Ulā relays a puṟam concept using akam imagery. By the Middle Ages, the strict separation between akam and puṟam was no longer observed. The twelfth century work Vikkiramacolanula comes from a genre merging akam and puṟam called ulā. It describes a royal procession as observed by women. Despite their different ages and social estates, all of them experience love sickness brought on by the King's magnificence. Using female gaze as a device, the reader is meant to cast themselves in their place.
- Howes, Jennifer (2003), The courts of pre-colonial South India: material culture and kingship, Routledge
- Kantaiyā, A. (1987), Mystic love in the Tēvāram
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