First issue of Ulenspiegel
|First issue||December 24, 1945|
|Final issue||August 1950|
Ulenspiegel was a bi-weekly German satirical magazine published in Berlin after World War II. The magazine was an important cultural outlet in the new era of democracy and freedom following the fall of the Third Reich, its first issue appearing on December 24, 1945. The publishers were Herbert Sandberg and Günther Weisenborn; editors included Wolfgang Weyrauch, with Karl Schnog becoming editor-in-chief in 1947. Its success was stymied by politics, as the editors first clashed with the American authorities in occupied Germany in 1948, accused of being too "left-wing", and then after the magazine moved to the Soviet sector of Berlin, ran afoul of the Communists in 1950. The remaining publisher, Sandberg, lost his license to publish in 1950.
Ulenspiegel was a leftist-oriented political satire magazine in the tradition of Simplicissimus and other classic humor and satire publications and was a precursor of later magazines, such as Pardon, Titanic, and Eulenspiegel.[note 1] Called "one of the most important satirical journals of the postwar period", it was named after Till Eulenspiegel, a popular jester and hero from German folklore. His name is both innocuous and indicative of his character. In High German, Eulenspiegel means "owl mirror", but he respected no authority and played practical jokes, thus acting out the Plattdeutsch version of his name: ulen, "to sweep" or "clean", and Spiegel, which is hunter's jargon for "hind parts" or "backside", so that in the original Plattdeutsch, his surname means "wipe my ass", in essence, "kiss my ass".
In June 1945, Herbert Sandberg, newly liberated from Buchenwald concentration camp, and playwright and literary critic Günter Weisenborn, newly freed from Zuchthaus Luckau, met on the Kurfürstendamm. Sandberg had a finished comp of a satirical magazine with him. Emil Carlebach, who had been Sandberg's Blockältester  at Buchenwald and had been granted a license as editor for the Frankfurter Rundschau  introduced Sandberg to officials at the Information Control Division (ICD). Peter de Mendelssohn, who was responsible for establishing the first American sector newspaper, at the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS), and Carlebach acted as founding sponsors. The publishing information from a 1946 masthead makes the intent and purpose clear: "The independent and uncensored ULENSPIEGEL is published every other Friday by Ulenspiegel Verlag Haueisen & Co. G.m.b.H. Berlin-Dahlem Pücklerstr. 22... The Ulenspiegel Verlag is accredited by the Information Control Division of the American Military Government."
In the early days of the postwar era, Ulenspiegel was a forum for writers, illustrators, caricaturists, and graphic artists of various cultural and political orientation, where they could freely satirize, comment on, and join in the political, cultural, and economic development of Germany. For example, Weisenborn was a member of the Social Democratic Party and Sandberg, a Communist. In their journal, satire, humor, cartoons, and caricature played a special role, with artwork by Alfred Kubin, Karl Hofer, and Max Pechstein among others. They also supported the re-discovery of avant-garde artists, who had been ostracized, their work smeared as degenerate, reproducing works by Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, and other artists, both past and contemporary, who had been banned under the Third Reich.
Ulenspiegel took a strong anti-Nazi position, portraying Nazi concentration camps and crimes in its artwork, and declaring the complicity of the German people. By 1948, however, with the United States and the Soviet Union becoming more antagonistic, the journal began to portray them as two giants battling for domination of Germany and the world. It described denazification as a half-hearted, failed exercise, and mockingly criticized the German-American partnership as an unequal and unholy alliance between ex-Nazis and dollar-wielding Americans. Ulenspiegel—like no other magazine in postwar Germany—symbolized the democratic, anti-fascist new era, a burst of optimism before the polarization of the cold war and the division of Germany. Many of Ulenspiegel's contributors influenced the cultural face of both East and West Germany.
Cold war and closure
From the early postwar days until the cold war and division of Germany, the editorial meetings of the satirical magazine brought together those who had survived Nazi Germany. Artists, writers, exiles, editors, and graphic designers met and had heated discussions about the present and future of Germany. The publishers were able to help some people acquire a "Persilschein". This was the denazification certificate  one needed to receive a work permit.
