Udon Thani Province

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Udon Thani
Province
อุดรธานี
Official seal of Udon Thani
Seal
Motto: 'หนองประจักษ์คู่เมือง ลือเลื่องแหล่งธรรมะ อารยธรรมบ้านเชียงมรดกโลกห้าพันปี ธานีผ้าหมี่ขิด ธรรมชาติเนรมิตทะเลบัวแดง
   Udon Thani in    Thailand
   Udon Thani in    Thailand
Coordinates: 17°25′N 102°45′E / 17.417°N 102.750°E / 17.417; 102.750Coordinates: 17°25′N 102°45′E / 17.417°N 102.750°E / 17.417; 102.750
Capital Udon Thani
Government
 • Governor Amnat Phakarat
Area
 • Total 11,730 km2 (4,530 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 1,288,365[1]
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010) 0.810 (very high) (1st)
Postal code 41xxx
Calling code 042
Vehicle registration อุดรธานี
Accession into Kingdom of Thailand 1868
Accession into Kingdom of Thailand 1932
Website http://www.udonthani.go.th

Udon Thani is one of the northeast provinces (changwat) of Thailand. It is bordered by the provinces of Nong Khai to the north, Sakon Nakhon to the east, Khon Kaen to the south and Loei to the west. It occupies an area of 11,730 km².[2] The provincial capital is Udon Thani, the first city in Udon Thani.

Etymology[edit]

Udon Thani is said to mean "northern city". "Udon" is derived from "utara" in Sanskrit, meaning "northern direction", as Udon Thani is north of Bangkok. "Thani" means "city". Udon Thani was the capital city of Mondol Udon, the northern region.

History[edit]

Udon Thani first marked its name in the Bangkok era's history when Anuwong staged an uprising and marched Laotian troops to Nakhon Ratchasima during the period 1826–1828. Met with fierce resistance from the local troops led by Lady Mo, wife of the Nakhon Ratchasima governor. Anuwong was forced to retreat back to Nong Bua Lamphu, a city close to present-day Udon Thani. The Laotians eventually lost to Siam's troops and the Nong Bua Lamphu militia.[3]

Formerly known as Ban Mak-kaeng, Udon Thani was first settled as a military base established by Prince Prachak to crack down on an uprising in the northeastern state of Lao Puan. Ban Mak-kaeng has evolved from a rural city eventually into what is present-day Udon Thani.

The province is best known for the archeological site Ban Chiang and its Bronze Age remains, located in what is now a hamlet about 137 kilometres (85 mi) east of Udon. Udon is one of the more bustling markets for agricultural goods in the relatively dry northeast of Thailand, and received its biggest economic boost in the 1960s when the US built the Udon Royal Thai Air Force Base as a joint-force military base during the Vietnam War. The Mel Gibson film Air America refers to Udon and includes shots from the Udon base.) Udon Thani was also the largest base in the region for the CIA's anti-communism campaign.[citation needed]

The US turned the base over to the Thai military in 1976, but there were three significant after-effects of the US presence. First, a number of the natives in the area were well paid and learned English, which helped them become more marketable to the outside world (a significant percentage of the more educated group now work in the Middle East oilfields). Second, the base created ties, including a US consulate in Udon, closed in 1995, and a US Veterans of Foreign Wars Post. Finally, the base and the consulate caused the city to be viewed as a regional hub, and this impression has continued.

In recent years the province has received international attention due to the discovery of a large potash deposit in the area. Some anticipate that the region will become a major exporter of the mineral. The granting of the necessary approvals, however, has been substantially delayed due to public opposition to the mine. Many villagers who live directly above the proposed mine site have expressed concern that the company and its environmental impact assessment (EIA) have not adequately addressed concerns of salinization of groundwater and soil or land subsidence. Both would threaten the economic stability of local communities that rely primarily on income derived from rice farming.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Udon Thani (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.0
(86)
32.4
(90.3)
34.9
(94.8)
36.3
(97.3)
34.4
(93.9)
33.2
(91.8)
32.6
(90.7)
32.0
(89.6)
31.9
(89.4)
31.6
(88.9)
30.7
(87.3)
29.1
(84.4)
32.42
(90.37)
Average low °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
18.9
(66)
21.9
(71.4)
24.4
(75.9)
24.8
(76.6)
25.0
(77)
24.9
(76.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.2
(75.6)
22.9
(73.2)
19.7
(67.5)
16.4
(61.5)
22.02
(71.63)
Rainfall mm (inches) 6.3
(0.248)
16.1
(0.634)
39.3
(1.547)
102.7
(4.043)
199.3
(7.846)
159.6
(6.283)
145.8
(5.74)
184.9
(7.28)
235.0
(9.252)
123.3
(4.854)
20.0
(0.787)
8.7
(0.343)
1,241
(48.857)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 1 3 4 8 16 18 18 21 18 8 2 1 118
 % humidity 65 63 60 63 74 78 78 81 81 76 69 67 71.3
Source: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)

Population and demographics[edit]

