupi (Tulu: ಒಡಿಪು-oḍipu, Konkani:उडुपि and Kannada:ಉಡುಪಿ) is a town in the south-west Indian State of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of Udupi District. Udupi is notable for the Krishna Temple, and lends its name to the popular Udupi cuisine. Udupi, also known as Rajata Peetha and Shivalli (Shivabelli), a centre of pilgrimage, is situated about 58 km north of Mangalore and about 422 km north-west of Bangalore.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
It is widely believed that the name of Udupi was derived from its Tulu name Odipu. The Tulu name in turn is associated with a temple at Malpe, devoted to Vadapandeshwara. Another story is that the name Udupi came from the combination of the Sanskrit words Udu and Pa, which mean "stars" and "lord." According to legend, the moon's light was once reduced due to a curse by King Daksha, whose 27 daughters (the 27 stars, according to Hindu astrology) were married to the moon. The moon prayed to Lord Shiva to get back its original shine. Lord Shiva was pleased with the moon's prayer and restored its shine. Legend says that the moon and his wives made their prayer at the Chandramouleeshwara temple at Udupi, creating a linga that can be seen even today. According to this story, therefore, Udupi means the land of the "lord of the stars," the moon.
According to folklore, there was a storm in the sea at Malpe. Shri Madhvacharya was on the shore at the time and saw a ship which was in trouble. He helped the ship reach the shore to safety. The sailors were very grateful to him and gave him deities of Lord Krishna and Lord Balarama. He did the pratishte (installation ceremony) of the deity of Lord Balarama near Malpe. This temple is known as Vadapandeshwara. He brought the deity of Lord Krishna and did the pratishte at Udupi. This temple is known as Krishna Mutt.
Shri Madhvacharya handed over the puja and administration of Krishna Mutt to his 8 disciples. Each of them set up their Matha (monasteries) around the Krishna Mutt. These are known as the Ashta Matha. These Mathas are Pejavara, Puttige, Palimaru, Adamaru, Sodhe, Kaniyooru, Shirur and Krishnapura. Since then, the daily sevas (offerings to god) and administration of the Krishna Mutt are managed by the Ashta Mathas (eight temples). Each of the Ashta Mathas performs Mutt management activities for two years in a cyclical order. During the Paryaya festival, held every two years, the Mutt management is handed over to the next Matha. Each of the Mathas is headed by a Swami, who will be in charge of the Mutt during his Paryaya.
In the 16th century during Sri Vaadiraja's administration, Kanakadasa an ardent believer of God came to Udupi to worship Lord Krishna. He was not allowed inside the Mutt since he was from the caste other than Brahmin, as during that time only Brahmins had the privilege of entering the Mutt to offer pooja to the God. He tried to see Lord Krishna from a small window, but was only able to see Lord Krishna from the back. It is believed that Sri Krishna was pleased by Kanakadasa's bhakti(devotion), so he turned to window. This window is known as Kanakana Kindi. To this day, the Vigraha (Deity) of Lord Krishna faces the back of the Mutt towards the Kanakana Kindi. All Hindu temples have their Vigraha (Deity) facing the entrance of the temple, except Krishna Mutt. Kanakana Kindi is decorated with carvings depicting the ten incarnations of Vishnu. Through the nine small holes of the window we should see the deity of Sri Kadagolu Krishna as a very young boy. He holds the churning rod in His right hand and rope in his left. The Krishna Matha is known throughout the world for its religious customs, traditions, and learning in Dvaita philosophy. It is also the center of Daasa Sahitya, a form of literature that originated in Udupi.
As of the 2011 India census, Udupi had a population of 165,401 . Males constituted 49% of the population and females 51%. The average literacy rate was 93.89 %, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy was 86% and female literacy 81%. Eight percent of the population was under 6 years of age.
Udupi, which previously had a Town Municipal Council now has a City Municipal Council which came into existence in 1995. Areas around Udupi, such as Manipal,Parkala,Malpe,udyavar and Santhekatte were merged to form the City Municipal Council.
Udupi was carved out as a separate district from the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada district on 25 August 1997. Udupi, Kundapura and Karkala were bifurcated from the Dakshina Kannada District and the Udupi District was formed.
The climate in Udupi is hot in summers and pretty good in winter. During summers(from March to May) the temperature reaches up to 40°C and in winters (from December to February) it is usually between 32°C and 20°C.
The Monsoon period is from June to September with one of the rainfall averaging more than 4000mm every year and heavy winds.
|Climate data for Udupi|
|Average high °C (°F)||32.8
|Average low °C (°F)||20.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||1.1
The term Udupi (also Udipi) is also synonymous with delicious vegetarian food now found all over world. The origin of this cuisine is linked to Krishna Matha (Mutt). Lord Krishna is offered food of different varieties every day, and there are certain restrictions on ingredients during Chaturmasa (a four-month period during the monsoon season). These restrictions coupled with the requirement of variety led to innovation, especially in dishes incorporating seasonal and locally available materials. This cuisine was developed by Shivalli Madhwa Brahmins who cooked food for Lord Krishna, and at Krishna Matha in Udupi, the food is provided free. Restaurants specialized in Udupi cuisine can be seen widely in most metropolitan and large cities around the length and breadth of India.