In October 1947, OMGUS began to directly counter Soviet propaganda with its "Operation Talk Back", using the mass media to relay its message and bringing Ulenspiegel into direct conflict with the Americans over its criticism of their policies in Germany. In an attempt to censor and punish Ulenspiegel for its editorial positions, OMGUS cut the magazine's paper allotment by one-half  and began to look for new editors. An internal ICD memo clearly delineates the motive. "Orders have been issued to reduce by one-half the paper allocation given to the magazine Ulenspiegel as a preliminary step toward inducing a change in editorial orientation of this magazine or its replacement with a more effective medium." The result was a significant drop in circulation. When Ulenspiegel first began publishing, circulation was 120,000; later it dropped to 50,000, although it later recovered somewhat to 75,000. From December 24, 1945 to the tenth 1948 issue, the magazine appeared under license by the American military; from April 1948 to 1950, it was under license by the Soviet occupational force.
In July 1948, Weisenborn left Ulenspiegel and Berlin, moving to Hamburg. The cold war was intensifying; the Americans had instituted a currency reform and the Berlin blockade was on. Sandberg returned his license to the Americans, accepted an offer from the Soviet Military Administration in Germany, and moved to East Berlin in 1948.
Fuffzehn für Vergnügte und Verärgerte, edited by Lothar Kusche was also a satirical weekly magazine briefly published by Ulenspiegel Verlag in 1949. Just 20 issues were printed. The company also published a few books.
Ulenspiegel continued to appear, censored by the Soviets, until August 1950, when its publishing license was rescinded for being too modern and "lacking a basis in the Masses". A competitor in the Soviet sector, the magazine Frischer Wind, licensed to publish in 1947, "better understood that the Party [was] always right—and [had] no sense of humor". Renamed Eulenspiegel in 1954, it continues to publish today in Berlin.
The contributors included:
- Bele Bachem
- Johannes R. Becher
- Wolfgang Borchert
- Bertolt Brecht
- Alexander Camaro
- Otto Dix
- Richard Drews
- Alfred Döblin
- Jean Effel
- Heinrich Ehmsen
- René Graetz
- George Grosz
- John Heartfield
- Hannes Hegen
- Josef Hegenbarth
- Robert Herlth
- Stephan Hermlin
- Hermann Hesse
- Karl Hofer
- Karl Holtz
- Hannah Höch
- Heinrich Kilger
- Werner Klemke
- Käthe Kollwitz
- Alfred Kubin
- Günter Kunert
- Lothar Kusche
- Erich Kästner
- Max Lingner
- Jeanne Mammen
- Frans Masereel
- Arno Mohr
- Henry Moore
- Oskar Nerlinger
- Boris Pasternak
- Max Pechstein
- Christa Reinig
- Paul Rosié
- Jean-Paul Sartre
- Albert Schaefer-Ast
- Rudolf Schlichter
- Robert Wolfgang Schnell
- Anna Seghers
- Elizabeth Shaw
- Paul Strecker
- Günther Strupp
- Georg Tappert
- Walter Trier
- Kurt Tucholsky
- Berthold Viertel
- Wolfgang Weyrauch
- Günther Weisenborn
- Friedrich Wolf
- Carl Zuckmayer
- Ulenspiegel / Literatur - Kunst - Satire. Herbert Sandberg and Günther Weisenborn, Ulenspiegelverlag Berlin (1946-1950)
- Ulenspiegel-Kalender, Ulenspiegel Verlag, Berlin (1950)
- Fuffzehn für Vergnügte und Verärgerte. Lothar Kusche (Ed). Ulenspiegel-Verlag, Berlin (1949), 1-20
- Herbert Sandberg, Günter Kunert, Ulenspiegel - Zeitschrift für Literatur, Kunst und Satire. Eine Auswahl 1945-1950. Eulenspiegel-Verlag, Berlin, Carl Hanser, Munich (1978). 256 pages. ISBN 3-446-12749-6
- Herbert Sandberg, "Ulenspiegel. Satire - Kunst. Deutschland vor der Teilung". Stiftung Ludwig Institut Schloß Oberhausen. Exhibition catalogue, Oberhausen o.J (1994), 158 pages
- Karl Ludwig Hofmann, Christmut Präger: Ulenspiegel, Wespennest und Simpl. Drei Satirische Zeitschriften der Nachkriegszeit. In: Krieg und Frieden. Frankfurter Kunstverein. Elefanten Press, Berlin (1980)
- The first magazine called Ulenspiegel was unrelated to the postwar satirical journal; it was the in-house magazine of the German publishing house Ullstein Verlag, published from 1934 to 1941.
