Ukrainian presidential election, 2014

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Ukrainian presidential election, 2014
Ukraine
2010 ←
25 May 2014 (2014-05-25)
→ 2019[1]

  Petro Poroshenko 2009 (cropped).jpg Yulia Tymoshenko 2011.jpg
Nominee Petro Poroshenko Yulia Tymoshenko
Party Independent Batkivshchyna
Popular vote 9,857,308[2] 2,310,085[2]
Percentage 54.70%[2] 12.81%[2]

Ukrainian Presidential Election 2014 Map.png

  Electoral districts which voted for Petro Poroshenko
  Electoral districts which voted for Mykhailo Dobkin
  Electoral districts in which elections were not held due to separatist insurgency
  Electoral districts in which elections were not held due to their prior annexation by Russia[3]

President before election

Oleksandr Turchynov (acting)
Batkivshchyna

Elected President

Petro Poroshenko
Independent

Presidential elections were held in Ukraine on 25 May 2014, resulting in Petro Poroshenko being elected President of Ukraine.[4] Originally scheduled to take place on 29 March 2015, the date was changed following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.[5][6][7] Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes.[2] His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes.[2] The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control.[8][9] Since Poroshenko obtained an absolute majority in the first round, a run-off second ballot (on 15 June 2014[10]) was unnecessary.[4][11]

The elections were not held throughout Ukraine. During the 2014 Crimean crisis, Ukraine lost control over Crimea, which was unilaterally annexed by Russia in March 2014.[12][13][nb 1] As a result, elections were not held in Crimea.[4] In the Donbass region of Ukraine only 20% of the ballot stations were open due to threats and violence by pro-Russia separatists.[15] Of the 2,430 planned ballot stations (in Donbass) only 426 remained open for polling.[15] The self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic, controlling large parts of the Donbass, had vowed to do everything possible to disrupt the elections.[16]

Poroshenko will serve a five-year term in office.[1]

Background[edit]

Prior to the rescheduling of the election[edit]

Initially the elections were scheduled for 29 March 2015.[17]

On 7 December 2012, Batkivshchyna nominated Yulia Tymoshenko as its presidential candidate.[18] On 14 June 2013, the congress of her party approved the decision to nominate her as its candidate for the presidential election.[19] On 11 October 2011, a Ukrainian court found Tymoshenko guilty of abuse of power, sentenced her to seven years in jail and banned her from seeking elected office for her period of imprisonment.[20][21][22] Because Tymoshenko was in prison during the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election, Arseniy Yatsenyuk headed the election list of Batkivshchyna.[23][24] Tymoshenko remained in prison until 22 February 2014, after parliament voted for her release and removal of her criminal record, allowing her to compete for elected office once again.[12]

In May 2013, Batkivshchyna, UDAR, and Svoboda vowed to coordinate their actions during the presidential campaign, and promised "to support the candidate from among these parties who wins a place in the run-off election".[25] If the election format were to change to a single round, the three parties vowed to agree on a single candidate.[25]

On 24 October 2013, the leader[26] of UDAR, Vitali Klitschko, announced he intended to take part in the election.[27] Experts and lawyers argued that it is unclear if Klitschko could take part.[27] Under Ukrainian law a presidential candidate must have had his residence in Ukraine for the past ten years prior to election day. Klitschko has lived for many years in both Ukraine and Germany, where, according to media reports, he has a residence permit.[27] Klitschko confirmed on 28 February 2014 that he will take part in the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election.[28] However, on 29 March, he withdrew from the race for the presidency, simultaneously pledging his support for Petro Poroshenko.[29]

Former President Viktor Yanukovych, prior to his dismissal and subsequent flight from the country (see below), was considered likely to run for his second and final term.[30][nb 2][nb 3] But, as of 19 December 2013, he had made no final decision on this.[34] On 19 December 2013, Yanukovych alluded to not participating when he stated "If, theoretically speaking, my rating is low and has no prospects, I won't hinder the country's development and movement ahead".[34]

