Udyoga Parva

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After the Pandavas complete their exile, they ask Kuru brothers to let them return to their kingdom according to the terms of exile. The Kurus refuse. As war discussion begins on both sides, Sanjaya meets with Pandavas and Krishna (pictured above) in an effort to avoid war. This meeting is covered in Sanjaya-yana book of Udyoga Parva.

The Udyoga Parva (Sanskrit: उद्योग पर्व), or the Book of Effort, is the fifth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata.[1] Udyoga Parva has 10 sub-books and 198 chapters.[2][3]

Udyoga Parva describes the period immediately after the exile of Pandavas had ended. The Pandavas return, demand their half of the kingdom. The Kauravas refuse.[4] The book includes the effort for peace that fails, followed by the effort to prepare for the great war - the Kurukshetra War.[5]

Viduraniti, a theory of leadership, is embedded in Udyoga Parva (Chapters 33-40).[6] The Sanatsujatiya, a text commented upon by Adi Shankara, is contained within the Udyoga Parva (Chapters 41-46).[7]

Structure and chapters[edit]

This Parva (book) has 10 sub-parvas (sub-books or little books) and 198 adhyayas (sections, chapters).[2][3] The following are the sub-parvas:

1. Sainyodyoga Parva (sections: 1 - 19)[2]
The 13th year of exile is over. Kings assemble in king Virata's court to mark the marriage of his daughter to Arjuna's son Abhimanyu. Krishna gives a speech to gathered kings that Pandavas must now return to their kingdom, Kauravas must return the kingdom they got from Pandavas for 13 years after a game of dice. Krishna speculates that Kauravas may refuse the return, may use military against Yudhisthira personally visits and makes the demand, or may be willing to a peaceful transfer. The intentions of the other side are unknown, suggests Krishna, so they should send a capable ambassador to understand the intentions of Kauravas and arrange a peaceful transfer.
Satyaki reminds the gathered kings that the Kauravas got the kingdom by trick and evil, that evil people don't change. The proposed peaceful diplomacy is ridiculous, claims Satyaki, because peace can never be negotiated from a position of weakness. Only the strong who have the power and means to destroy their opponent, get a fair and just deal during peace negotiations. Satyaki recommends Pandavas should establish a visibly strong army, then start negotiations. Drupada suggests despatching envoys to other virtuous and good kingdoms to build military alliance for Pandavas. Krishna approves. Envoys spread out. Kings and Krishna return to their homes. In parallel, Kauravas are already building their alliances for war, to weaken Pandavas to a point that they do not even ask back their kingdom. Both Pandavas and Kauravas meet Krishna in Dwaraka, for their military preparations, but with morally opposite stands. Arjuna requests Krishna and his army to not fight at all, be the messenger of peace. Duryodhana, in contrast, wants the Krishna's army to serve him, be the messenger of war. Krishna decides and promises to drive Arjuna's chariot if war becomes necessary. Both sides gather a massive alliance of armies, with Kaurava group's army being larger. Salya joins Kauravas side, meets Yudhisthira to continue the effort to avoid a war. Yudhisthira convinces Salya that Kauravas are in error. Salya agrees to explain Yudhisthira position to Duryodhana. Salya leaves Pandavas camp to meet the Kaurava brothers.
Sanjaya meets Dhritarashtra as his envoy for peace negotiations.
2. Sanjaya-yana Parva (sections: 20 - 32)[3]
Drupada's envoy reaches Kaurava brothers. He announces that Pandava brothers do not want war, they see war as something that ruins the world, all they want is an amicable settlement. He also informs the Dhritarashtra and Kuru family, that Yudhisthira seeks peace not out of weakness; they have seven Akshauhinis (large battalions). Drupada's envoy asks that Kaurava brothers give virtue and peace a chance, they give back that which should be returned. Bhishma responds that peace makes sense, but Karna in the court of Kaurava brothers argues war is preferable. Dhritarashtra dismisses Drupada's envoy, promising to send Sanjaya to the Pandavas with a full response.
Dhritarashtra summons Sanjaya, asks him to meet the Pandava brothers, but does not propose anything concrete about peaceful transfer of kingdom. Sanjaya meets Yudhisthira, urges peace, says war will cause losses to both sides, notes that if Pandavas kill Kauravas, it will make them miserable in victory. Yudhisthira says Pandavas do not want war, they want peace and prosperity. Dhritarashtra, claims Yudhisthira, is an abusive and greedy king, evil to the people of Indraprastha - a kingdom Pandavas had to leave during the exile, and Dhritarashtra must return the kingdom to him to make peace. Yudhisthira suggests to Sanjaya, in Chapter 31 of the parva, that he would accept a smaller kingdom if that would prevent war, further peace. Pandavas are ready for peace, and for war, claims Yudhisthira. Sanjaya returns to Dhritarashtra, urges him to take the path of peace, and in a brutally directly manner calls Dhritarashtra's approach towards Pandavas as sinful, suicidal and wrong.[2]