- Giles Scott-Smith, Hans Krabbendam, The cultural Cold War in Western Europe, 1945-1960 Frank Cass Publishers (2003), pp. 294–96.
- Cora Sol Goldstein, Capturing the German eye: American visual propaganda in occupied Germany The University of Chicago Press (2009), p. 167, footnote 19. ISBN 0-226-30169-9
- "Till Eulenspiegel" eulenwelt.de Retrieved January 23, 2012 (German)
- Wolf-Eckhard Gudemann, Ich sag dir alles Wissen Media Verlag GmbH, Gütersloh/Munich (2007), p. 713. ISBN 9873577102926 (German)
- Sandberg, Kunert (1978) p. 5 (German)
- Cora Sol Goldstein, "The Ulenspiegel and anti-American discourse in the American sector of Berlin", German Politics and Society (June 22, 2005). at Highbeam. Retrieved January 24, 2012
- Wolfgang Schivelbusch, In a Cold Crater: Cultural and Intellectual Life in Berlin, 1945–1948 University of California Press (1998), p. 155. Retrieved February 7, 2012
- Herbert Sandberg biography Herbert-Sandberg.de Retrieved January 21, 2012 (German)
- Darmstadt, Literaturland Hessen, HR2 Kultur, Hessischer Rundfunk (German)
- "Weyrauch, Wolfgang," Jean Albert Bédé and William Benbow Edgerton, eds., Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature, New York: Columbia University, 1980, ISBN 978-0-231-03717-4, p. 870.
- Günter Jordan and Ralf Schenk, eds., Schwarzweiss und Farbe: DEFA-Dokumentarfilme 1946–92 Berlin: Filmmuseum Potsdam & Jovis, 1996, ISBN 978-3-931321-51-2, p. 45 (German)
- Gestorben: Herbert Sandberg Der Spiegel (April 1, 1991). Retrieved February 7, 2012 (German)
- Scott-Smith, Krabbendam (2003) p. 295
- Peter Duignan, Lewis H. Gann, The rebirth of the West: the Americanization of the democratic world, 1945-1958 Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. (1996), p. 587. ISBN 0-8476-8198-X Retrieved February 7, 2012
- Sylvia Klötzer, Satire und Macht: Film, Zeitung, Kabarett in der DDR, Zeithistorische Studien 30, Cologne: Böhlau, 2006, ISBN 978-3-412-15005-1, p. 24 and notes 19, 20.
- "Buchpremiere Lothar Kusche "Ich bin tot, und das kam so" am 19.03.2009" Berlin-Pankow press release (February 20, 2009). Retrieved January 23, 2012 (German)
- Klötzer, p. 25.
- Cora Goldstein, "Permissiveness and Censorship in Occupied Germany: The Ulenspiegel Case" (Abstract) University of Hull, Scarborough Campus (August 24–25, 2004). Retrieved February 7, 2012
- Frank Wilhelm, Literarische Satire in der SBZ/DDR 1945-1961: Autoren, institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen und kulturpolitische Leitlinien, Poetica 30, Hamburg: Kovač, 1998, ISBN 978-3-86064-709-7, p. 69 (German)
- Goldstein (2009), p. 168
- Peter Dittmar, "Uncle Sam teilt Bonbons aus" Die Welt (May 31, 2007). Retrieved February 7, 2012 (German)
- "Der Dichter Günter Kunert wird 80" OE1, ÖRF, March 1, 2009 (German)
- "Nachruf: Christa Reinig—Ich träume von meiner Verkommenheit" Tagesspiegel October 7, 2008 (German)
- "Lakonische Lyrikerin: Christa Reinig ist tot" Der Spiegel October 6, 2008 (German)
- Ulenspiegel-Kalender German National Library. Retrieved January 23, 2012 (German)
- Zwischen Krieg und Frieden German National Library. Retrieved January 23, 2012. ISBN 3-88520-048-1 (German)