Early 2014 elections[edit]

Scheduling[edit]

On 21 November 2013, the Ukrainian Second Azarov Government suspended preparations for signing an an association agreement with the European Union.[12][35] The decision to postpone the signing of the association agreement led to massive protests across Ukraine.[36] These led to the removal of President Viktor Yanukovych and his government by the parliament in February, as part of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, during which Yanukovych fled the country to Russia.[12][37] On 22 February 2014, the Verkhovna Rada voted 328–0[38] to dismiss Yanukovych as President.[39] Oleksandr Turchynov, deputy chairman of Batkivshchyna, who had been appointed as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada earlier that day,[40] was named acting Prime Minister,[41] and, due to Yanukovych's deposition, acting President, until new elections could be held.

In a press conference in the Russian city of Rostov-on-Don on 28 February, Yanukovych stated that he would not take part in the elections, stating that "I believe they are unlawful, and I will not take part in them".[42] It was later speculated that Serhiy Tihipko would be the Presidential candidate of the Party of Regions, Yanukovych's former party.[43] The party's nomination went to Mykhailo Dobkin, however, and Tihipko entered the elections as an independent candidate.[44] Dobkin was amongst the persons wanted by the (then new) Yatsenyuk Government to be sent for trial at the International Criminal Court.[45]

During the 2014 Crimean crisis, Ukraine lost control over the Crimea, which was unilaterally annexed by Russia in March 2014.[12][13] As a result, elections were not held in the Crimea, but Ukrainians who had kept their Ukrainian citizenship were allowed to vote elsewhere in Ukraine.[4]

Escalation of pro-Russian unrest[edit]

In the Donbass region of the Eastern Ukraine, pro-Russian protests escalated into an armed separatist insurgency early in April 2014, when masked gunmen took control of several of the region's government buildings and towns.[12][46]

On 15 April 2014, Ukrainian media reported that the General Prosecutor of Ukraine had launched criminal proceedings against then-candidate Oleh Tsarov for allegedly aiding separatists and thus violating Ukraine's territorial integrity.[47] Tsarov withdrew his candidacy on 29 April.[48]

Serhiy Taruta, governor of Donetsk, has suggested a referendum, to be held on 15 June, at the same time as the potential second round of the election. The referendum would address the decentralization of political power, potentially giving regions a greater say in their own affairs, such as greater control over the taxes they levy and the power to make Russian a second official language.[10]

On 16 May 2014, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled that the candidate elected as a result of the presidential election would serve a full five-year term of office.[1]

On 17 May 2014, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine (CEC) stated that, due to "illegal actions of unknown people", it could not arrange for the "preparation and conduct of elections" in six constituencies in the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.[49] According to the CEC, members of district election commissions there had received threats to their own personal safety and to that of their families.[49] The CEC warned that that two million people in the two oblasts (provinces), about 5.6% of Ukraine's approximately 36 million eligible voters, could be deprived of their right to vote if the situation there did not improve.[49][nb 4][nb 5] On 22 May, the work of eighteen of the thirty-four election commissions in Donetsk[nb 6] and Luhansk Oblasts had been stopped fully or partially by representatives of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic.[51] By 23 May, this number had increased to twenty of the thirty-four.[52] The Committee of Voters of Ukraine predicted on 23 May that, due to "ongoing acts of terrorism and armed insurgency", 10% of the Ukrainian population would be unable to vote.[53][nb 7] On the same day, the leader of the Lugansk People's Republic advised citizens not to go to the polls to vote, warning of possible provocative "explosions" set by Ukrainian military.[54]

Simultaneous mayoral elections[edit]

On 25 May 2014, 27 mayoral elections were also held,[55] including those in Odessa and Kiev.[55][56]

Russian reaction[edit]

