Ulleungdo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ulleung Island)
Jump to: navigation, search
Ulleung-do
Ulleung island from above.jpg
NASA Landsat7 image of Ulleung-do (north at top).
Elevation 984 m (3,228 ft)
Prominence 984 m (3,228 ft)
Location
Map Ulleung-do.png
Location of Ulleung-do.
Location Sea of Japan (East Sea)
Coordinates 37°30′N 130°52′E / 37.500°N 130.867°E / 37.500; 130.867Coordinates: 37°30′N 130°52′E / 37.500°N 130.867°E / 37.500; 130.867
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 2990 BCE ± 40 years
Korean name
Hangul 울릉도
Hanja 鬱陵島
Revised Romanization Ulleung-do
McCune–Reischauer Ullŭng-do

Ulleung-do (also spelled Ulreungdo; Korean pronunciation: [ulːɯŋdo]) is a South Korean island far off the east coast of Korean Peninsula. Formerly known as Dagelet to the Europeans,[1] Ulleungdo is about 120 km (75 mi) east of the Korean Peninsula. Volcanic in origin, the rocky steep-sided island is the top of a large stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor, reaching a maximum elevation of 984 metres (3,228 ft) at Seonginbong Peak. The island is 11.3 kilometres (7.0 mi) in length and 12.4 kilometres (7.7 mi) in width; it has an area of 73.15 km2 (28.24 sq mi). It has a population of 10,426 inhabitants.[2]

The island makes up the main part of Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea and is a popular tourist destination. The main city of Ulleung-do is the port of Dodong, which serves as the main ferry port between Ulleung-do and the Korean mainland. After tourism, the main economic activity is fishing, including its well-known harvest of squid, which can be seen drying in the sun in many places.

History[edit]

The island consists primarily of trachyandesite rock. A major explosive eruption about 9,350 years ago reached a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6 and deposited tephra as far as central Honshū over 800 km (500 mi) away, while producing pyroclastic flows on the island and decapitating its top to form a caldera.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the island has been inhabited since the 1st millennium BC. The first confirmed historical reference to Ulleung-do is in the Samguk Sagi for the year 512. In that year, the Silla general Kim Isabu conquered the island, which had previously been the autonomous nation of Usan-guk. Some accounts relate that he used a number of wooden lions to intimidate the population, threatening to turn them loose unless they surrendered.

Usan-guk did not remain under the Silla rule, however, and the island did not become a permanent political part of Korea until 930, when it was annexed by Goryeo. Remote as it is from the Korean mainland, Ulleung-do was a recurrent security headache for the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties. It was devastated by Jurchen pirate raids in the 11th century, and by Wokou pirate raids in the 14th century. A clash with Japan over fishing rights in the 1690s was precipitated by the Korean fisherman An Yong-bok. In response to these difficulties, Joseon adopted an "empty-island" policy which however proved impossible to enforce. The empty-island policy was officially rescinded in 1881, after which the government sought to encourage additional settlement of Ulleungdo.

Tourism[edit]

Rugged coastline of Ulleungdo

Favorite activities for tourists are hiking, fishing, and eating hoe (한국어:회) (a Korean raw fish dish). Sightseeing boats make regular three-hour circuits about Ulleung-do, departing from the harbor at Dodong and passing by all the points of interest along the coast, including many interesting rock formations and the small neighboring island of Jukdo. Other scenic sites are Seonginbong, the highest peak on the island (984 m); Bongnae waterfall; the "natural icehouse"; and a coastal cliff from which Liancourt Rocks can be discerned in the distance.

Climate and flora[edit]

Ulleung-do has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), though it resembles the west coast of Japan much more than Korea, since in winter rainfall is heavy if less so than in such wet cities as Kanazawa or Akita. Sunshine is also very low in the winter if again not so markedly as in the previously-mentioned Japanese cities.

Climate data for Ulleung-do, South Korea (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
19.2
(66.6)
21.8
(71.2)
26.1
(79)
29.4
(84.9)
32.2
(90)
34.6
(94.3)
34.6
(94.3)
32.4
(90.3)
27.2
(81)
23.2
(73.8)
17.9
(64.2)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
5.3
(41.5)
9.1
(48.4)
15.1
(59.2)
19.3
(66.7)
22.2
(72)
25.2
(77.4)
26.7
(80.1)
23.1
(73.6)
18.8
(65.8)
13.1
(55.6)
7.5
(45.5)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.2
(36)
5.4
(41.7)
11.1
(52)
15.5
(59.9)
18.8
(65.8)
22.3
(72.1)
23.6
(74.5)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
9.7
(49.5)
4.4
(39.9)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.5
(36.5)
7.7
(45.9)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68)
21.4
(70.5)
17.4
(63.3)
12.6
(54.7)
7.1
(44.8)
2.0
(35.6)
9.8
(49.6)
Record low °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−13.6
(7.5)
−9.9
(14.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.8
(38.8)
7.0
(44.6)
12.5
(54.5)
14.7
(58.5)
8.9
(48)
0.7
(33.3)
−5.9
(21.4)
−9.6
(14.7)
−13.6
(7.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 116.2
(4.575)
78.1
(3.075)
72.2
(2.843)
81.3
(3.201)
105.1
(4.138)
115.3
(4.539)
170.2
(6.701)
167.9
(6.61)
170.7
(6.72)
83.9
(3.303)
105.5
(4.154)
117.1
(4.61)
1,383.4
(54.465)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 18.5 14.6 11.6 8.3 8.7 9.1 12.1 11.5 9.9 9.0 12.4 16.9 142.6
 % humidity 70.1 69.6 69.8 69.2 72.1 80.4 85.9 85.0 80.3 72.5 68.6 68.5 74.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 90.4 104.1 167.2 212.0 227.3 175.0 150.7 163.3 158.7 176.8 130.0 100.6 1,856.1
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration. Average[3] Record high[4] Record low[5]


Old map[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Short, John Rennie (2012). Korea: A Cartographic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226753646. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ Official Site of Korea Tourism. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
  3. ^ "평년값자료(30년) 울릉도(115)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  4. ^ "기후자료극값(최대값) 8월 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 115 울릉도". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  5. ^ "기후자료극값(최대값) 2월 일최저기온 (℃) 최저순위, 115 울릉도". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 

External links[edit]