3. Prajagara Parva (sections: 33 - 40)[2]
Dhritarashtra summons Vidura for counsel, confesses Sanjaya's message have disordered his senses and caused him sleeplessness. Dhritarashtra asks for moral guidance and wisdom to lead his kingdom. Sage Vidura presents a discourse that is referred to as Viduraniti. It describes the character and habits of wise men, how they combine virtuous life with prosperity. These adhyayas also describe the duties and actions of kings that enables a prosperous kingdom. After listening to Vidura, Dhritarashtra leans for peace and an accommodation of Pandava brothers; however, he says Duryodhana wants the opposite. Dhritarashtra claims his exertion may be in vain, destiny will do what it wants to.
Sanatsujata meets Dhritarashtra for counsel.
4. Sanatsujata Parva (sections: 41 - 46)[3]
Dhritarashtra continues in his suffering of anxiety and depression. He seeks more counsel from sage Vidura. The sage says he was born in Sudra class[8] and has already counseled the king, perhaps the king should get second opinion from Sanat-Sujata[9] who was born in Brahmin class. Vidura brings in sage Sanat-Sujata. Dhritarashtra asks him questions about eternal being, life after death and immortality. The response of Sanat-Sujata is another treatise called Sanatsujatiya (sometimes spelled Sanatsugatiya or Sanatsugâtîya).[1][10] Scholars[7] suggest Sanatsujatiya may have been a later insertion and addition into the original Epic. Adi Shankara commented on Sanatsujatiya, parts of the commentary too have been corrupted later by unknown individuals.[7]
Sanatsujatiya is a treatise on spirituality, inward contemplation, and marga (paths) to liberation and freedom. Sage Sanat-Sujata insists that rituals and Vedic ceremonies are not the path to emancipation, ignorance is living death, it is true knowledge of universal self that emancipates; he suggests that gods are ordinary creatures who have realized that self knowledge.[2][7] This view of human beings as creatures of unlimited potential, mirrors those found in the Upanishads. Craving for wealth, desire for fame and longing for power suggests Sanatsugātiýa, is a cause for misery. Knowledge, virtue and faith in fruits of action are a cause of contentment. Dhritarashtra reminds Sanatsujata that Vedas declare sacrificial ceremonies remove sins and emancipate, why should men not engage in these practices. Sanat-Sujata replies that there are different paths, all with one goal. There is great inconsistency in interpretation of these paths. Ceremonies put undue importance to external forms, often ignore the inner self.[2] Dhritarashtra asks if one can achieve emancipation in after life by renouncing everything but without virtue and right action. Sanatsujata replies that it is the inner state that matters, not outward manifestations. The hymns of Veda do not rescue people from sin they commit. Vice and knowledge can never dwell together. Sanatsujata then outlines[2][11] twelve virtues one must live by and twelve vices to avoid, followed by three requirements for free, liberated life. In Chapter 44, Sanatsujata suggests knowledge is the only path to emancipation. In Chapter 45, Sanatsujata suggests virtuous attributes and actions are the path to gain that knowledge. After the counsel from Sanatsujata, Dhritarashtra retires for the night.
5. Yanasandhi Parva (sections: 47 - 73)[3]
The Kaurava brothers assemble in the court to hear Sanjaya who has returned from Pandava brothers (see Sanjaya-yana Parva above). Bhisma recommends peace and returning kingdom. Drona supports Bhisma. Karna objects. Bhisma ridicules Karna. Dhritarashtra inquires about Yudhisthria's military preparation. Sanjaya frankly criticizes Dhritarashtra for his vicious conduct towards Pandavas. Duryodhana reminds everyone of the warriors on their side, his own courage and readiness for war. Dhritarashtra asks about kingdoms who have allied to Pandavas. Sanjaya provides the details. Duryodhana interjects and provides a list of kingdoms who have allied with Kauravas and are ready for war. Dhritarashtra asks his son to accept peace and give back the kingdom to the Pandavas.[3] Duryodhana mocks and refuses. Karna joins Duryodhana, mocks Pandavas and boasts his own warrior powers. Bhisma criticizes Karna again. Karna gets upset, promises to not fight till Bhisma is alive, and walks out of the court in anger. Dhritarashtra again asks Duryodhana to choose peace. Duryodhana insists on war.
Krishna explains to Karna who his biological mother is, how is a brother of the Pandavas, and why avoiding a war and virtuous peace is the right thing to do.
6. Bhagavat-yana Parva (sections: 74 - 150)[2]