Initially Russia opposed rescheduling the election because the Russian government considered the removal of then President Viktor Yanukovych illegal and his temporary successors an "illegitimate junta".[57] But on 7 May 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin stated the election would be a step "in the right direction" but that the vote would decide nothing unless the rights of "all citizens" were protected.[58] At the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum on 23 May 2014, Putin appeared to further move away from Russia's initial position by announcing that Russia would respect the outcome of the elections in Ukraine and was ready to work with whoever won the presidency.[59]

The US and European Union vowed early May 2014 that they would impose further sanctions against Russia (sanctions have been in place against Russia since the 2014 Crimean crisis[60]) if it disrupted the election. However, unlike previous sanctions which were limited to individuals and companies, the third stage is set to target entire sectors of the Russian economy.[61] Earlier the USA and the EU had accused Russia of destabilising Ukraine by stoking the 2014 pro-Russian rebellion in Eastern Ukraine, a charge Russia has denied.[62]

Electoral system[edit]

The term of office for the Ukrainian president is five years.[63][64][65] If no candidate had obtained an absolute majority in the first round, then the two highest polling candidates would have contested a run-off second ballot on 15 June 2014.[4][11]

IT electoral monitoring framework "Elections 2014"[edit]

Arsen Avakov underlined the importance of the new IT elections monitoring system Elections 2014 (Ukrainian: "Вибори 2014"), allowing the voters to track the progress of the elections in real time, to ensure transparency, and avoid post-election disturbances, in contrast to the previous Ukrainian elections.[66] On 22 May 2014, three days before the election, the main servers of the Central Election Commission were compromised. The hacking group CyberBerkut claimed it had stolen passwords from the servers.[67][68][69] The Security Service of Ukraine also discovered a virus planted on the servers that would have destroyed election results.[70] The day of the elections, a group of hackers with specialized equipment was arrested in Kiev while attempting to rig the elections.[71]

Candidates[edit]

21 candidates took part in the elections; seven of them had been nominated by political parties, 15 were self-nominees.[44][72] A total of 18 candidates ran for president in 2010.[73] Before 7 April 2014, four Party of Regions members were running for election, but on 7 April 2014 the political council of the party expelled the presidential candidates Serhiy Tihipko, Oleh Tsarov and Yuriy Boiko from the party. On 29 March a Party of Regions convention supported Mykhailo Dobkin's nomination as a presidential candidate.[74]

Candidates were able to nominate themselves at the Central Election Commission of Ukraine from 25 February 2014 until 30 March 2014. The last date for registering candidates was 4 April 2014.[73][75][76] Candidates needed to submit a full package of documents and a 2.5 million hryvnia deposit.[73]

Registered candidates[edit]

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

Before deadline[edit]

After deadline[edit]

The Central Election Commission was unable to remove from the ballot the names of candidates who withdrew from the race after the deadline of 1 May 2014.[85][85][86][86]

Rejected candidates[edit]

The Central Election Commission rejected some applications for candidate registration early in the process. It refused to register O. Burnashova, V. Marynych, A. Makhlai, A. Kucheryavenko, V. Chopei, L. Rozhnova, L. Maksymenko, D. Myroshnychenko, P. Rekal, T. Onopriyuk, and Z. Abbasov.[87][88][89][90][91] On 3 April 2014 the CEC rejected a further three candidates: a man named Darth Vader, Evhen Terekhov, and Yuriy Ivanitsky.[92]

On 29 March 2014, Vitali Klitschko (UDAR) endorsed Petro Poroshenko,[93] and announced he would run for Mayor of Kiev in the local election taking place alongside the presidential election.[94][95]

Opinion polls[edit]

First round[edit]

Poll results are listed in the table below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed in bold, and the background shaded in the two leading candidates respective colours. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is bolded. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority in the first round, then the two highest polling candidates will contest a run-off second ballot.[11] The lead column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the two candidates with the highest figures. Poll results use the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. However, if such date is unknown, the date of publication will be given instead.