Udon Thani's geographic position in the north of northeastern Thailand and its proximity to the Laotian capital, Vientiane, has contributed to the province's rapid development as a transport and industrial hub. This has created jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as from overseas, particularly from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and China. In recent decades, the influx of illegal immigrants, particularly from Vietnam, has further swelled Udon Thani's population.[citation needed]

Rank Districts Population 2010
1 Mueang Udon Thani 397,049
2 Kumphawapi 125,193
3 Ban Dung 123,227
4 Nong Han 114,982
5 Phen 110,190
6 Ban Phue 107,965
7 Kut Chap 62,301
8 Nong Wua So 61,658
9 Wang Sam Mo 55,730
10 Nam Som 55,622
11 Non Sa-at 48,459
12 Si That 47,888
13 Chai Wan 38,209
14 Thung Fon 31,029
15 Sang Khom 28,441
16 Nong Saeng 25,802
17 Na Yung 25,701
18 Prachaksinlapakhom 24,693
19 Phibun Rak 24,185
20 Ku Kaeo 21,962

Udon Thani had a population of 1,548,107 as of 2010. The province's ethnic composition consists of Lao, Chinese, and other ethnic groups.[citation needed] The most populated cities in Udon Thani as of 2010[citation needed] are:

Rank City Population 2010
1 Udon Thani 315,329
2 Nong Samrong 27,051
3 Bandung 16,003
4 Non Sung - Nam Kham 10,008

Administration[edit]

Administrative districts of Udon Thani.

List of districts[edit]

Udon Thani is divided into 20 administrative districts (another 5 are now in Nong Bua Lamphu Province):

  1. Mueang Udon Thani
  2. Kut Chap
  3. Nong Wua So
  4. Kumphawapi
  5. Non Sa-at
  6. Nong Han
  7. Thung Fon
  8. Chai Wan
  9. Si That
  10. Wang Sam Mo
  1. Ban Dung
  1. Ban Phue
  2. Nam Som
  3. Phen
  4. Sang Khom
  5. Nong Saeng
  6. Na Yung
  7. Phibun Rak
  8. Ku Kaeo
  9. Prachaksinlapakhom

Transportation[edit]

Udon Thani is linked to the rest of Thailand by comprehensive air, road and rail connections. Most of the major highways that run through the northeastern Thailand, including Mittraphap Road, serve Udon Thani as well.

Udon Thani International Airport, the province's primary airport, is in the district of Mueang Udon Thani near the border with Nong Khai Province.

Education[edit]

Udon Thani has several tertiary education institutions. Most of these academic centres are concentrated in major towns and cities in Udon Thani:

Public universities[edit]

Name Acronym Founded Location
Udon Thani Rajabhat University UDRU 1923 Mueang Udon Thani

Private universities and university colleges[edit]

Name Acronym Founded Location
Santapol College STU 1998 Mueang Udon Thani

Healthcare[edit]

Notable hospitals in Udon Thani are listed below:

Public Hospitals

Private Hospitals

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

Television in Udon Thani consists of thirteen free-to-air stations, one satellite television network, and two Internet television services. Seven of the thirteen free-to-air stations are broadcast from Laos (with 4 foreign relay stations). All of Thai stations are broadcast from Bangkok, except for NBT which has two hours of local programming.

Free-to-air
Satellite television
Internet television

Radio[edit]

Radio stations in Udon Thani are available on FM frequencies.

Commercial radio stations available in Udon Thani include Radio One (88.5), New Music (89.0), Cool FM (89.3), SR Radio (89.9), UFM (90.25), Kiss FM (90.75), NN Radio (91.75), Big FM (92.5), Udon FM (97.0), Nice FM (97.25), Live Hits (98.0), WOW FM (98.25), Sayamchai FM (98.5), OK Love (100.0), P Radio (104.4), Mittaphap FM (104.75), Isama Radio (105.25), Wansabai Radio (106.5), and Hit FM (107.0). Commercial radio stations are operated by a few media companies.

Local community radio stations include Rajabhat University Radio (107.7) operated by Udon Thani Rajabhat University (only available in Udon Thani and Phen), EFM (101.25), and Education Radio (96.0) which targets university students.

The seven government radio networks available are Modern Radio (91.5), NBT (93.75), Parliament FM (87.5), Post FM (99.0), Border Patrol FM (100.25), Police FM (105.75), Air Force FM (104.0). The regions of Udon Thani that border other provinces can also receive two other MCOT radio stations; Khon Kaen FM (Udon Thani-Khon Kaen border) and Nong Khai FM (Udon Thani-Nong Khai border).

The radio stations from Laos available are LNR 1 (103.7), LNR 2 (97.3), and Vientiane City Radio (105.5).

Image gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population 2010-09-01 Census UT Province". GeoHive. Retrieved 2014-12-05. 
  2. ^ "Expanded Administrative Units". GeoHive. Retrieved 2014-12-05. 
  3. ^ Udon Thani Provincial Office (1985), Udon Thani: A History of a Provincial Administration, Bangkok: Amarin Printing.

External links[edit]