The Pandava brothers meet their counsels and Krishna. Yudhisthira opens the meeting with desire for peace. Krishna offers to be an envoy of peace to Kauravas, with the counsel that Pandavas should prepare everything for war. Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva and Satyaki take turns and express their views to Krishna, who comments to each. Krishna leaves for the court of Kaurava brothers, meets Rishis on the way. Dhritarashtra proposes to ill treat Krishna as envoy. Bhisma and Vidura get upset and censure the proposal. Duryodhana proposes they should imprison Krishna. The Kurus brothers attempt to accost Krishna, but fail because of Krishna's special abilities. Duryodhana invites Krishna to his home, Krishna refuses. Krishna meets Vidura, then appears in Kauravas court. There he appeals for peace and conciliation. His efforts fail. The parva then describes the symbolic story of Garuda to emphasize peace is better. Kanwa concurs with Krishna on peace. Sage Narada appears, who tells the story of Gavala, Yayati and Madhavi to explain to Duryodhana that his obstinate craving for war is wrong. Duryodhana meets Sakuni, schemes again to imprison Krishna. Krishna learns about the scheme, laughs it off. Dhritarashtra rebukes Duryodhana for thinking of imprisoning Krishna, the envoy.
Krishna leaves the city of Kauravas, with Karna in a chariot. He tells Karna who Karna's real mother is, how he is a brother of the Pandavas, asks he should join his brothers. Karna refuses, says the war will be another sacrifice. Kunti, Karna's real mother meets him, they talk.[3] She explains what happened when Karna was born, urges him to reconsider his position about the war. Karna replies that she never was a mother to him, she abandoned him as a baby, she never sought his good so far, but now she suddenly appears in his life for her own selfish reasons. He is angry and claims that everyone wants to use him, like a boat to cross the sea of war and get where they want to go. This is his chance to fight the Arjuna, earn love and respect of the world. He promises Kunti that he will not kill the other four Pandava brothers, that his focus will be to kill Arjuna. She will have five sons after war - with either Karna or Arjuna left, just like she pretended to have five sons before war. Kunti trembles with sorrow. Krishna reaches Pandavas camp and updates them of his effort at peace as an envoy, how he failed.
7. Sainya-niryana Parva (sections: 151 - 159)[2]
The allied armies of Pandavas march to Kurukshetra for war. The preparations and the march is described In Sainya-niryana sub-parva of Udyoga Parva.
War preparations accelerate. Yudhisthira seeks nominations for the commander in chief of allied forces behind Pandava brothers. Many names come forward, Krishna selects Dhristadyumna. The Pandava army marches for war to Kurukshetra. Duryodhana with Karna, Sakuni and Dussasana prepare for war. Bhisma is appointed by Duryodhana as commander in chief of armies behind Kaurava brothers. Both sides select chiefs for each of their Akshauhinis (battalions) - Pandavas have 7 battalions, Kauravas have 11. Dhritarashtra meets Sanjaya, expresses his anxiety, wonders if the war is one of choice or destiny.
8. Ulukabhigamana Parva (sections: 160 - 164)[3]
Duryodhana sends Uluka to Pandavas camped in Kurukshetra for war, with insulting messages to Yudhisthira, Bhima, Nakula, Sahadeva, Virata, Drupada, Dhananjaya, Sikhandin, Dhristadyumna and Vasudeva, as part of psychological warfare. The parva recites the fable of the cat and the mouse. Bhima gets upset when he receives Duryodhana message through Uluka. Krishna intervenes, and asks Uluka to leave the camp in peace, as he is just a messenger. Uluka insists on giving all the messages. Each person who listens to the message, replies. Uluka returns to Kauravas camp, and delivers the messages from Pandava camp to him. Duryodhana arrays his troops to face the army of Pandavas. Yudhisthira moves his army. Dhristadyumna, the commander in chief of allied Pandava forces, studies the strengths of the enemy, appoints particular warriors in Pandavas side to focus on particular warriors on Kauravas side.
9. Rathatiratha-sankhyana Parva (sections: 165 - 172)[3]
Infighting erupts within the Kaurava side. Bhisma lists rathas, atirathas and ardharatha in Kaurava side, ridicules and mocks Karna being an ardharatha. Karna gets angry with Bhisma. The parva describes rathas and atirathas on Pandava side, ready for war.
10. Amvopakkyana Parva (sections: 173 - 198)[2]
This parva recites the story of Bhisma past exploits and a maiden named Amva, and how his emotional attachment means he can fight everyone but Sikhandin - a battalion commander in Pandavas side. Duryodhana asks his commanders the time it will take each of them to annihilate the allied armies behind Pandavas. Bhisma mentions a month, Drona also a month, Kripa estimates two months, Aswasthama claims ten days, Karna says he can annihilate the Pandavas in five days. Bhisma ridicules and mocks Karna. Karna gets angry with Bhisma again. Yudhisthira asks his team the time it will take them to annihilate the armies behind Kauravas. Arjuna says one second. Pandava army marches to the battle front. Kaurava army marches to the battle front. Both armies face each other for war.