Date Polling firm Viktor Yanukovych Greece 2011 (cropped).jpg Сергій Тигіпко.jpg Dobkin01.jpg Vitali Klitschko 2009 01 27.jpg Yulia Tymoshenko 2008.jpg Oleh Tyahnybok 2013.jpg Symonenko Petr.png Poroshenko 2010 (cropped).jpg Maidan Kiev 2014.04.13 12-09.JPG Others Lead
Yanukovych
PoR
Tihipko
independent
Dobkin
PoR
Klitschko
UDAR
Tymoshenko
Batkivshchyna
Tyahnybok
Svoboda
Symonenko
CPU
Poroshenko
independent
Lyashko
Radical
13–19 May Ukrainian National Academy of Pedagogic Sciences[a] 8.0 13.3 45.0 7.6 6.7 31.7
6–8 May GfK[a] 10.6 4.6 10.4 1.5 3.2 47.9 6.4 20.4 37.3
25–29 Apr Razumkov Centre 6.7 4.2 14.8 1.9 4.5 47.7 5.0 15.2 33.9
Oleg Tsarov officially withdraws[96]
9–16 Apr SOCIS, KIIS, RATING, Razumkov Centre 7.4 6.0 14.0 2.1 5.6 48.4 4.6 11.9 34.4
28 Mar – 2 Apr Razumkov Centre, RATING 8.8 5.2 19.1 2.3 4.6 42.3 5.5 12.2 23.2
Serhiy Tihipko is expelled from the Party of Regions[97]
31 Mar Advanced Legal Initiatives[a] 19.6 1.2 12.7 3.6 3.5 42.0 2.3 14.9 22.4
Mykhailo Dobkin is selected by Party of Regions as their Presidential nominee, Viktor Yanukovych is officially expelled from the Party of Regions
Vitali Klitschko withdraws in order to run for the mayoralty of Kiev, and endorses Poroshenko
14–26 Mar International Republican Institute[a][b] 7.0 3.0 13.0 14.0 3.0 4.0 27.0 18.0 13.0
14–19 Mar SOCIS, KIIS, RATING, Razumkov Centre 10.0 5.3 12.9 12.0 2.5 5.0 36.2 5.0 11.1 23.3
4–18 Mar GfK[a][b] 8.5 5.0 19.0 12.0 1.5 7.0 39.5 7.9 20.5
Viktor Yanukovych officially withdraws
1–6 Mar Social Monitoring Centre 11.4 14.2 15.5 3.7 6.4 13.7 3 1.3
25 Feb – 4 Mar SOCIS 9.6 21.3 14.1 3.6 6.4 30.9 14.3 9.6
28 Feb – 3 Mar KIIS[a] 13.3 [c] 20.1 13.9 2.8 8.3 32.8 8.8 12.7
Yanukovych ouster and Crimean crisis
24 Jan – 1 Feb SOCIS 29.2 22.8 19.1 2.8 4.3 15.9 6.0 6.4
17–26 Jan SOCIS 29.5 21.6 20.8 4.7 5.7 13.0 4.6 7.9
2014
23–27 Dec R&B Group[a] 36.0 19.9 11.2 5.7 5.4 11.0 10.7 16.1
7–17 Dec RATING[a] 28.2 22.7 23.2 5.5 6.3 8.0 6.1 5.0
26 Oct – 8 Nov IFES[a][b] 31.0 30.0 17.0 6.0 9.0 7.0 1.0
30 Sep – 8 Oct Razumkov Centre[a] 26.3 20.9 18.1 5.1 7.7 4.1 17.8 5.4
26 Sep – 6 Oct RATING[a][b] 28.0 25.0 22.0 8.0 8.0 2.0 6.0 3.0
15–25 Sep R&B Group[a] 32.5 18.3 17.0 4.8 7.7 5.0 14.7 14.2
21–30 May KIIS[a] 27.2 30.2 11.0 7.0 24.6 3.0
2013
21–24 Dec Razumkov Centre[a] 32.6 16.6 18.6 7.4 8.8 16.0 14.0
2012
17 Jan 2010 2010 election results 35.3 13.1 25.1 1.4 3.5 21.6 10.2
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n This survey shows its poll results without disregarding those who are undecided or said they will abstain from voting (either physically or by voting blank). In order to obtain results comparable to other surveys and the official election results, the result shown in this table will be that obtained, with a simple rule of three, from disregarding undecided and/or abstaining voters from the totals offered in the survey.
  2. ^ a b c d Some opinion polls round their data so that in the end up showing a .0 or a .5 value. This practise is maintained for these polls when disregarding undecided and/or abstaining voters from the totals so as to avoid different interpretations of the same value.
  3. ^ In the event that Dobkin was PoR's nominee instead of Tihipko, Dobkin would receive 6.3%, Kiltschko would receive 20.5%, Tymoshenko would receive 15.4%, Tyahnybok would receive 3.9%, Symonenko would receive 9.5%, Poroshenko would receive 35.9%, and other candidates would receive 8.8%.

