Uenohara Station first opened on August 1, 1901, as a station for both freight and passenger service on the Japanese Government Railways (JGR) Chūō Main Line. The JGC became the JNR after the end of World War II. Regularly scheduled freight services were discontinued in April 1, 1980. With the dissolution and privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control of the East Japan Railway Company. Automated turnstiles using the SuicaIC Card system came into operation from November 18, 2001.