English translations[edit]

Udyoga Parva was composed in Sanskrit. Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli[3] and Manmatha Nath Dutt.[2] The translations vary with each translator's interpretations.

Clay Sanskrit Library has published a 15 volume set of the Mahabharata which includes a translation of Udyoga Parva by Kathleen Garbutt. This translation is modern and uses an old manuscript of the Epic. The translation does not remove verses and chapters now widely believed to be spurious and smuggled into the Epic in 1st or 2nd millennium AD.[12]

According to the Parvasangraha chapter of Adi Parva of one version of the Mahabharata, Vyasa had composed 186 sections in Udyoga Parva, with 6,698 slokas.[13]

J. A. B. van Buitenen completed an annotated edition of Udyoga Parva, based on critically edited and least corrupted version of Mahabharata known in 1975.[1] Debroy, in 2011, notes that updated critical edition of Udyoga Parva, with spurious and corrupted text removed, has 10 sub-books, 197 adhyayas (chapters) and 6,001 shlokas (verses).[14] Debroy's translation of a critical edition of Udyoga Parva has been published in Volume 4 of his series.[15]

Salient features[edit]

Udyoga Parva has several embedded treatises, such as a theory of leadership (Viduraniti),[6] a theory of dūta (diplomats, envoys) and a theory of just war.