Results[edit]

Turnout by region

Petro Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes.[2] His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes.[2] The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control.[8][9] In the Donbass region of Ukraine only 20% of the ballot stations were open due to threats and violence by pro-Russia separatist.[15] Of the 2,430 planned ballot stations (in Donbass) only 426 remained open for polling.[15]

Exit polls had also predicted that Poroshenko won the election outright[98] with over 55.9% of the votes,[15]

Candidate Party Votes  %
Petro Poroshenko Independent 9,857,308 54.70
Yulia Tymoshenko All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" 2,310,130 12.82
Oleh Lyashko Radical Party 1,500,377 8.32
Anatoliy Hrytsenko Civil Position 989,029 5.48
Serhiy Tihipko Independent 943,350 5.23
Mykhailo Dobkin Party of Regions 546,138 3.03
Vadim Rabinovich Independent 406,301 2.25
Olga Bogomolets Independent 345,384 1.91
Petro Symonenko Communist Party of Ukraine 272,723 1.51
Oleh Tyahnybok All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" 210,476 1.16
Dmytro Yarosh Right Sector 127,772 0.70
Andriy Hrynenko Independent 73,277 0.40
Valeriy Konovalyuk Independent 69,569 0.38
Yuriy Boyko Independent 35,928 0.19
Mykola Malomuzh Independent 23,771 0.13
Renat Kuzmin Independent 18,689 0.10
Vasyl Kuybida People's Movement of Ukraine 12,391 0.06
Oleksandr Klymenko Ukrainian People's Party 10,545 0.05
Vasyl Tsushko Independent 10,434 0.05
Volodymyr Saranov Independent 6,232 0.03
Zoryan Shkiryak Independent 5,021 0.02
Invalid/blank votes 244,659 1.35
Total 18,019,504 100
Registered voters/turnout 29,625,200[99] (without FED[100])
30,099,246[99]
60.19[101] (without FED[100])
59,48[101]
Source: CEC


Reactions[edit]

Despite Russia's earlier protest at rescheduling the election and the general tense relation between the countries at the time because of the 2014 Crimean crisis and the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine, Russian President Vladimir Putin recognised the vote.[102]

The leaders of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic, controlling large parts of the Donbass region of Eastern Ukraine, declared that the regions had made already their choice shown in the results of the status referedum of March 11.[15]

US President Barack Obama congratulated Petro Poroshenko with his victory by telephone 2 days after the election.[103] This was also done by President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso and European Parliament President Martin Schulz and other EU leaders such as German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President François Hollande.[104][105][106]

International observers[edit]

