Ukrainian parliamentary election, 1994

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Ukrainian parliamentary election, 1994
Ukraine
1990 ←
24 March 1994
→ 1998

All 450 seats to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
226 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Petro Symonenko.PNG Chornovil Vyacheslav.jpg Moroz 2003.jpg
Leader Petro Symonenko Vyacheslav Chornovil Oleksandr Moroz
Party Communist Party People's Movement Socialist Party
Leader since 19 June 1993 1989 26 October 1991
Last election reinstated Democratic Bloc reformed
Seats won 86 20 14
Seat change New New
Popular vote 3,683,332 1,491,164 895,830
Percentage 13.6% 5.5% 3.3%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Levko Lukyanenko.JPG Stetsko slava.jpg
Leader Serhiy Dovhan Levko Lukyanenko Slava Stetsko
Party Peasants Party Republican Party Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists
Leader since 25 January 1992 29 April 1990 18 October 1992
Last election Democratic Bloc
Seats won 19 8 5
Seat change New New New
Popular vote 794,614 728,614 361,352
Percentage 2.9% 2.7% 1.3%

Вибори до ВР України 1994 по областях.png

Results of the 1994 parliamentary election (inaccurate).

Chairman of Parliament before election

Ivan Plyushch
Independent

Elected Chairman of Parliament

Oleksandr Moroz
Socialist Party

Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ukraine

Parliamentary elections were held in Ukraine on 27 March 1994, with a second round between 2 and 10 April.[1] However, 112 seats were remained unfilled, and a succession of by-elections were required in July, August, November and December 1994 and more in December 1995 and April 1996.[1] Three hundred (300) seats or two thirds (2/3) of the parliament were required to be filled for the next convocation.

In what were the first elections held after Ukraine broke away from the Soviet Union, the Communist Party of Ukraine emerged as the largest party in the Verkhovna Rada, winning 86 of the 338 seats decided in the first two rounds.[2] This election was the result of a compromise between the President and the Verkhovna Rada, which was reached on 24 September 1993 because of a political crisis caused by mass protests and strikes particularly from students and miners. On that day, the Rada adopted a decree to organize parliamentary elections ahead of schedule, and ahead of scheduled presidential elections in June.

Electoral system (50% rule)[edit]

As in the previous this election took place according to the majoritarian electoral system in 450 electoral districts containing several precincts.[3] Each region was assigned a proportion of districts depending on its population. Hence the most mandates were received by the more populated eastern regions of Ukraine, particularly the regions of Donets basin such as Donetsk Oblast and Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.

In order to be elected a candidate needed to obtain more than 50% of votes and in order for the election to be valid more than 50% of registered voters needed to vote. If no candidate obtained more than 50% in the first round, the top two candidates were listed on the ballot in the second round. In the second round the 50% rule was applied as well. Reelections were called in case if the 50% votes in the second round was not met.

Because of those conditions several districts in the Verkhovna Rada were left not represented for a whole convocation. Particularly acute that problem was in the city of Kiev that was assigned 23 mandates, while in the parliament only its 10 representatives participated in the second convocation - less than a half. Kiev became the most under represented region.

Results[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
Communist Party of Ukraine 3,683,332 13.6 86
People's Movement of Ukraine 1,491,164 5.5 20
Socialist Party of Ukraine 895,830 3.3 14
Peasant Party of Ukraine 794,614 2.9 19
Ukrainian Republican Party 728,614 2.7 8
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 361,352 1.3 5
Democratic Party of Ukraine 312,842 1.2 2
Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine 239,763 0.9 4
Liberal Party of Ukraine 173,503 0.6 0
Ukrainian National Assembly 148,239 0.5 1
Party of Labor 114,409 0.4 4
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine 104,204 0.4 2
Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine 100,007 0.4 1
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party 99,028 0.3 2
Toiling Congress of Ukraine 83,702 0.3 0
Civil Congress of Ukraine 72,473 0.3 2
Party of Greens of Ukraine 71,946 0.3 0
Social National Party of Ukraine 49,483 0.2 0
Ukrainian Party of Justice 40,414 0.1 0
State Independence of Ukraine 24,722 0.1 0
Party of Economic Revival 20,829 0.1 0
Party of Slavic Unity of Ukraine 18,807 0.1 0
Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists 16,766 0.1 0
Ukrainian Party of Solidarity and Social Justice 12,847 0.0 0
Constitutional Democratic Party of Ukraine 12,711 0.0 0
Ukrainian Peasant Democratic Party 11,827 0.0 0
Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine 8,576 0.0 0
Ukrainian National Conservative Party 6,668 0.0 0
Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party 5,917 0.0 0
Ukrainian Beer Lovers Party 1,806 0.0 0
Party of free Peasants of Ukraine 1,169 0.0 0
Party of National Salvation of Ukraine 515 0.0 0
Other parties 28,166 0.1 0
Independents 14,894,269 54.9 168
Against all 2,512,118 9.3
Vacant 112
Invalid/blank votes 1,821,350
Total 28,963,982 100 450
Registered voters/turnout 38,204,100 75.8
Source; Nohlen & Stöver

Parliamentary factions[edit]

Blocs were formed in the Rada on 11 May 1994:

Political Bloc Seats Supported for the President
Communists of Ukraine 83 Oleksandr Moroz, Leonid Kuchma
Socialist Party of Ukraine 25[4] Oleksandr Moroz
People's Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) 27 Volodymyr Lanovyi
Interregional Bloc 26 Leonid Kuchma
Bloc "Derzhavnist'" 25 Leonid Kravchuk
Bloc "Center" 38 Leonid Kravchuk
Bloc "Agrarians of Ukraine" 36 Oleksandr Tkachenko, Leonid Kravchuk
Bloc "Reforms" 27 Volodymyr Lanovyi
Bloc "Unity" 25
Not affiliated 23
Total 355

The political blocks formed in the Verkhovna Rada did not exactly represented a similar party. Such parties as the Peasant's Party of Ukraine (SelPU) and the Agrarians for Reform (AZR) (a breakaway SelPU members) formed the Agrarians of Ukraine block. Although some of the deputies, especially from SelPU, joined the Socialist block. The Ukrainian Republican Party (URP), the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (CUN), and the Democratic Party of Ukraine (DemPU) has formed the electoral block Derzhavnist (Statehood).

