||This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012)|
|Удмуртская Республика (Russian)
Удмурт Элькун (Udmurt)
|— Republic —|
|Anthem: National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic|
|Established||November 4, 1920|
|Government (as of 2012)|
|- President||Alexander Volkov|
|- Legislature||State Council|
|- Total||42,100 km2 (16,254.9 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||36.14 /km2 (93.6 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Udmurt|
Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия, tr. Udmurtiya; IPA: [ʊˈdmurtʲɪjə]; Udmurt: Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic (Russian: Удму́ртская Pеспу́блика, tr. Udmurtskaya Respublika; IPA: [ʊˈdmurtskəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə]; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Izhevsk. Population: 1,521,420 (2010 Census).
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Udmurtia|
The Uralic language community was founded in the late Stone Age in the Ural region. Later, a Permic community split off from the Uralic community. At the end of the first millennium CE, Proto-Udmurts were differentiated from the Permic generality.[clarification needed] Originally, the Proto-Udmurts lived in the middle Kama River region, then began to settle around the mouth of the Vyatka River.
20th century 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
The first industrial enterprise, in what is now Udmurtia, was the state-owned Votkinsk Zavod founded as a weapons arsenal on the west bank of the river Kama. In 1917, Udmurts joined the short lived Idel-Ural League which was dissolved in December 1918. On November 4, 1920, the Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed. On January 1, 1932, it was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934. In Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938, the murder of most of Udmurt's nationalist intellectuals had consequences for Udmurt society. During World War II, many industrial factories were evacuated from Ukraine and western borderlands to Udmurtia, considerably increasing the ethnic Russian population in Udmurtia.
The Udmurt Republic in its present form has existed since September 20, 1990.
|Kind||Polity or geographical feature||Direction|
|Republic of Bashkortostan||SE|
|Republic of Tatarstan||S/SW|
- Highest point: 332 m (1,089 ft)
- Maximum North-South distance:320 kilometers (200 mi)
- Maximum East-West distance: 200 kilometers (120 mi)
Major rivers include:
Natural resources 
The republic's natural resources include oil, peat, mineral waters, and more. Oil reserves are estimated to be 820 million tons (as of 2002). Approximately 7–8 million tons are extracted annually. Most of the oil is exported.
Forests cover over 40% of the republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous.
The republic has a moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.
|January||−14.5 °C (5.9 °F)|
|July||+18.3 °C (64.9 °F)|
- Average annual precipitation: 400–600 mm
Administrative divisions 
Although as of 2007 the population was declining, the decline was more pronounced in urban areas. Out of the 19,667 births reported in 2007, 12,631 were in urban areas (11.86 per 1000) and 7,036 were in rural areas (14.88 per 1000). Birth rates for rural areas are 25% higher than that of urban areas. Of the total of 21,727 deaths, 14,366 were reported in urban areas (13.49 per 1000) and 7,361 were in rural areas (15.56 per 1000). Natural decline of population was measured at -0.16% for urban areas and an insignificant -0.07% for rural areas (average for Russia was -0.33% in 2007).
As of 2010 the area has recorded slight population growth.
- Births: 23 161 (15.2 per 1000)
- Deaths: 19 443 (12.8 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate: 1.98(e)
Note: Data for Total fertility rate (2012) is calculation based on age and sex structure of Udmurt Republic at the beginning of 2012, number of births for 2012 and fertility structure in previous years. TFR was 1.825 in 2011.
Ethnic groups 
According to the 2010 Census, Russians make up 62.2% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts only make up 28%. Other groups include Tatars (6.7%), Ukrainians (0.6%), Mari (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population.
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 54,797 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in the republic.
According to a 2012 official survey 33.1% of the population of Udmurtia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 4% are Muslims, 2% of the population adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism) or to Udmurt Vos (Udmurt Neopaganism), 1% to forms of Protestantism, 1% to Starovery (Old Believers). In addition, 29% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 19% is atheist, and 3.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, a Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums, which tell of the history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of History and Culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk, as well as the newer Kalashnikov Museum (dedicated in November 2004), which has recently become a general small-arms museum. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union a new, pan-Uralic cultural movement has evolved called "Ethnofuturism".
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Constitution, Article 9.1
- "Biography". President. Udmurt Official. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION". Udmurtia Official. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution, Article 8
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "NUPI: Centre for Russian Studies". Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt (NUPI). Retrieved 2006-09-09. Data from the 1989 Soviet Census. The table at the bottom states that in "Udmurtiya"(the y is optional), the "% av gruppen"(% of total world population) is "69,46%" which is more or less two thirds.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- №663-XII 7 декабря 1994 г. «Конституция Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №62-РЗ от 22 ноября 2007 г. (#663-XII December 7, 1994 Constitution of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #62-RZ of November 22, 2007. ).
Further reading 
- Kalder, Daniel. Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist. Scribner Book Company. ISBN 0-7432-8994-3.
- Shkliaev, Aleksandr; Eva Toulouze (March 2001). "The mass media and the national question in Udmurtia in the 1990s". Nationalities Papers 29 (1): 97–108. doi:10.1080/00905990120050811.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Udmurtia|
- (Russian) (English) Official website of the Udmurt Republic