Viduraniti[edit]

Sage Vidura counsels Dhritarashtra (shown above) on leadership and characteristics of wise people. Vidura seeks to prevent war by urging evil king Dhritarashtra to reconsider his behavior and actions against Pandava brothers.

In Chapters 33 through 40 of Udyoga Parva, also called Prajagara sub-parva, sage Vidura outlines things wise people and leaders should do, and things they should not. These are known as Viduraniti.[6][16] Some examples of his recommendations for leaders:

  1. He should wish for the prosperity of all, and should never set heart on inflicting misery on any group.
  2. He should pay attention to those who have fallen in distress and adversity. He should not ignore persistent sufferings of those that depend on him, even if the suffering is small.
  3. He should show compassion to all creatures, do what is good for all creatures rather than a select few.
  4. He should never impede the development and growth of agriculture and economic activity by anyone.
  5. He should be always be prepared to protect those that depend on him for their safety and security.
  6. He should be fair and accessible to his people. By means of virtue should he attain success, by means of virtue should he sustain it.
  7. He should consider the welfare of his people as his personal responsibility.
  8. He should encourage learning and transmission of knowledge.
  9. He should encourage profit and virtue. Prosperity depends on good deeds. Good deeds depend on prosperity.
  10. He should avoid friendship with the sinful.
  11. He should never misuse wealth, use harsh speech nor inflict extreme or cruel punishments.
  12. He should only appoint those as ministers (senior positions in his staff) whom he has examined well for their history of virtue, dispositions, activity and whether they give others their due.

Viduraniti also includes few hundred verses with suggestions for personal development and characteristics of a wise person.[2] For example, in Chapter 33, Vidura suggests a wise person refrains from anger, exultation, pride, shame, stupefaction and vanity. He has reverence and faith, he is unhampered in his endeavors by either adversity or prosperity. He believes virtue and profit can go together, exerts and acts to the best of his ability, disregards nothing. He understands quickly, listens carefully, acts with purpose. He does not grieve for what is lost, and does not lose his sense during crisis. He is constantly learning, he seeks enlightenment from everything he experiences. He acts after deciding, and decides after thinking. He neither behaves with arrogance, nor with excessive humility. He never speaks ill of others, nor praises himself. He does not exult in honours to himself, nor grieves at insults; he is not agitated by what others do to him just like a calm lake near river Ganges.[17]

Theory of envoys[edit]

J. A. B. van Buitenen,[18] and others,[19] have referred to parts of Udyoga Parva, along with Book 12 of Mahabharata and non-Epic works such as Arthasastra, as a treatise on diplomats and envoys (called dūta, Sanskrit: दूत) involved in negotiations between parties. Broadly, the Parva recognizes four types of envoys - Samdisțārtha are envoys who convey a message but do not have any discretion to negotiate; Parimițārtha are envoys who are granted a circumscribed purpose with some flexibility on wording; Nisrșțārtha are envoys with an overall goal and significant discretion to adapt the details of negotiations to the circumstances; finally, Dūtapranidhi, a full ambassador who has full confidence of the party he represents, understands the interests and Dharma (law, morals, duties) of both parties, and can decide the goal as well as style of negotiations (Krishna acts as such an ambassador in Bhagavat-yana sub-parva of Udyoga Parva).[18]

Udyoga Parva outlines the four methods of negotiations recommended for envoys who are dūtapranidhi: conciliation for the cause of peace and Dharma (sāman), praise your side while dividing the opposition by describing consequences of success and consequences of failure to reach a deal (bheda), bargain with gifts and concessions (dāna), bargain with threats of punishment (daņda).[18] Beyond describing the types of diplomats, Udyoga Parva also lists how the envoy and messengers for negotiations should be selected, the safety and rights of envoys that must be respected by the receiving party regardless of how unpleasant or pleasant the message is. Envoys must be honest, truthful and direct without fear, that they serve not only the cause of king who sends them, but the cause of dharma (law), peace and truth.[18][19]

Quotations and teachings[edit]

Krishna visits the court of Kauravas as an envoy to prevent war, encourage peaceful negotiations.