  • The left electoral blocks: Communists of Ukraine, Socialist block, and Peasant's Party of Ukraine
  • The right electoral blocks: People's Movement of Ukraine and Derzhavnist
  • The center electoral blocks: Interregional block, Social-Market Choice, Unity, and Agrarians for Reforms
  • The right-center electoral blocks: Reforms and Center

In February 1997 the following factions were present in parliament:[5]

  • The leftist: Communist of Ukraine (86 seats), Socialist Party of Ukraine (25 seats) and Peasant's Party of Ukraine (38 seats)
  • The centrist: Constitutional Center (56 seats), Unity (37 seats), Intraregional Deputies Group (28 seats), Social-Market Choice (25 seats) and Independents (25 seats)
  • The national democratic: Reforms and (29 seats) People's Movement of Ukraine (27 seats).

By regions (single constituency)[edit]

Regional rankings[edit]

by party[edit]

Crimea (19)
Vinnytsia Region (16)
Volyn Region (9)
Dnipropetrovsk Region (34)
Donetsk Region (48)
Zhytomyr Region (12)
Zakarpattia Region (11)
  • No party affiliation (9)
  • Social-Democratic Party of Ukraine (1)
  • Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine (1)
Zaporizhia Region (18)
Ivano-Frankivsk Region (13)
Kirovohrad Region (12)
Luhansk Region (23)
Lviv Region (22)
Mykolaiv Region (11)
Odessa Region (23)
Kiev Region (17)
Poltava Region (16)
Rivne Region (10)
Sumy Region (12)
Ternopil Region (10)
Kharkiv Region (25)
Kherson Region (10)
Khmelnytsky Region (13)
Cherkasy Region (13)
Chernivtsi Region (8)
Chernihiv Region (13)
Kiev (11/23)
Sevastopol (4)

by nationality[edit]

Kyiv (11/23)
  • Ukrainian (9)
  • Russian (1)
  • Bulgarian (1)
Sevastopol (4)
  • Russian (2)
  • Ukrainian (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Crimea (19)
  • Russian (9)
  • Ukrainian (6)
  • Jewish (2)
  • Karaite (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Vinnytsia Region (16/17)
  • Ukrainian (14)
  • Russian (1)
  • Polish (1)
Volyn Region (8/9)
  • Ukrainian (8)
Dnipropetrovsk Region (34)
  • Ukrainian (28)
  • Russian (4)
  • Not identified (2)
Donetsk Region (47)
  • Ukrainian (27→26)
  • Russian (18→19)
  • Adyghe (1)
  • Jewish (1)
Zhytomyr Region (12/13)
  • Ukrainian (10)
  • Russian (1)
  • German (1)
Zakarpattia Region (10)
  • Ukrainian (8)
  • Russian (1)
  • Hungarian (1)
Zaporizhia Region (18)
  • Ukrainian (12)
  • Russian (6)
Ivano-Frankivsk Region (12/13)
  • Ukrainian (10)
  • Russian (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Kiev Region (16)
  • Ukrainian (14)
  • Russian (2)
Kirovohrad Region (10)
  • Ukrainian (7→6)
  • Russian (3)
  • Not identified (0→1)
Luhansk Region (24)
  • Ukrainian (12)
  • Russian (10)
  • Chuvash (1)
  • Jewish (1)
Lviv Region (22/23)
  • Ukrainian (22)
Mykolaiv Region (11)
  • Ukrainian (7)
  • Russian (4)
Odessa Region (21/23)
  • Ukrainian (12→13)
  • Russian (6→5)
  • Jewish (1)
  • Moldavian (1)
  • Bulgarian (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Poltava Region (16)
  • Ukrainian (14)
  • Russian (1)
  • Belorussian (1)
Rivne Region (10)
  • Ukrainian (9)
  • Not identified (1)
Sumy Region (11/13)
  • Ukrainian (11)
Ternopil Regin (10)
  • Ukrainian (10)
Kharkiv Region (25/28)
  • Ukrainian (14)
  • Russian (8)
  • Jewish (1)
  • Polish (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Kherson Region (9/11)
  • Ukrainian (7)
  • Belorussian (1)
  • Not identified (1)
Khmelnytskyi Region (13)
  • Ukrainian (12)
  • Russian (1)
Cherkasy Region (13)
  • Ukrainian (13)
Chernivtsi Region (8)
  • Ukrainian (7)
  • Romanian (1)
Chernihiv Region (12)
  • Ukrainian (10)
  • Russian (2)

Aftermath[edit]

Due to the low turnout, 112 seats remained vacant and later in the summer of 1994 20 MPs were elected to the Rada. On 20 November ten more MPs were elected, while four more were elected in December.

On 30 May MP Roman Kuper died of a heart attack and Leonid Kravchuk was elected as his replacement on 25 September. On 15 July Leonid Kuchma surrendered his parliamentarian mandate after being elected President, and Vasyl Yevrukhov was elected in his place. On 21 August MP Vitaliy Yurkovsky died, and was replaced by Natalya Vitrenko.

References[edit]

External links[edit]