|- City -|
Goverment building in Ufa
Location of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia
|City Day||June 12|
|Administrative status (as of March 2011)|
|Federal subject||Republic of Bashkortostan|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of republic significance of Ufa|
|Capital of||Republic of Bashkortostan|
|Administrative center of||city of republic significance of Ufa, Ufimsky District|
|Municipal status (as of February 2012)|
|Urban okrug||Ufa Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Ufa Urban Okrug, Ufimsky Municipal District|
|Population (2010 Census)||1,062,319 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||11th|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+06:00)|
|City status since||1586|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 347|
Ufa (Russian: Уфа, IPA: [ʊˈfa]; Bashkir: Өфө, Öfö; IPA: [ʏ̞ˈfʏ̞], pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic. Population: 1,062,319 (2010 Census); 1,042,437 (2002 Census); 1,082,052 (1989 Census).
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative and municipal status
- 3 Economy
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Geography and climate
- 6 Government and administration
- 7 Sports
- 8 Education and science
- 9 Religion
- 10 Culture
- 11 Notable people
- 12 International relations
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2013)|
The city began as a fortress built on the orders of Ivan the Terrible in 1574, and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau. It was granted town status in 1586 and by the 18th century developed into a trading, manufacturing and cultural center of Southern Ural. After the outbreak of the Pugachev's Rebellion, it went through the most brutal events in its early history, the fortress and the city were in the middle of the military actions. For several months during the winter of 1773–1774, Ufa was under siege by Cossack and Bashkir insurgents until they were fought off by the arrived government forces.
Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802 the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast. During the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center.
In 1865, Ufa and Orenburg Governorates were ultimately split. At that time the population of Ufa reached 20,100 people. But the active growth of Ufa only started. The Belaya River Waterway (1870) and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (1890) connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire and stimulated development of the city's light industry. As a result, in 1913 the population of Ufa grew to 100,000.
On July 5, 1918, several months after the establishment of the Soviet power, Ufa was captured by the anti-Bolshevik forces supported by the Czechoslovak Legion. To escape the danger of a possible breakthrough on the front near Samara, where The Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly initially resided, Ufa was chosen to host the September 1918 State Conference of the anti-Bolshevik forces from all across the former empire. After the end of the Conference on September 23, Ufa became the capital of the Provisional All-Russian Government headed by Nikolai Avksentiev, better known as the Ufa Directory. Albeit it did not stay in Ufa for long, on October 9, 1918 it was relocated to Omsk while Ufa was recaptured by the Red Army in December 1918. During the Kolchak army offensive the Whites took the city again on March 13, 1919 but had to retreat under the Red Army attacks on June 9.
On June 14, 1922, after the enlargement of the Bashkir ASSR, Ufa became its new capital. During the 1920-1930s, the city went through the rise of heavy industry. The discovery of oil in Bashkiria made Ufa one of the Soviet oil extracting and oil refining centers. Ufa Oil Refinery was opened in 1937. Population grew up to 500,000 inhabitants in the 1950s and to 1,000,000 in 1980.
During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, a number of industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa. The city also became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government.
In 1956, Ufa re-absorbed the nearby town of Chernikovsk (which was separated from Ufa in 1944).
Administrative and municipal status
Ufa is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug.
Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, chemistry, mechanical engineering reside in Ufa. Additionally, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel, energy and engineering complexes.
The value of goods, services, and manufacturing in Ufa totaled 185.0 billion rubles in 2009 ((DB regions of the Volga district))
Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises.
Some important enterprises in Ufa include:
- UMPO (Ufa Engine Industrial Association) (ОАО «Уфимское моторостроительное производственное объединение»): founded in 1925 whose main products are jet engines
- Bashneft (ОАО «АНК «Башнефть»»): oil and gas company
- UFNC (Ufaneftekhim) (ОАО «Уфанефтехим»): oil and petrochemical company
Ufa is a donor of the republic's and federal budgets. About 62.8% of tax revenues accumulated on the territory of Ufa City municipal district of Bashkortostan Republic are directed to the federal budget and 29% to the republic's budget.
Ufa is linked by railways to the rest of Russia, having a railway station on a historic branch of the Transsib. Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway. The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow and to the Asian part of Russia.
The Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30, 1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of preparatory construction work, attended by then-President Boris Yeltsin. In 1998, the government decided to run the first trains by 2007. In 2004, this schedule was further delayed to 2010. In 2011, the newly elected mayor, Irek Yallalov, cancelled construction.
Public transportation in Ufa includes trams (since 1937) and trolleybuses (since 1962) systems, as well as bus and marshrutka (routed cabs) lines.
Geography and climate
|Climate data for Ufa|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.8
|Average high °C (°F)||−8.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−17
|Record low °C (°F)||−48.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||48
|Avg. precipitation days||11||8||7||7||7||9||9||9||9||11||11||11||109|
|Avg. snowy days||25||21||16||6||1||0.03||0||0||1||8||19||23||120|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.9||96.1||155.0||216.0||279.0||288.0||288.3||251.1||165.0||80.6||51.0||40.3||1,969.3|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,World Meteorological Organization (UN)|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)|
Government and administration
- Local government
The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are:
- Council, a representative body. Formed of 35 deputies for 4 years.
- Chairman of the Board – the head of the urban okrug. Term of 4 years.
- Urban Okrug Administration. The structure of the administration approved by the Council on the proposal of the Head of the Administration.