The Central Election Commission of Ukraine (CEC) had registered 543 international official observers on 2 May 2014.[107] On 23 May (two days before the election) this number had risen to 3,607 (CEC had completed the registration of observers on 19 May but on 23 May had allowed 823 members of the observer organization European Platform for Democratic Elections).[108] Among others OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, OSCE's Parliamentary Assembly, the Ukrainian World Congress and the United States will send observers.[107] OSCE deployed 100 long-term observers and 900 short-term observers.[109] On 9 May 2014 U.S. Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland stated her country would support 255 long-term and more than 3,300 short-term observers.[110] Russia did not send observers.[111] Other Commonwealth of Independent States members also did not send observers; because Ukraine had not sent an invitation to the CIS Election Monitoring Organisation.[112]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The status of the Crimea and of the city of Sevastopol is currently under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider the Crimea to be an autonomous republic of Ukraine and Sevastopol to be one of Ukraine's cities with special status, while Russia, on the other hand, considers the Crimea to be a federal subject of Russia and Sevastopol to be one of Russia's three federal cities.[12][14]
  2. ^ Per Chapter V, Article 103 of the Constitution, the President is allowed to serve a maximum of two full 5-year terms. However, in 2003, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine permitted then-President Leonid Kuchma to run for a third term in the 2004 presidential election He chose not to run.[31]
  3. ^ Yanukovych ran in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election as a candidate of Party of Regions[32] but suspended his membership in the Party of Regions after the election.[33]
  4. ^ Donetsk Oblast houses 3.3 million eligible voters (9.3% of Ukraine's total eligible electorate); Luhansk Oblast houses 1.8 million (5% of the total).[4] In Crimea (1.8 million eligible voters, comprising 5.1% of Ukraine's total eligible electorate), there was no voting, due to its annexation by Russia.[4]
  5. ^ 25.5 million Ukrainians voted in the second round of the 2010 presidential election.[50]
  6. ^ In western Donetsk, where paramilitary groups helped to suppress separatist activity, the vote went ahead as normal.[16]
  7. ^ According to the Committee of Voters of Ukraine, "most of the election committees are now meeting underground, and there have been a lot of kidnappings and threats".[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c New Ukrainian president will be elected for 5-year term – Constitutional Court, Interfax-Ukraine (16 May 2014)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote - CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. 
    (Russian) Results election of Ukrainian president, Телеграф (29 May 2014)
  3. ^ "Turchynov Approves Establishing Special Legal Regime, Regulating Citizens' Rights And Freedoms in Temporarily Occupied Territories". Ukrainian News Agency. 28 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Ukraine elections: Runners and risks, BBC News (22 May 2014)
  5. ^ "BBC News – Ukrainian president and opposition sign early poll deal". Bbc.co.uk. 21 February 2014. 
  6. ^ "Ukraine president announces early elections – Europe". Al Jazeera English. 
  7. ^ "Ukraine's President Yanukovich declares early elections, constitutional reforms – RT News". Rt.com. 21 February 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Interfax (2014-05-26). "Ukrainian presidential election turnout tops 60 percent - chief election official | Russia Beyond The Headlines". Rbth.com. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  9. ^ a b "CEC chair: Ukrainian presidential election turnout tops 60 percent". Kyivpost.com. 2014-05-26. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  10. ^ a b Ukraine talks set to open without pro-Russian separatists, The Washington Post (14 May 2014)
  11. ^ a b c Q&A: Ukraine presidential election, BBC News (7 February 2010)
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Ukraine crisis timeline, BBC News
  13. ^ a b EU & Ukraine 17 April 2014 FACT SHEET, European External Action Service (17 April 2014)
  14. ^ Gutterman, Steve. "Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions". Reuters.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Poroshenko Declares Victory in Ukraine Presidential Election, The Wall Street Journal (25 May 2014)