Sainyodyoga Parva, Chapter 3:

As the inner nature of a man is, so he speaks.

—Satyaki, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.3.1[20]

Sanjayayana Parva, Chapter 25:

War causes destruction to all, it is sinful, it creates hell, it gives the same result in victory and defeat alike.

—Sanjaya, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.25.7[21]

Sanjayayana Parva, Chapter 27:

Wrath is a bitter remedy for evils, it causes malady in the head, detroys fame, and is a source of sinful acts. It ought to be controlled by a good man and those that do not control it are bad men.

—Sanjaya, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.27.23[22]

Sanjayayana Parva, Chapter 29:

One school says that it is by work that we obtain salvation, another school says that it is through knowledge.
Yet a man, even knowing all the properties of good, will not be satisfied without eating.
Knowledge bears fruit with action. Look at this world: one oppressed by thirst is satisfied by drinking water.
The opinion that any thing other than work is good, is nothing but the uttering of a fool and of a weak man.
In this world, the gods are resplendent through work. Wind blows through work. Sun works to cause day and night. Moon works. Rivers carry water through work. Indra works to shower rains.
Shakra became chief, by means of work, observing truth, virtue, self control, forbearance, impartiality and amiability.

—Vasudeva, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.29.6-14[23]

Prajagara Parva, Chapter 33:

Wise men rejoice in virtuous deeds, and do those that tend to their prosperity, and look not with contempt on what is good.
That man is said to be wise who is cognizant of the nature of all creatures, of causes and effects of all acts, and the means of human beings.
A wise man regulates his studies by wisdom, his wisdom follows his studies, he is ever ready to respect those that are good.
A wise man is he who, having acquired immense wealth, learning or power, conducts himself without any haughtiness.

—Vidura, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.33.20-45[24]

Prajagara Parva, Chapter 33:

Alone one should not taste a delicious dish, alone one should not think of profitable undertakings, alone one should not go on a journey, and alone one should not be awake amidst those that are asleep.

Forgiveness is a great power. For the weak, as well as for the strong, forgiveness is an ornament.
Forgiveness subdues every thing in the world. What is there that cannot be accomplished by forgiveness?
What can a wicked man do to one who has the sword of pacification in his hand?
Fire, falling on ground devoid of vegetation, is extinguished of itself.

Virtue is the highest good, forgiveness the supreme peace, knowledge the deepest satisfaction, and benevolence the one cause of happiness.

—Vidura, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.33.51-56[25]

Prajagara Parva, Chapter 34:

The reasons of an act, and its result should be carefully considered before it is done.
A wise man does or does not do an act after reflecting on the reasons of an act and its results if done.
A fish out of greediness does not think about the result of an action and swallows up the iron hook concealed in a dainty morsel.
He, who plucks unripe fruits from trees, does not get the juice out of it; and moreover he destroys the seeds.
Having carefully considered what will befall me after doing an act or not doing it, a man should do things or not do them.

—Vidura, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.34.8-15[26]

Prajagara Parva, Chapter 34:

The body of a man is like the chariot; his soul, the driver; and his senses, the horses.
Drawn by those excellent steeds when well trained, he that is wise and patient, performs life's journey in peace.

—Vidura, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.34.59[27]

Prajagara Parva, Chapter 34:

Arrows and darts can be extracted from the body,
but the darts of words cannot be extracted from the depth of the heart.
Arrows of words are shot from the mouth,
wounded by which one grieves night and day;
For they touch the innermost recesses of the hearts of others,
therefore a wise man should not fling them on others.

—Vidura, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.34.79-80[28]

Sanat-Sujata Parva, Chapter 42:

Ignorance is death. Truthfulness, kindness, modesty, self-control and knowledge are antidotes of ignorance.

—Sanatsujata, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.42.4, v.42.45[29]

Truth is the solemn vow of the good.