- Head of the Administration manages the administration on the principles of unity of command. He is appointed under a contract entered into by the results of the competition. Term of office of the Head of the Administration limited to the period of office of the Council of the convocation.
|Salavat Yulaev Ufa||Ice Hockey||1961||Kontinental Hockey League||1st||Ufa Arena|
|Tolpar Ufa||Ice Hockey||2009||Minor Hockey League||Jr. 1st||Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev|
|Agidel Ufa||Ice Hockey||2010||Women's Ice Hockey Championship||1st||Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev|
|FC Ufa||Football||2010||National Football League||2nd||Dynamo Stadium|
|Ural Ufa||Volleyball||1992||Volleyball Super League||1st||Dynamo Sports Palace|
|Ufimochka-USPTU||Volleyball||1970||Women's Volleyball Super League||1st||Dynamo Sports Palace|
Education and science
Educational institutions include:
- Bashkir State University
- Bashkir State Agrarian University (BSAU)
- Bashkir State Teachers Training University named after M.Akmulla
- Bashkir State Medical University
- Ufa State Aviation Technical University
- Ufa State Petroleum Technological University
- Ufa State University of Economics and Service
- Ufa State Academy of Arts named after Z.Ismagilov Уфимская государственная академия искусств им. Загира Исмагилова
Graduate universities and Law Schools:
- Bashkir Academy of Public Service and administration under the aegis of the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan
- Ural State Law Academy Ufa's campus
- Ufa institute of law of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
Scientific institutions include:
- Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan
- Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Science (USC RAS)
The city has Bashkir, Russian, and Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.
Famous citizens of Ufa include:
- Sergey Aksakov (1791–1859), writer and literary critic, born and raised in Ufa
- Vera Timanova (1855–1942), pianist, born and grew up in Ufa
- Mikhail Nesterov (1862–1942), painter, one of the main figure of the Symbolist artist movement, born and raised in Ufa
- Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938), opera singer, spent early years of his career in Ufa
- Valerian Albanov (1882–1919), Arctic explorer, born in Ufa
- Jaroslav Hašek (1883–1923), Czech writer and journalist, lived in Ufa during the Civil War, worked in local newspapers
- Natalya Kovshova (1920–1942), World War II sniper, born in Ufa
- Gabdulkhay Akhatov (1927–1986), linguist, turkologist, Bashkir University professor
- Rudolf Nureyev (1938–1993), ballet dancer, grew up in Ufa
- Boris Kolker (born 1939), linguist, esperantologist, lived in Ufa
- Sergei Dovlatov (1941–1990), writer and journalist, born in Ufa
- Vladimir Spivakov (born 1944), conductor and violinist, born in Ufa
- Ernst Muldashev (born 1948), ophthalmologist, director of the Ufa Plastic Surgery Center
- Vladimir Vinogradov (1955–2008), banker, one of the first Russian billionaires of the post-Soviet era, born in Ufa
- Yuriy Shevchuk (born 1957), rock musician, DDT frontman, grew up and started his career in Ufa
- Elvira Nabiullina (born 1963), Governor of the Bank of Russia and former Minister of Economic Development of Russia, born and grew up in Ufa
- Igor Kravchuk (born 1966), Alexander Semak (born 1966), Andrei Zyuzin (born 1978), Andrei Zubarev (born 1987), ice hockey players
- Andrey Gubin (born 1974), pop singer, born in Ufa
- Zemfira (born 1976), rock musician, born, grew up and made her career in Ufa
- Ildar Abdrazakov (born 1976), Grammy Award-winning bass opera singer, born in Ufa, Ufa Academy of Arts graduate
- Maxim Tchoudov (born 1982), biathlete, grew up in Ufa
- Sophie Milman (born 1983), jazz singer, born in Ufa
- Alexei Vasilevsky (ice hockey) (born 1993), Russian ice hockey defenceman
- Daniil Kvyat (born 1994), racing driver, born in Ufa
- Dimitry Vassiliev (born 1979), ski jumper, born in Ufa
Twin towns and sister cities
Ufa is twinned with:
- Resolution #391
- Official website of Ufa. Information about Ufa
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 80 252», в ред. изменения №220/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 80 252, as amended by the Amendment #220/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Law #162-z
- Official website of Ufa. Head of Ufa Urban Okrug Administration (Russian)
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Current local time in Ufa". Time and Date. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- History of Ufa
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Ufa – capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan
- UMPO Website, accessed October 22, 2008
- Google finance: BANE, accessed October 22, 2008
- Google finance: UFNC, accessed October 22, 2008
- Yeltsin lays cornerstone of first subway station, accessed June 6, 2013
- Ethnic composition of population of the Republic of Bashkortostan (according to the All-Russia population census of 2002). Statistical handbook. Bashkortostanstat. Ufa. p. 198
- "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Ufa" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service – Ufa". United Nations. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- "Climatological Information for Ufa, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Charter of the Urban Okrug of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan
- Ufa Soviet Cafeterias and IKEA Furniture The St. Petersburg Times
- Правительство Республики Башкортостан. Постановление №391 от 29 декабря 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Постановления №61 от 26 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Государственного Собрания – Курултая, Президента и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №5 (251), ст. 239, 12 марта 2007 г. (Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Resolution #391 of December 29, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Resolution #61 of February 26, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan. ).
- Государственное Собрание —Курултай Республики Башкортостан. Закон №162-з от 17 декабря 2004 г. «О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №572-з от 17 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Башкортостан "О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан"». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 33. Опубликован: "Республика Башкортостан", №52 (25785), 22 марта 2005 г. (State Assembly of Bashkortostan—El Kurultai. Law #162-z of December 17, 2004 On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #572-z of July 17, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Bashkortostan "On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan". Effective as of the date established in accordance with the provisions of Article 33.).
- Official website of Ufa
- Official website of Ufa (Russian)
- Ufa virtual tour
- 360 Panoramas of Ufa
- Ufa pictures at skyscraper city.com
- Photos of Ufa