  16. ^ a b c Russia will recognise outcome of Ukraine poll, says Vladimir Putin, The Guardian (23 May 2014)
  17. ^ Gorshenin Weekly 12/23/2013, Gorshenin Institute (23 December 2013)
  18. ^ United Opposition nominates Tymoshenko as single presidential candidate, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
    Yatseniuk: Tymoshenko will be able to run for presidency in 2015, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
  19. ^ Batkivschyna to nominate Tymoshenko for presidency, Yatseniuk heads party’s political council, Interfax-Ukraine (14 June 2013)
  20. ^ Ukraine ex-PM Yulia Tymoshenko jailed over gas deal, BBC News (11 October 2011)
  21. ^ The Tymoshenko verdict. Full text of the sentence, Law & Business (13 October 2011)
  22. ^ Tymoshenko convicted, sentenced to 7 years in prison, ordered to pay state ,8 million (update), Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
  23. ^ They Call Themselves the Opposition, The Ukrainian Week (31 August 2012)
  24. ^ (Ukrainian) Список депутатів нової Верховної Ради, Ukrayinska Pravda (11 November 2012)
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  26. ^ Q&A:Ukrainian parliamentary election, BBC News (23 October 2012)
  27. ^ a b c Vitali Klitschko says intends to run for president in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (24 October 2013)
    Parliament passes law that could prevent Klitschko from running for president, Interfax-Ukraine (24 October 2013)
  28. ^ Klitschko confirms he, Tymoshenko will run for president, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
  29. ^ Boxing Champion Klitschko Withdraws from Ukraine Presidential Race, NBC News (29 March 2014)
  30. ^ Regions Party is hoping for Yanukovych's reelection as president, Interfax-Ukraine (1 February 2013)
    Analysts: Yanukovych beginning his presidential campaign, alarm clock set for March 2015, Interfax-Ukraine (1 March 2013)
    No alternative to Yanukovych, Ukraine to be stable for 7 more years, says Azarov, Interfax-Ukraine (14 June 2013)
  31. ^ "Summary to the Decision no. 22-rp/2003 of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as of 25 December 2003" (Microsoft Word document). Constitutional Court of Ukraine. 25 December 2003. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  32. ^ Lutsenko accuses Yanukovych of giving false data in his income declaration, Interfax-Ukraine (8 December 2009)
  33. ^ Yanukovych suspends his membership in Party of Regions, hands over party leadership to Azarov, Kyiv Post (3 March 2010)
  34. ^ a b Yanukovych vows not to run in 2015 presidential elections if his rating is low, Interfax-Ukraine (19 December 2013)
  35. ^ "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". Al Jazeera. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  36. ^ "Ukraine still wants historic pact with EU". Oman Observer. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
    Ukraine police dismantle Kiev protest camps, BBC News (9 December 2013)
  37. ^ "Archrival Is Freed as Ukraine Leader Flees". The New York Times. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  38. ^ Kyiv Post (23 February 2014). "Parliament votes 328–0 to dismiss Yanukovych on Feb. 22; sets May 25 for new election; Tymoshenko free (LIVE UPDATES, VIDEO)". Kyivpost.com. 
  39. ^ "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
    government issues decree to suspend preparations for signing of association agreement with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
    Rada votes down all bills on allowing Tymoshenko's medical treatment abroad, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  40. ^ "Alexander Turchinov elected as speaker of Ukrainian Parliament". Voice of Russia. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Ukraine's Parliament Appoints Opposition Leader Acting PM". Novinite.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  42. ^ Yanukovych: Presidential elections slated for May 25 unlawful, I won't run, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
  43. ^ ? Как к Вам обращаться? (15 May 2014). "Партия регионов выдвинет в президенты Тигипко?". Gazeta.ua. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Twenty-three candidates to run for Ukraine's presidency, Interfax-Ukraine (3 April 2014)
  45. ^ Uhr. "Ukraine – Der Wahlkampf hat begonnen". Deutschlandradiokultur.de. 
  46. ^ Masked gunmen tighten grip on eastern Ukraine, Reuters (30 April 2014)
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