Uliastai

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Uliastai
Улиастай
ᠤᠯᠢᠶ᠋ᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ
District
Uliastai District
Улиастай сум
ᠤᠯᠢᠶ᠋ᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢᠰᠤᠮᠤ
Manchurian Stone near Chigestei Gol. The markings translate to, "Blue Dragon Bridge"
Manchurian Stone near Chigestei Gol. The markings translate to, "Blue Dragon Bridge"
Uliastai is located in Mongolia
Uliastai
Uliastai
Coordinates: 47°44′34″N 96°50′36″E / 47.74278°N 96.84333°E / 47.74278; 96.84333
Country Mongolia
Province Zavkhan Province
Founded 1733
Area
 • Total 32.04 km2 (12.37 sq mi)
Elevation 1,753 m (5,751 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 15,460
 • Density 480/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Time zone UTC + 8 (UTC+8)
Area code(s) +976 (0)146

Uliastai (Mongolian: Улиастай; ᠣᠯᠢᠶᠠᠰᠦᠲᠠᠢ) is a city in Mongolia. It is located in the western part of the country, 1,115 kilometers from the capital Ulaanbaatar. Uliastai is the capital of Zavkhan Province and was the 10th most populous city in the country with a population of 24,276 (2000 census), however, recent estimates have the city at 16,240 (2006 est.[1]) making it the 16th most populous city in Mongolia.

Uliastai is located in a river valley where the Chigestai and Bogdiin Gol rivers meet, and is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is one of the most remote aimag capitals in Mongolia. Uliastai city has sum (district) status and forms an enclave within the surrounding Aldarkhaan sum.

History[edit]

Alongside Khovd, Uliastai is one of the oldest settlements in Mongolia, and has long been an important center of caravan trade even into the 20th century. It was connected by camel caravan routes with Urga (now Ulaanbaatar) in the east, Khovd in the west, Barkol and other points in Xinjiang in the southwest, and Hohhot in the southeast.[2]

The city was founded as a military garrison by the Manchus in 1733 during the Qing rule of Mongolia. Uliastai was the de facto capital of Outer Mongolia, as the Qing Amban, the Governor General, located its office in Uliastai to keep eye on the Khalkh Mongols to the east and the Oirad Mongols west of the Khangai mountains. At its peak, the fortress held up to 3500 soldiers and was surrounded by a Chinese trading quarter, or Maimaicheng. However, during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911 the Military Governor of Uliastai, his staff, and military guards, fled the fort under the protection of Cossack troops. [3] Traces of Manchu rule can still be seen in Uliastai: the stone remnants of the governors fortress near the Bogdiin river are a short walk from town, the shackles and torture devices used by the Manchu are on display in the History Museum, and a hatag-laden stone near the central roundabout is carved with Chinese characters.

Transportation[edit]

Passengers boarding a propeller plane to Ulaanbaatar at Donoi Airport (Uliastai) Zavkhan, Mongolia

The old Uliastai Airport has two unpaved runways and is close to the city, but no longer receives flights. In 2002, the Donoi Airport (or "New Uliastai Airport") was built 25 km west of the city near Aldarkhaan soum, and now serves Uliastai with regular flights to and from Ulaanbaatar.

Features[edit]

A view from the Chigestai River outside Uliastai, Mongolia (Javkhlant temple can be seen in the background)

Museums

  • Museum of Famous People – dedicated to former residents of Zavkhan aimag, the museum has artifacts from the lives of Mongolian prime ministers, presidents, generals and Buddhist saints (Хутагт).
  • History Museum – Zavkhan's natural and cultural history museum.

Monasteries

Religious graffiti at the base of Togs Boyant Javklhant Monastery. Transliterated from Mongolian cyrillic, "Ommani Badme Xom," the Mongolian form of "Om mani padme hum".
  • Togs Boyant Javklhant – located on a hilltop overlooking the Chigestai river, just north of the main street, this temple features a traditional Mongolian ger, several stupas and a large Bodhisattva statue.
  • Ochirpurev Tsogt – A small Nyingma temple on Main street near the museums.

Javkhlant Tolgoi Next to Togs Boyant Javklhant temple, a hilltop pavilion surrounded by statues of elk, ibex, and argali sheep. It's a quick hike from the center of town, and offers a good panorama of the city.

Climate[edit]

Uliastai experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc) with long, dry, very cold winters and short, warm summers.

Climate data for Uliastai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 1.1
(34)
7.0
(44.6)
15.3
(59.5)
23.1
(73.6)
27.0
(80.6)
32.3
(90.1)
32.3
(90.1)
32.1
(89.8)
25.4
(77.7)
21.1
(70)
10.9
(51.6)
3.8
(38.8)
32.3
(90.1)
Average high °C (°F) −15.0
(5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
8.2
(46.8)
16.6
(61.9)
21.6
(70.9)
22.4
(72.3)
20.8
(69.4)
15.4
(59.7)
7.0
(44.6)
−5.3
(22.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
5.45
(41.81)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22.5
(−8.5)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−10.3
(13.5)
0.5
(32.9)
8.5
(47.3)
13.9
(57)
15.0
(59)
13.3
(55.9)
7.0
(44.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
−13.2
(8.2)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−2.4
(27.68)
Average low °C (°F) −28.3
(−18.9)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−17.0
(1.4)
−6.2
(20.8)
1.2
(34.2)
6.9
(44.4)
9.0
(48.2)
7.1
(44.8)
0.8
(33.4)
−7.2
(19)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−8.67
(16.38)
Record low °C (°F) −42.7
(−44.9)
−41.7
(−43.1)
−36.6
(−33.9)
−24.4
(−11.9)
−13.0
(8.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
−14.3
(6.3)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−36.7
(−34.1)
−40.6
(−41.1)
−42.7
(−44.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
(0.083)
1.7
(0.067)
4.8
(0.189)
9.2
(0.362)
14.8
(0.583)
34.0
(1.339)
54.9
(2.161)
48.2
(1.898)
21.7
(0.854)
9.3
(0.366)
4.6
(0.181)
3.2
(0.126)
208.5
(8.209)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.8 0.5 1.5 2.0 3.3 5.9 9.7 7.6 4.4 2.5 1.6 1.1 40.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.6 204.8 260.7 266.3 311.4 302.1 291.3 288.9 266.3 223.6 174.0 166.2 2,942.2
Source: NOAA (1961–1990) [4]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Zavkhan Aimag Statistic Office Annual Report
  2. ^ Owen Lattimore, The Desert Road to Turkestan. (Various editions). See esp. the map inside the back cover.
  3. ^ A.V. Burdukov, V staroi i novoi Mongolii. Vospominaniya, pis'ma [In old and new Mongolia. Reminiscences, letters] (Moscow, 1969)
  4. ^ "Uliastai Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 

External links[edit]