National Highway NH 17 passes through Udupi. Other significant roads include the State Highways to Karkala and Dharmastala and to Shimoga and Sringeri. The NH-17 provides a link to Mangalore and Karwar via Kundapur. Private as well as government buses connect Udupi to various parts of Karnataka. Udupi has a railway station on the Konkan Railway. The nearest international airport to Udupi is Mangalore (Bajpe) Airport, which is 50 km away.
City and suburban transport is available for travel within Udupi and suburbs. The buses originate from the suburban bus stand (City Bus Stand). There are different route numbers.
The nearest harbour/port to Udupi is Malpe, which is 5 km away, and Gangoli (Kundapur), which is 36 km away. The New Mangalore Port/Harbour is 50 km away from Udupi.
Udupi Railway Station is managed by the Konkan Railways. It is about 2 km from Udupi town and is on the Thiruvananthapuram-Mumbai rail route. Direct trains are available to Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi, Rajkot and Ahmedabad. Travelling north, Kundapura Railway Station is the nearest main station.
Economy and industry
Udupi is becoming a major city of Karnataka. People here have the highest average per-capita income in Karnataka according to a recent survey by a private firm.. Poverty rate in Udupi is fairly low when compared to Bangalore and other districts of Karnataka.
Udupi is also the birthplace of the Syndicate Bank and Corporation Bank. Udupi's economy depends mainly on agriculture and fishing. Small-scale industries like the cashew industry, and other food industries and milk cooperatives are the most prominent. There is no large-scale industry in Udupi.
The Karnataka Government had signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Cogentrix Light and Power Industry to set up a thermal power plant in the district at Nandikur. However, because of stiff opposition from citizens and environmentalist groups, the project has been temporarily suspended. An attempt by the Nagarjuna Power Corporation to set up a similar plant at nearby Padubidri also met strong opposition. Now, the power plant has not only been set up, it is generating 1,200 MW of power under the name of Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL), a subsidiary of Lanco Infra, an Andhra Pradesh-based infrastructure major. The opposition, however, continues.
Art and culture
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
Bhuta Kola, Aati kalenja, Karangolu, and Nagaradhane are some of the cultural traditions of Udupi. The residents celebrate festivals such as Diwali, Dusshera and Christmas. Folk arts like Yakshagana are also popular.
Rathabeedhi Geleyaru, a local non-profit organisation, was founded to encourage creative pursuits, especially those that keep alive the traditions of the region. Its primary focus has been drama.
There are several festivals during which huge crowds of locals as well as outsiders gather in Udupi.
During the biennial Paryaya festival the temple management is handed over to the next Matha. Each of the Mathas is headed by a Swami, who will be in charge of the temple during his Paryaya. The Paryaya is held on 18 January on the even years (like 2010, 2012 and so on), starting early in the morning at around 3 AM. During this festival there are tableaus from various groups which gather in Udupi. Festivals like Makara Sankranthi, Ratha Sapthami, Madhva Navami, Hanuma Jayanthi, Sri Krishna Janmashtami, Navarathi Mahotsava, Madhva Jajanti (Vijaya Dashami), Naraka Chathurdashi, Deepavali, Geetha Jayanthi etc. are celebrated very grandly by Paryaya Mutt every year.
Krishna Janmashtami is held every year. During this festival groups of men wear "Pili Vesha (Tulu)/Huli vesha (Kannada)" Tiger costume and other costumes. They visit and collect donations from shops and houses around Udupi with a lot of enthusiasm among the participants and general public.
Bhajana Saptaha Mahothsava which is held in Sri Laxmi Venkatesh Temple. Saptaha means 7 days. During this time Bhajans are sung continuously day and night for 7 days. This event takes place every year during August starting from Nagara Panchaami till Dwadashi.
Rathothsava (Chariot festival) is held in almost all occasions around Rathabeedi. During this time the ratha (chariot) of Lord Krishna is pulled by locals around Rathabeedi.
Other places of interest
- The ancient temples of Ananteshvara and Chandramaulishvara.
- The Ambalpadi Devi temple and the Kadiyali Mahishamardini. T
- Manipal Venugopal Temple, Manipal University Campus, Dr TMA Pai Planetarium, Manipal Anatomy Museum, Manipal Health Sciences Library, Hotel Valleyview, Manipal Endpoint, Manipal Lake (Ganapati Temple) and Suvarna River (Ganapati Temple).
- The Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Research Centre museum in the M.G.M. College premises.
- Karkala Jain temples and Bahubali statue
- Moodabidri Jain temples
- "Udipi, India". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Brief history of Syndicate Bank". Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "History of Corporation Bank". Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- "KMC Manipal". Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Shivaram, Choodie (1996-08-11). "Karnataka Spiritual Centers Threatened by Development: Three 700-Year-Old Monasteries in Udupi and Scores of Temples to be Displaced by Reckless Industrial Projects". Hinduism Today.
- "Conquer Vices To Sublimate The Mind". The Hindu. 1996-01-29.
- "Ashtha Muth and Paryaya". Udupi temples. Retrieved 2005-12-12.
- Dr.Neria H. Hebbar. "The Eight Tulu Monasteries of Udupi". Retrieved 2005-12-12.
- Karnataka State Gazetteer 1983'. Government of Karnataka. 1983
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