—Sanatsujata, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata[10]

Sanat-Sujata Parva, Chapter 43:

As a twig obtained from a big tree is used in pointing out the new moon, so are the Vedas used in pointing out the truth and other attributes of the Supreme Soul.
That man is not a devotee who observes the vow of silence, nor he who lives in the woods; but that one is said to be a true devotee who knows his own nature.

—Sanatsujata, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.43.55-60[30]

Sanat-Sujata Parva, Chapter 44:

Dhritarastra said: Of what form is the Supreme Soul?
Sanat-Sujata said: It is the foundation of everything; it is nectar; it is the universe; it is vast, and delightful.

—Sanatsujata, Udyoga Parva, Mahabharata Book v.44.25-30[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c J. A. B. van Buitenen (Translator), The Mahabharata, Volume 3, 1978, ISBN 978-0226846651, University of Chicago Press
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Published by P.C. Roy (1886)
  4. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen (Translator), The Mahabharata, Volume 3, 1978, ISBN 978-0226846651, University of Chicago Press, pages 133-141
  5. ^ Rosen, Steven (2006). Essential Hinduism. London: Praeger Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 0-275-99006-0. 
  6. ^ a b c Sivakumar & Rao (2009), Building ethical organisation cultures – Guidelines from Indian ethos, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 2(4), pages 356-372
  7. ^ a b c d K.T. Telang in Max Müller (Editor), Volume 8, 2nd Edition, The Bhagavadgîtâ with the Sanatsugātiýa and the Anugītā, p. 137, at Google Books
  8. ^ The words class and caste do not have Sanskrit equivalents, most modern literature treats Sudra and Brahmin as castes; Manmatha Nath Dutt, in 1896, translated this verse with word class, his translation on page 66 of Udyoga Parva is retained here.
  9. ^ Sanatsujata is considered identical to Sanatkumara - K.T. Telang in Max Müller (Editor), Volume 8, 2nd Edition, The Bhagavadgîtâ with the Sanatsugātiýa and the Anugītā, p. 135, at Google Books
  10. ^ a b Paul Cotton (1918), Readings from the Upanishads, The Open Court, Volume 32, Number 6, pages 321-328
  11. ^ Sanatsujata is considered identical to Sanatkumara - K.T. Telang in Max Müller (Editor), Volume 8, 2nd Edition, The Bhagavadgîtâ with the Sanatsugātiýa and the Anugītā, p. 166, at Google Books
  12. ^ Kathleen Garbutt, Book V - Vol 1 & 2, The Clay Sanskrit Library, Mahabharata: 15-volume Set, ISBN 978-0-8147-3191-8, New York University Press, Bilingual Edition
  13. ^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan (1883–1896). "Section II". The Mahabharata: Book 1: Adi Parva. Sacred texts archive. p. 25. 
  14. ^ Bibek Debroy, The Mahabharata : Volume 3, ISBN 978-0143100157, Penguin Books, page xxiii - xxiv of Introduction
  15. ^ Bibek Debroy (2011), The Mahabharata, Volume 4, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143100164, Udyoga Parva
  16. ^ M.R. Yardi (1983), THE MULTIPLE AUTHORSHIP OF THE MAHĀBHĀRATA A STATISTICAL APPROACH (Paper V), Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 64 (1/4), pages 35-58
  17. ^ Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896) Prajagara Parva in Book 5 The Mahabharata
  18. ^ a b c d J. A. B. van Buitenen (Translator), The Mahabharata, Volume 3, 1978, ISBN 978-0226846651, University of Chicago Press, pages 134-137
  19. ^ a b Ludo Rocher (2012), The Ambassador in Ancient India, in Studies in Hindu Law and Dharmaśāstra, ISBN 978-0857285508, pages 219-233
  20. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 3
  21. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 29
  22. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 32
  23. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 34 Abridged
  24. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 42-43 Abridged
  25. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 43
  26. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 46-47
  27. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 48
  28. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 49
  29. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 67, 69
  30. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 72
  31. ^ Udyoga Parva The Mahabharata, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), page 73-74

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